Skip to main content

Full text of "Pioneering the West, 1846 to 1878 : Major Howard Egan's diary : also thrilling experiences of pre-frontier life among Indians, their traits, civil and savage, and part of autobiography, inter-related to his father's"

See other formats





University of California Berkeley 


1846 to 1878 



Thrilling Experiences of Pre- 
Frontier Life Among Indians; 
Their Traits, Civil and Savage, 
and Part of Autobiography, 
Inter- Related to His Father's, 

Edited, Compiled, and Connected 
In Nearly Chronological Order 


Published by 


Richmond, Utah 




Their Friends 
and All Interested in the Work 

of the 
Pioneers of the West 

Copyrighted 1917, by 

All rights reserved 

Press of 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

oancron Library 

Major Howard Egan, Author of the 
Diaries of Pioneering the West, Trail Blazer 
of the Overlanl Eoute, Pony Express and 
Overland Mail Agent. Captain of 50s with 
Mormon Exodus, Special Messenger for 
Mormon Battalion 1846, Capt. 9th Ten of 
the Original 144 Pioneers, made three trips 
to Salt Lake from the States, and innu- 
merable trips to California on three or 
more routes. 


Cor. Main and South Temple Sts 

~7~ HEBE is always a degree of interest in 
the pioneering of any locality in which 
one lives; and as time goes on, more 
importance and interest is attached to it. 

When a great inter-mountain common- 
wealth grows up and develops in a few snort 
years, the memory of those hardy pioneers, who 
were the first to make possible such progress, 
are looked upon with greater interest as the 
years go by and the records of all who look 
an important part are sought after. 

It was well known by all who were in 
any way acquainted with Major Egan that his 
life work, if written, would make a remakably 
interesting book provided the information could 
be obtained. Neither himself or family were of 
a literary turn of mind, and hence much that 
would be of great interest was never committed 
to paper. During his life time no thought 
was ever given to anything of a literary 

The family all knew that Father (as Mother and all the family called 
him) had a private desk packed full of papers, but that any of them had 
any thing of value more than private correspondence none of the family 
knew. Even at the time of his death (1878) no attempt was made to 
exmine his papers and see if there was anything worthy of preservation 
until Mother died (1905) which took place some twenty seven years after. 
At the time of her death this writer was on a mission to the Eastern 
States and was unable to return until after the funeral and the old home 
had been ransacked ready to be pulled down when he returned. 

Howard B. Egan, the principal writer of the latter part of the book 
looked over Father's desk and took home with him what he judged might 
be interesting to read over when he got home. The rest were scattered 
over the floor and later the house was pulled down. In looking over the 
papers Howard got interested and having plenty of time on his hands, 
not being able to walk or work much, and he read and re-wrote Father's 
entire Diary of the Pioneer trip nearly as we have put it in type, also 
some other trips that were in diary form. This was necessary on account 
of the difficulty of reading the fine writing, which is shown in fac-simile 
exact size on page 110. 

The interest in the matter began to grow and correspondence with, 
this writer met with sufficient encouragement and help so the manuscript 
was typewritten ready for the press. Later some incidents that Howard 
was so familiar with were written and his family was desirous of having 
them preserved and they were also typewritten. The work having been 
done by this writer as also the compiling and editing for the press. 

The value of this book lies in its strict adherence to truth, and 
fidelity to fact. First of all it is the story of eye-witnesses and it often 
touches the story and romance of the mountains. One of its missions 
will be to preserve the real spirit of Pioneering the Great West, and the 


commencement of the first enterprises, which were only the forerunner 
of greater things. Many of the events protrayed in this volume are as 
fascinating as any in all history. The events had their dangers and some- 
times ended in tragedy. 

Our desire is to awaken an interest with old-timers, and those who 
have descended from Pioneer stock, as well as all those, who are in any 
way concerned in the early development of this western and inter-mountain 
country, to show the hardships, difficulties and the toil that it took to 
open up the way, and the resolution, determination and untiring efforts 
put forth by those "Pilgrim Fathers" that were driven from their homes 
by mobs and forced to hunt a new home for themselves and those who 
followed after. 

The Diary, in the First Part, is corroborative of other writers, but 
it also contains many things not mentioned by any one and not likely 
to be given any where else. All the writing in Diary form was taken 
from Major Howard Egan's old Diaries just as he penned them as 
near as practical, preserving the diction intact. The writing of the 
compiler and editor are preceeded by a star*. All the rest of the writing 
except as credit is given not in diary form and not starred were written 
by H. B. Egan, whose brief preface is as follows: 

"Some of my children and brothers have expressed the wish that I 
write some of my earliest recollections and on up to date. Well, I am 
now over seventy-five years old and have a good memory. It would take 
a long time to tell all I can remember, and, if printed would make a good 
many volumes. So I will necessarily have to be brief on many events as 
I come to them. I shall not pretend to give these few sketches of Pioneer 
life in routine or give dates as to when they happened as I am not writing 
from any memorandum but just as I remember them." H. R. Egan. 

At first it was intended to print only Father's Diaries, about 200 
pages of about 250 words in larger type, but when Howard K got his 
writings together it was decided to select smaller type. Then we wanted 
the engravings to come in the proper places so a smooth thin paper was 
selected. In discussing about this Howard R. wrote as follows: 

"The trend of modern times is to utilize and conserve space, which 
becomes more valuable as time passes. This is the case in all kinds of 
human endeavor, whether in agriculture or in the mechanical arts, effi- 
ciency, durability, space and cost are all considered. 

But in "cheap .John" affairs the first two don't count and only the 
last is reckoned with. As in books, to use very thick paper, very large 
type and leave great marginal space at each side of pages, besides having 
the subjects, put in a great number of paragraphs, any thing to eat up 
space and spread a little over enough thick paper to make the desired 
thickness, and the number of pages. Then sometimes, to make amends 
put on a cover that is quite attractive and frequently costing more 
than the rest of the book -unwise and expensive. 

"Multum in Parvo'' suits the intelligent person best, and this is 
what we rater to. A book of 200 pages of 250 words each, and another of 
500 words each is worth one-half more, if the contents are only of the 
same value. But this again has a great deal to do with the price. 

We are offering a book that is not built to catch the eye, but is 


presentable and durable. We are offering a book that contains valuable 
information not printed in any other book or form. We are offering a book 
that contains no fiction, but is the actual experiences and personal views 
of the writers. We are offering a book that we think should be very in- 
teresting to those seeking Pioneer History. We are offering a book that 
will become more valuable as time passes, for a reminder of frontier life. 
We are offering a book that takes less space than most books on the 
market, yet with good readable type. We are offering a book at a lower 
price, considering the contents, than the price of the same sized book." 

These were the last words of the publisher, H. R. Egan, written 
just before his death, which occurred in March 1916, but were not found 
until after the funeral. These words stand for the truth and the book it- 
self supports the statements. 

The book is not written from a religious nor scientific standpoint; 
nor is it written in poise of a hero, ostentation or self praise, but is simple 
in style and diction. No effort, either, has been made to change it from the 
original writings. Perusal of the book illustrates how close to the 
exact fact it adheres, and that no embelishments of story or fiction is 
introduced, although there is ample opportunity to picture the circumstances 
in that manner, and still it often runs into startling episodes of the 
mountains and plains and thrilling experiences which often ended in 
tragedy. The book is divided into four parts. 

The stereotyped form of chapters is avoided, the four parts above 
referred to being each divided into sections as the classifications could be 
made and yet preserve their natural and chronological order. Other 
divisions are made in all about seventy-five articles or headings numbered 
consecutively, with some few sub-headings. 

The conclusion brings the closing incidents down to a recent date and 
finishes in brief the biography of Major Howard Egan and his son, 
Howard K. Egan, as well as a brief account of his other sons, his pro- 
genitors and the family tree of his descendents. 

The statement in the conclusion that four of Mother's children were 
alive was true when that was written, but was overlooked in the proof 
although it was stated in a previous paragraph when Howard R. died. 

The Appendix deals with genealogy and makes a connecting link, 
by the aid of an old Irish Chart, from Adam to the stem of the Egan 

We now commit to each reader the facts, faith, and experiences that 
attended the trips of the Pioneers; also thrill" ng experiences of pre-frontier 
life and stories of the hab'ts, customs and character of Indian life by 
one who knew their language and was well -nted with them, and 
knew how to deal with them. To all it will be a pleasure to know the 
situations, thoughts and experiences of eye-witnesses and be able to see 
some things as they were in early days. We are indebted to the Improve- 
ment Era for many of the engraving used and we are thankful for the 
nse of same. We continue to find many things that should have been said in 
this book but its limits has required us to make all statements as brief 
as possible consistent with proper explanation in order to preserve what 
has been written by Father and brother Howard R. Egan. 



PART 1. 


Page Page 

Introduction 9 8. Platt River Crossings 62 

Sec. I. Nauvoo to Winter Quarters 9. Rocky Mountains 91 

2. Mormon Exodus 13 Sec. III. What was Done 103 

3. Trip to Santa Fe 15 10. Work at Salt Lake 114 

4. The Pioneers, A Poem 17 11. Meeting the Trains 134 

5. Original Band of 144 18 Sec. IV. Second Trip 138 

6. Howard Egan's Diary 21 12. Winter Quarters 138 

Sec. II. Details of Trip 21 13. On to Salt Lake 140 

7. Laramie Plains 32 14. Scenes By The Way 141 



Sec. I. Our Home Life 147 21. The Indian Portrait 155 

15. The Old Fort 147 Deep Snow-Freezing 155 

16. Our New Home 148 Sec. III. Stories of Salt Lake 160 

17. Grasshoppers and Crickets 150 22. The Cold Swim 160 

18. Another Home 151 23. Setting Gun for Bear 161 

19. Burning of the Barn 152 24. The Hornets 163 

Sec. II. Relics 155 25. The Stampede is Stopped 164 

20. Indian Mounds 155 26. Taby We-Pup 166 


Sec. I. Route South, and North 169 Sec. III. Central Route 202 

27. A Diary, 1849 to 1850 169 36. Getting Rid of an Indian 202 

28. Tecumsee 182 37. A Run For Life 203 

29. Indian Snake Eating 187 38. Tracking Stolen Mules 205 

30. The Sleeping Mule 188 39. Changing Camp After Dark 207 

31. A Fearful Fall 190 40. My Three Day's Fast 208 

Sec. II. The Central Route.... 193 41. Mail Carrier 211 

32. A Ten Day's Trip 193 42. Father's Indian Doctor.... 216 

33. Finding the Egan Trail.... 194 43. A Trip to Ruby Valley 217 

34. Pony Express Stations 198 44. Short Line Cut Off 220 

35. Deep Creek 201 45. Irrigation 222 



cJec. I. Indian Practice 226 Sec. IV. Indian Cruelties 251 

46. A Little Surprise 226 60. Old Indian Left to Die.... 251 

47. Lasso Practice 227 61. How Bill Got His Wife.... 252 

48. Eating Ants 228 62. The Cross Indian 254 

49. Indian Cricket Drive 230 63. The Indian Outbreak 256 

50. Trapping A Coyote 233 64. Burning of Canyon Station 263 

Sec. II. Hunting, Harvesting.. 235 65. Jessie Karl's Death 264 

51. A Rabbit Drive 2 '-5 66. The Indian, No Legs 265 

52. Mountain Rat Food 237 67. Playful Goats 267 

63. The Antelope Drive 238 68. T V"a^on Going No Team.... 268 

54. Pine-Nut Harv.-<t -41 69. The Dog Pompy 269 

65. Hunting for Water 242 70. Wild Pets 272 

66. Squaws Catching Moles.... 245 71. The Sand Hill Cranes 274 

Sec. in. Hard Experiences 248 72. Indian Story of Great Cave 273 

57. Saved by a Rabbit 248 73. Express Rider's Experience 280 

59. Around a Bu-h all Night . 249 74. I'npleasant Experiences.... 280 

58. Lost and Found 248 75. Conclusion 282 


Genealogy 285 Howard Egan's Travel in 1849 298 

Pedigree of Howard Egan 289 The Egan Family Organization 300 

Irish Hitsory 297 Articl.-s of Agreement 301 


Major Howard Egan Frontispiece 

W. M. Egan 8 

Irish Home Birth Place 10 

Howard Ransom Egan 12 

8. F. Kimball 16 

On the Way 20 

Gathering on the Elk Horn 22 

Prairie Burned Over 34 

Buffalo 41 

Indians Near Laramie 49 

Buffalo Hunt 51 

Brigham Young 52 

Top O'the Rockies 67 

Stream from Tunnel 70 

Mountain Lake 71 

Ready to Move from Camp 82 

Corn for Jim Bridger 88 

Indian Encampment 93 

Aspen Forest 100 

Result of Irrigation 105 

Heber C. Kimball 106 

Facsimile of Diary 110 

First House Built in Salt Lake 117 

Dave Kimball and Wife 137 

Chimney Rock 143 

Camping at Echo 144 

Native and Ensign Peak 146 

Salt Lake Temple 149 

Upper Main Street, 1860 153 

Gov. Gumming' s Recommend 156 

Amunition from H. Egan 157 

News and Tithing Offices 158 

Brigham Young and Brothers.... 165 

Growth of Salt Lake City 166 

Jebow and Squaw 168 

Cactus and Fencing 177 

Washikee, Peace Chief 184 

Kanosh Pavant Chief 186 

First Salt Lake Store 191 

Pony Express 199 

Deep Creek Ranch 201 

Marked Arrows 208 

Overland Mail Coach 212 

R. E. Egan, Express Rider 214 

Log Cabin 225 

Pioneer Cottage 234 

Bill and Wife 253 

H. R. Egan 256 

Church Offices etc 284 

Family Tree 288 

Father and Mother 289 

Ira Ernest Egan 291 

Hyrum Wm. Egan 291 

Pioneer Monument 303 


Compiler and Editor of "Pioneering 

the West"; Editor and Publisher of 

"Our Deseret Home*' and "The Utah 

Industrialist/' Address. No. 3 

Gerard avenue, Salt Lake City. 


"Howard Egan was born in Tullemore, King's County Ireland 
June 15th, 1815. His father's name was Howard and his mother's 
maiden name was Ann Meade. His Grand Father's name was 
Bernard and his Grand Mother's name was Betty. After the 
death of his Mother, when about eight years of age, 1823, with 
his father and eight other children, he left Ireland. He was the 
fourth child and the first son, there being ten in the family. 
The last two being twins, one of whom was left with an aunt 
in Ireland. 

The family went to Montreal, Canada and settled there. 
Howard's Father died in Montreal in 1828, leaving si:* orphan 
children. Howard went to sea and followed the life of a sailor 
until grown when he settled in Salem Mass., and worked at rope 
making. In 1838 he became acquainted with Miss Tamson Par- 
shley, who was born July 27th 1825 at Barnstead, N. H., being the 
tenth child of Richard Parshley and Mary Caverly. They were 
married Dec. 1st 1838, he being over 23 years of age and his 
wife a girl of 14 years and four months. 

Their first son Howard R. Egan was born April 12th 1840, 
also the second son R. Erastus Egan March 29th 1842, in Salem. 
In Oct. 1841 he was' naturalized as an American Citizen, and in 
1842 he and his wife were converted to "Mormonism" by Elder 
Erastus Snow and baptized, moving to Nauvoo the same year. 
He became one of the Nauvoo Police, and the Prophet Joseph's 
guard, who has said "he felt safe when Howard Egan was on 
guard." He was also Major in the Nauvoo Legion. 

Sept. 24th 1844 he and his wife each received a Patriarchal 
blessing under the hands of Hyrum Smith, the Patriarch and bro- 
ther of the Prophet in which it is stated that he was "of the 
lineage of David and of the tribe of Judah....and have a right 
to the priesthood and blessings according to the prophetic visions 
of his fathers. .. .and shall be numbered with the called and 
chosen. .. .and also prepetuated by his posterity in the blessing 
of the priesthood from generation to generation until the latest 
generation." That his wife should receive these blessings in 
common with him, that she was the seed of Joseph through 
the loins of Ephraim. He filled several missions in the states. 

After the martyrdom of the Prophet and Patriarch at the 
time of the return of the Twelve Apostles, when Oliver Cow- 

P I O X K K U I X a T H K W F S T 11 

dery was trying to lead the Church, Mother saw Brigham Young 
look like Joseph and speak in his voice at a meeting held Aug. 
8th, 1844 showing conclusively where the authority of leader- 
ship laid. H. R. Egan introduced his writings as follows: 


I will start by saying, "I was born in Salem Mass." although 
I was there I don't recall the event, but I do remember of 
Mother leading me by the hand up to the Nauvoo Temple and 
showing me the large baptismal font that was supported on 
the backs of twelve stone oxen. (When at the age of six years.) 
There were four on the side where we stood, one at each corner 
and two between them just as natural as life. I remember the 
house we lived in. There was two rooms facing the street with a 
hall between. We lived in the left hand room, another family 
lived in the right hand room. I don't remember of ever going in 
there. There was a flight of stairs in the hall that led to two 
rooms above. I remember the stairs but nothing more about 
the house but what I have stated. 

Father had a rope factory down close to the river where 
Mother used to go with his dinner and often took me with her, 
I remember of seeing Father with a big arm-full of hemp backing 
down the walk as he was spinning out the twine to matte ropes 
of, and at other times he and another man would be throwing 
hemp over a hatchel, and dragging it back to free it of sticks 
or dirt and make it ready for spinning. At one time I saw him as 
he was finishing a large and long rope, there were three strands 
each composed of many small ones. The three strands were 
each hooked on one turning hook, and a man far down the walk 
had the three strands fastened to a hook called a looper. This 
was in a belt the man wore around his waist, so he could lean 
back and keep the cords tight and off the ground. 

As Father could not stop then to eat his dinner we had to 
wait till the twisting wns done, Father held a conical shaped block 
of wood that had three grooves in it in his hands. In each groove 
laid one of the strands, and as they would twist enough to suit 
him he would back down towards the lower end. I was following 
him down the walk v hen he gave me a scare by turning to face 
the man and putting one hand, side of his mouth, yelled out at 
the top of his voice, "slack up on that looper." The man was 
pulling too hard I suppose. 


I remember of seeing posts that had arms across the top with 
pegs sticking up like rake teeth to hold twine separate as twisted. 
I don't know how far apart these posts were, but it seemed to me 
they were about two or three rods, and as high as a man could 
reach. The factory was very long bat not enough when Father 
had to make sea cables, so he had placed a good many posts 
beyond the lower end of the walk. Some of them were on the 
sand bar, but as I saw them then, there were a few standing in 
the river. 

One day I was with Mother when she showed me the foun- 
dation of a house and said, "They were going to build our home 
there, then it wouldn't be so far to the factory. 

Howard Ransom Egan, 
Author of "Thrilling Experiences, 
Began this Publication 191?. 
Died March, 1916. 

Pioneering the West. 




I well remember the Mormon Exodus and of sitting in a 
covered wagon with Mother and brother Erastus, and this 
is the first I remember of him. (Howard six and Erastus four 
years old.) The wagon was standing on the bank of the Miss- 
issippi river with the front end facing the water. There was 
another wagon close by. I had seen two wagons on a flat 
boat leave the shore and go out of sight. Mother said we 
could go next when the boat came back. I did not see it when 
it came back for I had gone to sleep, but the next morning 
when I opened my eyes it was raining, and peeping out of the 
front end of the wagon I could see that Mother and quite a 
large crowd of people were standing by a large fire that had been 
built against a stump just in the edge of the forest. The Miss- 
issippi river was just back of us. We had been brought over 
in the night. The next I remember was of some man unhitch- 
ing the team from the wagon and putting it ahead of another 
team on another wagon and going off out of sight. I don't 
know where this place was and don't believe anyone else does, 
(probably Sugar Creek, which place they left March 1, 1846), 
for it was raining all the time and water all over the ground 
except here and there a small point sticking up above the water. 
The land must have sunk, and how we got out of it I don't 
know, but now I think it was there or there abouts that Mother 
and I got our start of rheumatism. 

The next place I think was Garden Grove, a most beautiful 
place. (East fork of Grand river 145 miles from Nauvoo. ar 


rived April 24th.) The wagons were all placed in a row side 
by side with room to pass between them. There was a bowery 
built along the front and the tongue of each wagon was tied 
to it, thus making a long shady lane. 

I went with some other boys with some men that were 
getting brush for the top of the bowery, and when we got to 
the Grove that was on the lower ground, I thought it was the 
prettiest place I had ever seen. I and the rest of the boys 
wanted to run into the edge of the timber. There was no under 
brush and there was a nice grass sod all over, under the trees, 
making it a boy's paradise play-ground, but the men would 
not let us go out of their sight, saying there was lots of wild 
animals in there, and when they had their loads ready made 
us go to camp with them. 

*In addition to what Howard R. has said in the proceeding 
paragraphs the compiler adds the following: The family moved 
with the general exodus of the Saints about the 1st of March, 
1846, the first campanies crossing the Mississippi river from 
Nauvoo to Montrose upon the ice, led by Brigham Young, 
H. C. Kimball and others of the Twelve, it being the start of 
the emigrating of the Latter-day Saints from the State of 
Illinois. At that time there was no definite plan as to the 
future destination of the people. There had been vague ideas 
afloat of Oregon, Vancouver and Upper California as probable 
places of refuge. The only guide was the more or less unde- 
fined plans of the Prophet Joseph Smith, of migrating to the 
West in the midst of the Rocky Mountains. 

The first camping place was on Sugar Creek, where the 
Saints were organized by Pesident .Young. The roads were 
almost impassable, and the Saints suffered much from cold 
and exposure. They reached Garden Grove, on a fork of Grand 
River, 145 miles from Nauvoo, April 24th, and May llth went 
on to Mt. Pisgah. 172 miles from Nauvoo. Here, May 21st, a 
general council of the camps had under consideration the sub- 
ject of sending an expedition company to the Pocky Mountains 
that year, but the call for 500 men by the Government to fight 
with Mexico, made that impossible. Four companies were raised 
on the 13th and the fifth a few days later. 

They left this place June 5th and arrived on the banks of 
the Missouri River, (Council Bluffs) , on the 14th. The last 
company of the Mormon Battalion left the camps of the Saints 
July 22nd and started for Fort Levenworth. A boat was built 
and some of the Saints crossed the river, but Cutler's Park 
became the first temporary head-quarters of the camps, which 
is three miles from the spot where Winter-Quarters was after- 
wards built. Dates from Jensen's Church Chronology. 



"After Col. Allen died, Aug. 23rd, 1846, at Fort Levenworth, 
by suggestion of Maj. Horton, Lieut. Pace returned to Council 
Bluffs, bearing letters from Lieut. Smith and Dr. Sanderson, 
Gulley and others to Pres. Young. He arrived at Cutler's Creek 
Aug. 26th, sat in council, answering questions and received 
letters of special council for the Battalion, which was some 45 
miles out beyond Fort Levenworth continuing on their march. 

Howard Egan and John Lee accompanied him on his return 
with a special duty of going on with the Battalion until they re- 
ceived their pay and to return with it," and to act as special 
messengers returning from the Battalion. On reaching Fort 
Levenworth, Maj. Horton charged them to keep with one train 
until they were sure of reaching another the same night. Fresh 
horses and all the grain the carriage could haul were furnished, 
also three packages of letters for different commands were 
sent. They left the Garrison at Fort Levenworth on the 6th 
of Sept. and overtook the Battalion on the llth, while crossing 
the Arkansas River." The above is gleaned from the "History of 
the Mormon Battalion," and the following is some of the head- 
ings of chapters of the same work during the travel to Santa Fe. 

"Wagon upset and man injured Higgins detatchment sent 
to Peublo Dissatisfaction Alva Phelps drugged to death 
Suffer from thirst Forced marches men salivated. Rations 
reduced Bones of mule found Ancient Ruins Rush on to Santa 
Fe Sick left to follow without a doctor Arrived at Santa Fe 
Partiality shown. Col. Cooke takes command of Battalion. By 
special arrangemnts and consent the Battallion boys were paid 
in checks not available at Santa Fe. 

"About noon Oct. 19th we took leave of Howard Egan and 
John Lee, who started with our checks for Council Bluffs. They 
were accompanied by S. L. Gulley, ex-quartermaster and R. 
Stevens. The Battallion continued on the same day." 

The following from the Deseret News copied from the 
journals kept by some of the boys adds a little more information. 
"Friday Oct. 16th. In the afternoon Company B. drew 1% 
months pay, $2.60 to each person in money, the rest in check. 
Oct. 17th. Bros. Lee and Egan were making preparations to 
return to the Bluffs. They received about $4000 from the Bat- 
tallion to take back with them to the Church. 

About a month later, Nov. 21st, John Lee and Howard Egan 
arrived at Winter Quarters, as special messengers from the camps 
of the Mormon Battalion beyond Santa Fte." 

Either before or after this trip he estab'ished his family 
in Winter Quarters. "The settlement consisted of 700 houses 
of log, turf and other materials; and was laid out with streets, 



workshops, mills, etc., and a Tabernacle of worship. Winter 
Quarters was on a pretty plateau overlooking the river, anc 
was built for protection from Indians. There were 22 Ward: 
with a bishop over each, also a High Council; and the popu 
lation was over 4000." So says Whitney's History. 

Howard Egan's log hut was neatly arranged and papered 
and hung with pictures and otherwise decorated by his wife 
which made it very pleasant and habitable. Having given this 
little prelude of the facts that we are acquainted with we no"H 
present the Pioneer trip in the language of Howard Egan as 
he wrote it from day to day as they proceeded on their journey 
We do not try to contract or expand or change diction onlj 
to give just what he intended to say. 

We first, however, insert the Pioneer poem and the names 
of the original band of 144 Pioneers called and chosen to leac 
out in this pioneering work, just as they were written down ii 
his Diary including Ellis Ames, who returned on account of sick 
ness, but the Diary states it was a lack of faith. Also including 
the three women and two children that went along with them. 


Bom at Winter Quarters. Author 
of poem, "The Pioneers." 

1' I ( ) X !: K R I X G T H K W K S T 17 

By Solomon F Kimball 

1 'a i th t'nl, noble men of worth. 

Men who came of Pilgrim birth. 
Who were sent from courts above, on their mission to the earth; 

Sent to plant the family tree. 

Xear the shores of Salt Lake Sea, 
And to build their happy homes and family hearth. 

First there came that bitter test. 

Martyred Prophets laid to rest : 
Then with hearts extremely sad, in God's Temple ihey were 


Then they turned their backs on home, 

Faced the land where redmen roam. 
And departed on their journey to the Avest. 

O'er mountains they would go, 

Through the brush, and through the snow ; 
Braving dangers night and day, as they faced the savage foe; 

iM-ivinu 1 o'er the rugged heights, 

Standing guard on stormy niiihts, 
Nothing daunted, nothing fearing, weal or woe. 

Trailing through the dust and heat. 

With but scanty food to eat; 
Tramping o'er the rocky hills, with their bruised and bleeding 


Oft they crossed the raging streams, 

With their gall'd and jaded teams. 
Oft they pushed their way through drenching rain and sleet. 

When they reach 'd the salted sea, 

Loud they shouted, "Vic-to-ry!" 
Then they call M on (Jod in prayer, with bow'd head and bended 


Then they made the welkin rinsr. 

And his praises they did simr. 
Tn Hie promised land that Tie had made so free. 



With Three Women and Two Children. 


1 Wilford Woodruff 


2 John S. Fowler. 

3 Jacob D. Burnham. 

4 Orson Pratt. 

5 Joseph Egbert. 

6 John M. Freeman. 

7 Marcus B. Thorpe. 

8 George A. Smith. 

9 George Wardle. 


10 Ezra T. Benson 


11 Thomas B. Grover. 

12 Barnabas L. Adams. 

13 Roswell Stevens. 

14 Amasa M. Lyman. 

15 Starling G. Driggs. 

16 Albert Carrington. 

17 Thomas Bullock. 

18 George W. Brown. 

19 Willard Richards. 

20 Jesse C. Little. 


21 Phineas H. Young 


22 John Y. Green. 

23 Thomas Tanner. 

24 Brigham Young. 

25 Addison Everett. 

26 Truman 0. Angell. 

27 Lorenzo D. Young. 

28 Bryant Stringham. 

29 Joseph S. Scofield. 

30 Albert P. Rockwood. 


31 Luke S. Johnson 


32 John G. Holrnan. 

33 Edmund Ellsworth. 

34 Alvarus Hanks. 

35 George R. Grant. 

36 Millen Atwood. 

37 Samuel B. Fox. 

38 Tunis Rappleyee. 

39 Eli Harvey Peirce. 

40 William Dykes. 

41 Jacob Weiler. 


42 Stephen H. Goddard 


43 Tarlton Lewis. 

44 Henry C. SherAvood. 

45 Zebedee Coltrin. 

46 Sylvester H. Earl. 

47 John Dixon. 

48 Samuel H. Marble. 

49 George Schales. 

50 William Henri e. 

51 William A. Empey. 


52 Charles Shumway 


53 Andrew P. Shumway 

54 Thos. Woolsey. 

55 Chauncey Loveland. 

56 Erastus Snow. 

57 James Craig. 

58 Wm. Wordsworth. 

59 Wm. P. Vance. 

60 Simeon F. Howd. 

61 Seeley Owen. 




62 James Case 


63 Artemas Johnson. 
64*Wm. C. A. Sraoot. 

65 B. F. Dewey. 

66 Wm. Carter. 

67 Franklin G. Losee. 

68 Burr Frost. 

69 Datus Ensign. 

70 Franklin B. Stewart. 

71 Monroe Frink. 

72 Eric Glines. 
73.0zro Eastman. 


74 Seth Taft 


75 Horace Thornton. 

76 Stephen Kelsey. 

77 John S. Eldredge. 

78 Charles D. Barnum. 

79 Alma M. Williams. 

80 Rufus Allen. 

81 Robt. T. Thomas. 

82 Jas. W. Stewart. 

83 Elijah Newman. 

84 Levi N. Kendall. 

85 Francis Boggs. 

86 David Grant. 


88 Howard Egan 


87 Heber C. Kimball. 

89 William A. King. 

90 Thomas P. Cloward. 

91 Hosea Cushing. 

92 Robt. Biard. 

93 George V. Billings. 

94 Edson Whipple. 

95 Philo Johnson. 

96 Wm. Clayton. 


97 Appleton M. Harmon 


98 Carlos Murray. 

99 Horace K. Whitney. 

100 Orson K. Whitney. 

101 Orrin P. Rockwell. 

102 Nathaniel T. Brown. 

103 R. Jackson Redding. 

104 John Pack. 

105 Francis Pomeroy. 

106 Aaron F. Farr. 

107 Nathaniel Fairbanks. 


108 John S. Higbee 


109 John Wheeler. 

110 Solomon Chamberlain. 

111 Conrad Kleinman. 

112 Joseph Rooker. 

113 Perry Fitzgerald. 

114 John H. Tippetts. 

115 James Davenport. 

116 Henson Walker. 

117 Benjamin Rolfe. 


118 Norton Jacobs 


119 Charles A. Harper. 

120 George Woodard. 

121 Stephen Markham. 

122 Lewis Barney. 

123 George Mills. 

124 Andrew Gibbons. 

125 Joseph Hancock. 

126 John W. Norton. 


131 John Brown 

127 Shadrach Roundy. 
129 Levi Jackman. 


130 Lyman Curtis. 
128 Hans C. Hanfeen. 

132 Matthew Ivory. 

133 David Powers^ 

134 Hark Lay (colored). 

135 Oscar Crosby (colored). 


136 Joseph Matthews 


137 Gilroid Summe. 

138 John Gleason. 

139 Charles Burke. 

140 Alexander P. Chessley. 

141 Rodney Badger. 

142 Norman Taylor. 

143 Green Flake (colored). 

144 Ellis Ame-3 (returned), 

1 Harriet Page Wheeler 


2 Clara Decker Young. 

3 Ellen Sanders Kimball. 
*Isaac Perry Decker. 
*Lorenzo Sobieski Young. 

Survivores are designated *. 

On the Way. 


one of the Pioneers of J847. 



Thursday, April 8th, 1847. We started for the west to find 
a home for the Latter-day Saints, and went out as far as the 
Haystacks, about three miles, where the rest of the boys had 
already preceded us. Brigham Young's camp was about four 
miles ahead. Soon after we arrived, Porter Rockwell came up 
on horseback and informed us that P. P. Pratt had just arrived 
at Winter Quarters from England, and that O. Hyde and John 
Taylor were <oon expected. We went back home in the carriage 
i" pass the night, in- company with Heber, Bishop Whitney, Sis- 
ter Kimball and Horace. 

Friday, April 9th. It was fine weather for traveling, and 
we went back to where we left our wagons and continued i-ur 
journey. Wm. Kimball went with us and intends going as far 
as the "Elkhorn. " We went about four miles and came to 
Brigham Young's camp, but did not stop, going on three miles 
further- and encamped for the night, having made ten miles. 

Saturday, April 10th. It Avas a fine day, as usual, and we 
traveled fifteen miles and encamped on the prairie near a ravine, 
which supplied us with Avater, for the night, we being now six 
miles from the "Horn" river. 

Sunday, April llth. There was fine weather, and we started 
in good season and arrived at the "Horn" about 2 o'clock p. m. 
There were ~'2 wagons crossed the river on a raft drawn by cat- 
tle with ropes on either side. Brother Bullock, Dr. Richards' 
clerk, took down the number of the wagons as they passed. We 
went down the river about a mile, after crossing, and encamped 
for the night. Father (*H. C. Kimball) told the brethren of his 
company that he hoped that they would not go hunting or fish- 
ing today, for if they did they would not prosper, as this was a 
day set apart for the service of the Lord and not for trivial 

Monday, April 12th. It was fair weather, and I 'res. Briir- 
ham Young, Father rllobrr ( '. Kimball). Bishop Whitney and 



a number of others went back to Winter Quarters, the rest of 
us going on, by counsel, in order to cross an extensive bottom 
of twelve miles before the water should rise and the roads get 
muddy. Accordingly we went on and encamped on the banks of 
the Platte river, the width of which much surprised me. it being 
larger than I had anticipated. Here we intend to remain until 
the Twelve Apostles return. The brethren were called together 
this evening by S. Markham, w T ho stated to them that it was the 
wish of the Twelve that some men familiar with the route should 
go ahead and survey the track. Accordingly, Father (James) 
Case, J. Redding and two others will start tomorrow for that 

Gathering on the Ells. Horn River. 

Tuesday, April 13th. This morning was warm and pleasant, 
the wind being west. The blacksmiths put up their forges, three 
in number, Brothers Devenport, Frost and Tanner, and com- 
menced setting tires and shoeing horses. With the assistance 
of the boys I propped up my wagon box and took out the run- 
ning gears, and Brother Harper went to work and put in two 
new axcltrees. Those who went to hunt out the road returned 
this evening and reported unfavorable, as there was a low, flat 
bottom that could not be crossed in wet weather. It has the 
appearance of rain this evening. The wind shifted to the east 
and it looked cloudy. Brother S. Markham called the brethren 
together and gave some general instruction and placed the guard. 


Wednesday, April 14th. This morning it was raining, but 
about 10 a. m. it cleared off, there being high winds and some- 
what cloudy. J. Higby, J. Redding and four or five others went 
up the river with the ^eine to hunt a place to fish, and returned 
in the evening with about two dozen fish. My horses strayed 
away and 1 took Brother Redding 's horse and went across to- 
wards the "Horn" and found them, one of which I succeeded in 
eatehing; the other I could not, but had to return without her 
to the camp. 

Thursday, April 15th. This morning was cool and pleasant. 
Brother King and myself started early in search of my horse 
and found her ten miles from the camp. Some of the brethren 
went across to the "Horn" to fish. About 3 p. m. the Twelve, 
Brother Clayton, Brother Whitney, Brother Little, from New 
Hampshire, Brother Bullock, Wm. Kimball and others returned 
to the camp and we commenced forthwith to rig up our wagons. 
About sundown President Young called the brethren together 
and instructed them to have a care of their teams, and cease all 
music, dancing and lightmindedness ; and instructed them, ex- 
horted them to prayer and faithfulness. He also stated that the 
traders and missionaries were stirring up the Indians to plunder 
us of our horses and goods. He said that if we were faithful 
and obeyed counsel the Lord would bless us and we should pass 
through safe. 

Tuesday, April J6th. This morning the wind was north and 
it was cloudy. Brothers Little, Rockwood and Redding went to 
Winter Quarters to bring on Brother Little's things. At 7:30 
the brethren were called together in order to organize them. The 
meeting was opened by prayer by President Young, after which 
G. A. Smith made some remarks; also H. C. Kimball, N. K. 
Whitney and others. The camp was divided into two divisions, 
72 in each division ; A. P. Rockwood captain of the First and S. 
Markham of the Second Division. Night guard was started and 
on the 17th the camp was organized under regiment. On the 
18th the Council of Captains made laws regulating the camp as 
follows : 


1. After this date the horn or bugle shall be blown every 
morning at 5 a. m.. when every man is expected to arise and 
prav; then attend to his team, get breakfast and have every- 
thing finished so that the camp may start by 7 o'clock. 

2. Each extra man is to travel on the off side of the team 
with his gun on his shoulder, loaded, and each driver have his 
gun so placed that he can lay hold of it at a moment's warning. 


Every man must have a piece of leather over the nipple of his 
gun, or if it is a flintlock, in the pan, having caps and powder- 
flask ready. 

3. The brethren will halt for an hour about noon, and they 
must have their dinner ready cooked so as not to detain the 
camp for cooking. 

4. When the camp halts for the night, wagons are to be 
drawn in a circle, and the horses to be all secured inside the 
circle when necessary. 

5. The horn will blow at 8 :30 p. m., when every man must 
return to his wagon and pray, except the night guard, and be in 
bed by 9 o'clock, at which time all fires must be put out. 

6. The camp is to travel in close order, and no man to 
leave the camp twenty rods without orders from the Captain. 

7. Every man is to put as much interest in taking care of 
his brother's cattle, in preserving them, as he would his own, 
and no man will be indulged in idleness. 

8. Every man is to have his gun and pistol in perfect order. 

9. Let all start and keep together, and let the cannon bring 
up the rear, and the company guard to attend it, traveling along 
with the gun, and see that nothing is left behind at each stopping 


The number of oxen in the camp Go, horses 89, mules 52, 
cows 19, dogs 17. Teams belonging to H. C. Kimball : Horses 
5, mules 7, oxen 6, cows 2, dogs 2, wag'ons G. List of provisions : 
Flour 1228 Ibs., meat 865 Ibs., sea biscuit 125 Ibs., beans 296 Ibs., 
bacon 241 Ibs., corn for teams 2869 Ibs., buckwheat 300 Ibs., dried 
beef 25 Ibs., groceries 290% Ibs., sole leather 15 Ibs., oats 10 bus., 
rape 40 Ibs., seeds 71 Ibs., cross-cut saw 1, axes 6, scythe 1, hoes 
3, log chains 5, spade 1, crowbar 1, tent 1, keg of powder 25 Ibs., 
lead 20 Ibs., codfish 40 Ibs., garden seeds 50 Ibs., plows 2, bran 
3^/2 bus., 1 side of harness leather, whip saw 1, iron 16 Ibs., 
nails 16 Ibs., 1 sack of salt 200 Ibs., -saddles 2, tool chest worth 
$75, 6 pair of double harness worth about $200, total amount of 
breadstuff 2507 lb?. at $55.40, 241 Ibs. of bacon at 6c, $14.46 ; 
2869 Ibs. feed corn $28.69; 300 Ibs. seeds $3.00, 300 Ibs. buck- 
wheat $6.00. 25 Ibs. dried beef $3.121-2, groceries $35, sole 
leather $4, oats $4, rape $10. seeds $10, hoes $2, axes $8, keg 
of powder $10, lead $2, codfish $2, 200 Ibs. salt $8, tool chest 
$75, cross-cut saw $5, whip saw $5. scythe $2, hoes $1.50, 5 log 
chains $20, spade $2, crowbar $3, 2 piows $24, side of harness 
leather $4. 16 Ibs. iron $2, 16 Ibs. nails $2, tent $10, harness $20, 
5 horses $360, 7 mules $350, 6 wagons $600, 2 saddles $30; bran 
$1, 3 .yoke of cattle $120, 2 cows $24. Total $1592.87y 2 . 


After the organi/ation we prepared for traveling. Brother 
Whitney. Win. Kimball. and Lyniaii Whitney prepare.! to return 
home. Father Kimhall t<;ok William into the wa-^oii and blessed 
him. William was very much affected. About ;> p. m. we moved 
off and traveled three miles and encamped for the night. About 
dark the wind blew up from the north very cold. We took our 
horses and cattle d\vn in the timber and cut down trees and 
made a fence to put our horses in, and placed a guard around 
them, selected for that purpose, aside from the regular camp 

Saturday, April 17th. This morning was cold and the 
wind northwest. At 9 o'clock we started on our journey, the 
wind blowing- very strong, which made it very disagreeable, as 
it was a sandy road. We came seven miles and encamped near 
a beautiful grove of cottonwood. This evening a trader from 
the Pawnee village encamped near us. He had one wagon 
loaded with buffalo robes. At sundown the bugle sounded for 
the brethren to come together. President Young said it was 
necessary to have a military organization before we left this 
place. It was moved and carried that the two divisions be 
formed into one regiment, under Colonel Markham. There were 
also two majors appointed, John Pack and Shadrack Roundy, 
and Thomas Tanner to take command of the camp. Each cap- 
tain was to command his own ten in cas.e of an attack from 
the Indians. 

Father (*Heber C.) Kimball has taken Brother William 
Clayton into his mess. Sister Ellen Sanders and myself, with 
others, make up the mess, and I thank the Lord for the privi- 
lege of being one of the number and enjoying the society of 
my father Heber. Ellis Ames returned from this plac^ in con- 
sequence of sickness, so he said, but I think he is weak in the 

Sunday, April 18th. This morning there was high winds 
from the south and very cold. Today, being the day set apart 
by the Almighty God for His people to rest, we do not intend 
to travel. Three wagons loaded with furs passed this morning; 
also four or five pack mules, a short time afterward, going to 
the settlements. H. C. Kimball wrote a letter to his companion 
this morning and sent it by Brother Ames, the contents of which 
I heard read and it done my heart good. It portrayed the feel- 
ings of his heart and his affection for his family, in the most 
simple and beautiful language that would touch the soul and 
cause the heart to rejoice. 

The wind continued to blow so hard, and it was so cold, it 
was thought wisdom not to call the brethren together to have 


meeting. The Twelve retired back in the woods to council one 
with the other. About sundown President Young- called the 
Captains together and gave them the following instructions: 
At 8:30 p. m. the bugle would sound and all should retire to 
their wagons and bow before the Lord and offer up their sup- 
plications before going to bed, and all fires should be put out; 
also the bugle would sound at 5 a. m., when all would arise 
and offer up their thanks to the Lord, and at 7 o'clock be ready 
to start. All the spare hands were to walk by the off side of 
their wagons with their rifles loaded. The weather continues 
very cold. 

Monday, April 19th. This morning the weather was fair, 
calm and pleasant. At 5 a. m. the bugle sounded for all hands 
to turn out and return thanks to the Lord. At 7:30 the camp 
was in motion with orders to travel in double file. We passed 
over a beautiful level prairie in sight of the Platte river, and 
passed a number of small lakes between us and the river. The 
brethren shot a number of ducks as we passed along. At 1:30 
p. m. we stopped to feed near a bend in the river, after travel- 
ing thirteen miles. While there 0. P. Rockwell, J. Redding, 
Brother Little and Thomas Brown arrived from Winter Quar- 
ters and brought a number of letters for the brethren. I re- 
ceived one from Brother Jacob Feryier, who has my thanks 
for his kindness. I also heard that my family was all well, 
which I thank the Lord for. At 2:40 p. m. we started on our 
journey and came eight miles and encamped in a circle, in order 
to have our horses and cattle in the center to secure them from 
the Indians, with the guard placed outside of the wagons. This 
evening looks cloudy and the wind blows fresh from the north. 
Brother John Rigby and several others went down the river 
two miles with the boat and seine to seek a place to fish, and 
after being gone about two hours returned with only two fish. 
I had the pleasure this evening of sitting in Brother Horace 
Whitney's wagon to write. Brother Harper gave Father 
(*Heber C.) Kimball two ducks he shot today. Brother Kirn- 
ball gave one of them to President Young. Brother Hanson 
also let him have two snipes. 

Tuesday, April 20th. This morning I arose at 4:30 a. m. 
and took my horses out to feed and then commenced getting 
breakfast at 6:30. We made a first-rate breakfast of our wild 
fowls. At 7 :30 w r e started, it being clear weather but very high 
winds from the southwest.. We traveled about six miles and 
crossed a small stream called Shell creek, about two miles from 
the Platte river, then went on about four miles and stopped to 
feed, which made ten miles this forenoon. Three deer ran past 


our camp within a half mile. Brothers Porter and Brown ran 
them with their horses, but could not get within gunshot of 
them. -I. Higby, L. Johnson and S. Markham and some others 
started a half hour ahead this morning, with the boat and seine 
and throe wajrons with them, to fish. President Young and H. 
('. Kimlmll went ahead this afternoon to pick out a camping 
place. Alx>ut 4 :'>(> p. m. we arrived at the spot, after traveling 
ten miles. It is a beautiful place near the banks of the river. 

We took our horses across a small branch of the river, 
where there was plenty of cottonwood for them, and then put 
our oxen arid cows inside of the circle. Those who went fishing 
returned with a large quantity of fish that they caught in a 
small lake one mile above where we are encamped. I cooked 
one for supper, a large buffalo fish. President Young came 
into our wajron and ate supper with Father (*Heber C.) Kim- 
ball. This evening the wind blows fresh from the northwest. 
Father Kimball sits close by me writing a letter to his com- 
panion. Tt is about 10 p. m. ; Dr. Richards has just come to 
our wagon to inquire for Brother Markham. They thought, as 
the Pawnees were encamped only eight miles from us, it was 
necessary to have a patrol guard out tonight. 

Wednesday, April 21st. It is cloudy weather and has the 
appearance of rain, with wind from the northeast. At 7 a. m. 
the bugle sounded for the ox teams to start, and at 7:30 we 
started. The horse teams started about two hours after we 
started. We met five or six Pawnee Indians. We traveled 
about eight miles and came in sight of the Pawnee village. Two* 
of the chiefs and a number of the Indians came to our camp.. 
Father Kimball gave them some tobacco and salt. President 
Young gave them some powder and lead and other things. They 
manifested some dissatisfaction because they did not receive 
more presents, and told us we must go back. We paid no atten- 
tion to them. At 2 p. m. we continued our journey and traveled 
ten miles. About twenty minutes after we started we had a 
severe thunderstorm and rain fell in torrents, which lasted about 
thirtv minutes, and it blew a gale all the afternoon from the 
northwest. At 5 p. m. we encamped near the Loop Fork, which 
is a larire stream that empties into the Platte. About sundown 
the busle sounded for all the brethren to come together. Col- 
onel Markham called off 100 men to stand guard, 50 the first 
part of the nisrht and 50 the latter part. Porter Rockwell took 
charge of ten men as picket guard. I stood guard until 10 p. m. 
It was a bitter cold night. 

Thursday, April 22d. It continues cold with wind north- 
east. We traveled two miles and crossed a small stream called 


the Looking Glass creek. We went on eight miles and stopped 
to feed near a stream called Bear creek, making ten miles this 
forenoon. At 2 o'clock we hitched up and started. We were 
under the necessity of having men on the opposite side of the 
creek we were crossing, with a rope to help our wagons up, as 
the bank was so steep we could not get up without help. 

This afternoon we traveled through a beautiful country, 
with the Loop Fork on one side and a ridge on the other and 
groups of trees that resembled orchards in an old settled coun- 
try. We came seven miles and stopped at the old Missionary 
station that was vacated last summer. The Sioux Indians drove 
them off. There is quite a large farm fenced in and some very 
good buildings on it. We had plenty of corn fodder and hay 
for our teams. It is the prettiest location that I have seen this 
side of the Mississippi river. In the latter part of the day the 
wind moderated and this evening it is warm and pleasant. Cap- 
tain Tanner exercised his men at the cannon. President Young 
called the brethren together and forbid them taking anything 
off of the premises. Twenty men was thought sufficient tonight 
to guard the camp. 

Friday, April 23d. This morning was warm and pleasant. 
Brigham. Heber and others started on at 7 :45 a. m. to look out 
a fording place to cross the Loop Fork. While they were gone 
Sister Ellen and myself took the opportunity to wash. They 
returned at 11 :45 a. m. and reported that we could go about four 
miles and build a raft. Tarlton Lewis was appointed to build 
it. About 1 o'clock the wagons started and we crossed a small 
creek, soon after, called Plum creek. We traveled about two 
miles and crossed another stream. I could not find out the 
name. Father Kimball said to call it Looking Glass creek, be- 
cause it was very clear. 

At 3 p. m. we arrived at the fording place and found that 
a raft could be of no use and concluded to ford it. Luke John- 
son was the first that crossed the river. He took the boat off 
and crossed with an empty wagon. Brother Orson Pratt took 
out part of his load and got about half way across and could 
not get any further. Four or five of us waded out to his as- 
sistance. The water in some places was waist deep. Brigham 
came as near as he could with the boat and we took the valuable 
part of his load and put it on board and went on a little far- 
ther, when one of his horses fell down. It was with difficulty 
we saved them. We loosened them from the wagon and hauled 
it over by hand. Brothers Pack and Woodruff crossed safe. 
President Young ordered them to stop crossing wagons today. 

P J ( ) X K K K I X G T HE WEST 29 

We went about a half mile up the river and encamped till morn- 
ing, which was at 5:30 p. m. The day was very hut. 

A little after dark President Young called the captains to- 
gether to council which was the best way to cross the river. 
Brother Knckwood motioned to build three rafts to take across 
the goods, and the empty wagons to ford the river. Brother 
Kimball motioned to build one first and try it before there 
was any more built, as it was doubtful whether there could be 
any used. Brothers Lewis and Woolsey were appointed to take 
charge of building the raft. Brother ^Curkham was to go and 
pick out the best fording place and stake it out. and drive all 
the loose cattle over. The leaders informed us that the sand 
would pack down and make better traveling. 

Saturday, April 24th. This morning one of President 
Young's horses was found dead. He was chained near a large 
hole and fell in and choked himself. The morning was very 
pleasant. H. C. Kimball and Lorenzo Y'oung went up the river 
about a mile to see if they could find a better fording place. 
I was requested to go along with them. Brother Wcodard and 
myself went across the river, but found some places very diffi- 
cult for crossing. On our return we found they had commenced 
crossing wagons, about 8 a. m. We took half the load out of 
some of our wagons and doubled our teams and crossed without 
any difficulty. Brother Kimball marched in the water with 
the rest of us. At 3 p. m. all the wagons were over on the 
sandbar safe, and at 4 o'clock all were over safe. We started 
on again and traveled about three miles southwest, up the river. 
It was a sandy bottom and more bare of grass than on the other 
side. We encamped on the west side of a small lake, near the 
river. There was plenty of sunfish in it. Brother Clayton 
caught a mess for us and they were first-rate. All hands were 
tired working, crossing over the river. I thank the Lord the 
morrow is a day of rest. 

Sunday, April 25th. This morning we had fair weather 
with wind south. We took all our teams out to feed and left 
some hands to watch them. At 5 p. m. a meeting was called 
at the wagon of President Young. Remark- were made by sev- 
eral and instructions given by President Young* chiefly in refer- 
ence to the folly of conforming to Gentile customs on an expedi- 
tion of this nature. There Mere eight men selected to hunt on 
horses, also to hunt on foot. 

Monday, April 26th. This mornine about 3:30 an alarm 
was given. The guard on the northwest corner of the camp 
discovered some Indians crawling up to the wagons. They fired 
at them, when six Indians jumped up and ran. All hands were 


up and prepared for action in a few minutes, under their re- 
spective captains. Nothing more was seen of the Indians. At 
8 a. m. the camp started. There is no road here, consequently 
President Young, Kimball and some others went ahead on 
horseback to hunt out the best track. We traveled about seven 
miles and stopped at 11:30, near some holes of Avater, to feed 
our teams. At 1:45 all the wagons were on the way. At 
6 :15 we encamped near a small creek, having come seven miles, 
which makes fourteen miles today. 

About 3 o'clock Brother Matthews was out hunting his 
horses and saw a horse at a distance, supposing it to be Brother 
Little's, went toward him. Before he got near him the horse 
put off at full speed toward the river. He then supposed there 
was an Indian on Mm. He returned to the camp and gave the 
alarm, when five or six men jumped on their horses and fol- 
lowed in the direction, but could not see or hear anything of 
the Indian. When they returned President Young and Kim- 
ball with some others went out on horseback in search of him 
and traveled till 11 o'clock, but could not see anything of him 
and returned. Dr. Richard's horse is gone. 

Tuesday, April 27th. At 8 :30 a. m. the wagons commenced 
moving off. We traveled twelve miles and stopped about 2 :15 
p. m., coming nearly a south course. 0. P. Rockwell and 
others went back to look for the horses that were lost. We 
stopped at noon near a ravine, where feed was very good but 
no water. We dug about four feet and got a little water for 
our horses. At 3:15 the teams started again. Brother Wood- 
ruff and two others shot an antelope. President Young and 
Kimball are still ahead. We traveled four miles and encamped 
at 5:30 for the night. Soon after we arrived it began to thun- 
der and lightning, and gave us a light shower with very heavy 
wind. Those who went to hunt the horses returned. They re- 
ported that thev went back near where we were encamped April 
26th, and saw fifteen Indians well armed. They endeavored to 
get near enough to get hold of the horses by pretending friend- 
ship, but the brethren would not let them come near. One of 
the brethren cocked his pistol and pointed it at one of them, 
when they all ran. After they got off a little distance they 
turned and fired a shot at the brethren. They did not see the 
los^ horses and the shot did not take effect. About the time 
the brethren returned, a rifle accidentallv went off, which was 
in Brother Brown's wagon, and broke the right fore leg of a 
horse. That makes four of the best horses in the camp lost in 
the last four days. 

Wednesday, April 28th. This morning was fine and pleas- 


ant, and we commenced crossing a small creek about 9 a. m. 
The last wagon got over at 10 o'clock. President Young and 
Kimball went ahead to point out the track. While we were 
crossing the creek Luke Johnson shot the horse that had its leg 
broken. We traveled about a south course about eleven miles 
and stopped to feed near the main Platte river about 2 :30. At 
4 p. m. we started again and traveled four miles and encamped 
about 6 o'clock, having traveled fifteen miles today. The even- 
ing was cool and cloudy. 

Thursday, April 29th. The morning was cool, and we 
started to find better feed for our horses, traveling three miles, 
and stopped at 6:30 to breakfast. At 8:20 we started and trav- 
eled about two miles and crossed a very pretty Mica in of water. 
We stopped at 1 p. m. near a lake to feed, having traveled about 
ten miles. At 2:30 we started again and traveled about eight 
miles, when we stopped at 6 o'clock. The wind was southwest 
and cold. 

Friday, April 30th. The morning was cool and pleasant. 
At 8:20 a. in. we again started, stopping at 12 noon to feed, 
near a small creek, having traveled ciu'ht miles. At 1:20 p. m. 
we started again, the wind blowing tremendously strong from 
the north and very cold. We traveled about eiuht miles and 
stopped about ."> p. m. and encamped about two miles from the 
river near a bluff, with neither wood nor water. We picked up 
some x d r >' buffalo dung, which made a very good fire, and we 
dug a well and found plenty of water. 



Saturday, May 1st, 1847. This morning was very cold and, 
as feed was very poor, it was now thought best to start before 
breakfast, which was done at 5 :20 a. m., stopping at 8 :15 to feed, 
having come six miles. Soon after we started this morning we 
saw three buffaloes about two miles off on the bluffs. Three 
of the brethren went in chase of them on horseback. We could 
see a large herd of buffaloes a few miles ahead. At 10:15 we 
again started. Those who started after the buffalo early this 
morning returned, but they did not kill any. There were seven 
or eight hunters picked out to charge on the large herd, some 
being footmen scattered out. Before the brethren got to them 
they got started by one of our dogs that ran an antelope near 
them. H. C. Kimball now started across and headed them off 
and killed the first one, and helped to kill two others. Soon 
after, H. C. Kimball, S. Rockwood and others returned, and one 
of our teams that George Billings drove, was sent out with two 
others to bring in the buffalo meat. There was one bull, three 
cows and six calves killed. 

Brother Joseph Hancock went off early this morning on 
foot and has not been seen or heard from up to this evening. 
During the afternoon we traveled eight miles, and encamped 
about 6:30 near a small lake about a mile above the head of 
Grand island. This day w T e traveled about eighteen miles. 

Sunday, May 2d, This morning is cold but clear weather, 
and the ice is about an inch thick. A buffalo calf came within 
a short distance of the camp last night and one of the guards 
shot it in the thigh and brought it into the camp alive. Just 
before breakfast Brother Hancock came into camp and reported 
that he had shot a buffalo yesterday afternoon and got lost. 
He was about four miles from the camp, built a fire and cooked 
supper; returning on horseback, he shot an antelope on the way. 
This morning we cut up a quarter of a buffalo cow and salted 
it down. 

I started in company with President Young, Fairbanks and 
others ahead to hunt a camping ground where we could have 
better feed. We returned a little after 2 o'clock p. m. and ate 
dinner. At 3 :15 we started, and traveled tw r o miles over a prairie 
dog -town. A little after 4 o'clock AVC encamped near a long 
lake of clear water. President Young and Kimball with some 


others went ahead three or four miles to view the country. All 
hands were employed putting- up racks t<> .Iry the IjuL'tulo meat. 

Monday, May 3d. This morning was cold, and there wa> 
ice in the water buckets. The hunters are going out this morn- 
ing on !(.<>t. Uroti.ers Tanner and Davenport put their forges 
up to n pair mie nf the wagons. We had some of the tires set 
on Brother dishing 's wau-on. There was a small party sent on 
horseback to hunt the route. At 2:30 p. m. the horsemen re- 
t nine, l and reported that Brother Kmpev had discovered a large 
war party of Indians in a hollow twelve miles from the camp. 
There were orders given for a company of horsemen to start, to 
call the hunters back to the camp. About o'clock the last of 
them got in safe, bringing two antelope and two calves. The 
cannon was taken out in front of the wagons and prepared for 
action. There was a round fired about 9 p. m. 

Tuesday, May 4th. This morning was fine but cool, wind 
being about southwest. About 7:30 a. m. the camp was called 
together and instruction was given by President Young in regard 
to leaving the wagons, and scattering off hunting, without coun- 
cil. A company of ten men was added to the guard. About 9 
o 'clock the wagons commenced to cross the lake, near the river. 
The wagons were placed four abreast with the cannon in the 
rear, and traveled so for about half a day, in order to be pre- 
pared if attacked by the Indians. Soon after we started we 
discovered three wagons on the opposite bank of the river. They 
were traders going to Council Bluffs. There were nine men in 
the company and were from Fort Laramie. One of the men came 
across to see us. He agreed to carry letters for us to the settle- 
ments. Brother Brown and two others went across the river to 
carry the letters to his wagon. The river is about two miles 
wide at this place but is good fording. I finished writing the 
letter I commenced some time since, before they went, and sent 
it to my wife. We gave the man some bread and bacon to last 
him to the settlements. He said he had not eaten any bread for 
a long time: 

About 1:20 p. m. we again started and at 3:30 we stopped 
to feed, having traveled six miles. While our cattle were feed- 
ing the company was called out to drill. We again started and 
traveled about three miles and encamped near a creek of good 
water. The prairie burned nearly all over. Some few spots 
were left that the fire had not touched. The wind was south and 
very dusty. 

Wednesday. May 5th. This morning was fine and very 
pleasant. At 7:30 a. m. we started and traveled over a low, soft 



prairie, and at 11:30 we stopped to feed. We had come about 
nine miles, in a west course, a very strong- wind from the south 
blowing. At 1 p. m. we continued our journey. Between 3 and 


4 o'clock President Young- and Kimball, who had been ahead, 
returned and ordered the teams to go back about half a mile 
to a small island and encamp for the night, in consequence of 
the prairie being on fire ahead. This day there was one cow 
and six buffalo calves killed. 

Thursday, May 6th. This morning it was thought best to 
start before breakfast and go > to where we could find better 
feed, and at 6:30 we started. 'Last night the Lord sent a light 
shower, which put the fire out and made it perfectly safe to 
travel. We came about two miles and stopped to feed. At 
8:4.") \\e again started. President Young and Kimball still going 
ahead on horseback. We traveled about six miles and found a 
little more grass. The feed is very scarce, as the numerous 
herds of buffalo eat it close to the ground. 

There were orders given that no more game should be 
killed, as there was sufficient meat in the camp. While we 
were stopping for noon some of our cows took after the buffalo. 
President Young and Kimball rode after them and drove them 
back. At 1 :30 p. m. we started on and traveled about two miles 
and found a lake of pure water. President Young returned to 
look for his spyglass he had lost. We encamped at 6:30 near 
an island in the river, having come about fifteen miles. 

Friday, May 7th. This morning the wind was northwest 
and very cold. The camp was called together and measures 
taken to raise some horses to haul the cannon, as some of 
the horses and cattle had given out. President Young scolded 
E. Snow for not taking better care of the cows yesterday. 0. 
P. Rockwell went back this morning to hunt President Young's 
spyglass. About 10 o'clock the camp started. We traveled 
about eight miles and encamped about 2.30 near several islands 
in the river. About 4 p. m. Porter returned. He found the spy- 
glass. At 6 :30 the company was called out to drill. 

Saturday, May 8th. The morning was cold but fine, and 
we started at 9 o'clock. We came seven and a half miles and 
stopped at 1 p. m. to feed. The prairie on both sides of the 
river is literally covered with buffalo. This evening we en- 
camped near the river. We took some of our horses on a small 
island in the river. Feed is very scarce and very little wood. 
We have to use buffalo chips to cook with. The bluffs ahead 
appear to run down to the river. 

Sunday, May 9th. This morning is very cold and the wind 
southeast. At 7:50 we proceeded on and traveled three and a 
half miles, going a little around some of the bluffs, and turned 
down again towards the river on a low sandy bottom. We en- 


camped near some islands and have plenty of wood, but poor 
feed. We took our horses on the island and cut down cotton- 
wood for them. I went to the south end of the island and 
washed myself and changed my clothes. At 3 p. m. the bugle 
sounded for the brethren to come together for meeting. Prayer 
was offered by Brother Lyman. Brothers Woodruff, Pratt, 
Benson and Stevens spoke, and they gave us some very good 
instructions. Soon after meeting President Young, Kimball and 
some others went a few miles west to view the country. 

The evening was cold, with strong wind from the north- 
west. President Young ate supper with H. C. Kimball. Ellen 
tried to bake some bread, but could not, the wind blew so. I 
have to sleep on a chest in the front part of the wagon, cross- 
ways, and cannot stretch myself nor keep the clothes over me. 
It was so cold tonight, and the wind blowing in the wagon, so 
I went to bed with Brothers King and Gushing. 

Monday, May 10th. This morning was cool and calm. I 
got up this morning at 4 a. m. I had the best night's rest I 
have had for some time. I made a fire and put the bread down 
to bake, then went to Brother Johnson's wagon to write up my 
journal, as I have not much time to do it during the day or 
evening. I have to catch most of the time after taking care 
of my horses. When the weather gets warmer, I hope I shall 
be able to write some early in the mornings. I have so little 
time, it accounts for my not writing much. Brother Clayton 
has kindl\ 7 let me have his journal to take minutes f.'rom until 
I can get time to keep it up every day, which I am very thank- 
ful for. 

Dr. Richards has deposited a letter in a board prepared 
for that purpose, nailed to a long pole, with the distance marked 
on it of 316 miles from Winter Quarters. He Avas assisted by 
President Young and others. At 9 :05 a. m. the camp proceeded 
onward. After traveling about two miles w r e crossed a small 
creek, which Brother Kimball named Skunk creek. About this 
time we discovered a stray horse coming toward us. The breth- 
ren tried to catch it, but he was so wild they could not get near 
him. We traveled until 11:55 and found a little better feed, 
then stopped for dinner, having come about six miles. The 
prairie is low and soft, which makes very heavy traveling, 
Some of the brethren shot a buffalo today. At 2 p. m. we con- 
tinued our journey, and after traveling' a half mile we crossed 
a very bad slough. About 4 p. m. President Young's team gave 
out, and many others also. H. G. Kimball rode up to us and 
told Brother H. Gushing to take off two of his mules and go 
back to "help President Young up. At 4:50 we encamped near 

P I O X K E R I X G T H E W E S T 37 

an island where we had plenty of <">t ton wood for our horses. 
The feed is a little better this evening. 1'or which we thank 
the Lord. This day we traveled about ten miles. Some of the 
hunters killed a deer. The evening is warn; and pleasant, and 
the wind light from the northweM. 

Tuesday, May llth. The moining is cold with ea>t wind. 
It appears to me that vast herds of buffalo have \\inteie.i 
around this place, but have mostly left and gone eastward some 
time ago, as we have the full growth of this year'.- irrass. which 
is very short. This morning we overhauled our wagon, and 
took part of our load and placed it in Brother Ci^shinu '.- \\ 
At 9:30 a. m. we again started. President Young and Kimball 
going: a half hour ahead of us. Our Ten took the lead toda\. 
which brought my wnuou first. We traveled five miles and 
stopped at 12:20 for a half hour to water and take some dinner. 
We traveled on three miles further and eiossed over a creek 
of clear water. We traveled on a half mile and stopped, the 
feed being pretty good, making eight and one-half miles today. 
The water being a half mile off, the brethren dug two wells 
about four feet deep and found plenty of good water. This 
evening I felt quite sick, having a very bad cold. 

Wednesday, May 12th. The morning was very cool, and 
we started at 9:10 a. m. and traveled eight miles, and stopped 
at 1:12 p. m. to feed. The roads are pretty good and the feed 
is a little better. There is a strong wind blowing from the 
southeast. H. C. Kimball informed me today that we had 
passed the junction of the forks of the river two days ago. The 
hunters report that they have seen many dead buffalo between 
here and the bluffs with the hides off and the tongues taken 
out, which proves that Indians have been here recently, as the 
flesh looks fresh as if lately killed. The range of bluffs on each 
side of the river extends much farther apart, and near the foot 
of the south range can be seen scattering timber, which is an 
evidence that the south fork runs along there in the distance. 
At 3:30 we again started and traveled four miles, and encamped 
again at 5:4.") near a group of small islands. This evening is 
cloudy and it looks like rain. Brother Clayton thinks we ;ir- 
about fourteen miles above the junction of the north and south 
forks of the Platte river. Some of the hunters killed a buffalo 
this evening and the remnants were sent out after. 

Thursday, May 13th. This morning is very cold ami cloudy 
with wind northwest. I went out earlv to take care of my 
horses, and went in sight of an Indian camp uTound. There 
appeared to be two or three hundred wickiups and, from the 


appearance of things, I supposed that they had not been gone 
long from there. At 9 a. m. we started and traveled four miles, 
nearly a west course, and stopped at 11 a. m. to feed our teams. 
The grass continues to get better. The buffalo are not so plenty 
here, which accounts for the feed getting better. The wind is 
blowing very strong from the north and northeast. At 12 :30 
we again moved onward and traveled ten and a quarter miles 
and stopped on the west side of a large stream about six rods 
wide, which runs from the northeast and empties into the North 
fork of the Platte river. The bottom is quicksand and difficult 
to cross unles it is crossed over quick. It is about two feet 

We are encamped within a quarter of a mile of the Platte, 
and the feed is better here than any we have had since we left 
Winter Quarters. I feel much better today, and I thank the 
Lord for it. This stream is not laid down on the map. Presi- 
dent Young and Kimball traveled ahead as usual, and they re- 
ported that the bluffs run down to the river, but they discov- 
ered that we could go around the bluffs by going a mile around. 
*We are about twenty-five and a quarter miles above the junc- 
tion of the North and South forks, a,nd 361 miles from Winter 
Quarters, according to AVm. Clayton's account. 

Friday, May 14th. The morning is cloudy and very cold, 
and streaks of lightning can be seen occasionally in the west. 
About 8 o'clock it commenced to rain very heavy, accompanied 
with thunder and lightning. Just before it commenced raining 
the bugle sounded to gather up our horses. After the storm 
ceased we started onward at 10:15, and after traveling a mile 
we passed between the high bluffs, our course being north for 
some time. After traveling about six and a quarter miles we 
stopped to feed at 1:40 p. m. within three-quarters of a mile 
the river. We are on the large low bottoms again, and not more 
than three miles from where we started this morning. Presi- 
dent Young and Kimball went ahead to look out the route. 

Brother Higby killed an antelope and a badger. We had a 
shower just before we stopped, and now the weather is some 
warmer. At 3 p. m. we proceeded on our journey. We went 
two and a half miles and stopped at 4:30. President Young 
and Kimball returned and thought it was best to encamp, as 
there were high ranges of bluffs west of us that extended down 
to the river. We made about eight and three-quarters miles 
today. The revenue cutter has been dispatched after two buf- 
faloes and two antelope that have been killed by the hunters. 
There was an alarm given by the guard last night a little before 
12 o'clock, and one of them fired at an object he thought to be 


an Indian, and those who had horses outside of the circle were 
called up to bring them in. It is my opinion that the guard 
was mistaken, as we could not see any sign of Indians, neither 
could we see any tracks in the sand the next morning. 

Brother Wm. Clayton has invented a machine, and at- 
tached it to the wagon that Brother Johnson drives, to tell the 
distance we travel. It is simple yet is ingenious. He got 
Brother Appleton Harmon to do the work. I have understood 
that Brother Harmon claims to be the inventor, too, which I 
know to be a positive falsehood. He, Brother Harmon, knew 
nothing about the first principles of it, neither did he know 
how to do the work only as Brother Clayton told him from time 
to time. It shows the weakness of human nature. I will give 
a description of it hereafter. The camp are all well. 

Saturday, May 15th. This morning is cloudy and very cold 
and feels like a morning in January, the wind blowing strong 
from the north. The brethren who killed the buffalo did not 
bring it to the camp last night. They put it in the boat and left 
it until morning. It was with difficulty that they found their 
way to camp, as it was so dark. They brought it in about 7:30 
this morning and divided it to the Captains of Ten. At 8 o'clock 
it commenced raining, but cleared off a little before 9, when we 
started. After traveling about three-quarters of a mile we be- 
gan ascending the sandy bluffs and it commenced raining again, 
making it very cold and disagreeable. The road was much of 
a zigzag one over the bluffs. We traveled about a mile, the 
sand being very deep and heavy pulling for the horses, and 
when we ascended a sand bluff we discovered the bottoms just 
below. We traveled on the bottoms a little way, when it was 
considered best to turn out our teams and not travel in the 
rain. It was 10:30 when we stopped. 

My wagon being heavily loaded, Brother Kimball told me 
to take the mules Brother Johnson worked ahead of his cattle 
and put them before my horses. We traveled about two and a 
half miles. About noon it cleared off again and the signal was 
given to gather up our teams, and at 12:30 we proceeded on 
our journey and traveled until 2 :45, the distance being four and 
a half miles. About three miles ahead the bluffs appear to run 
down to the river. The feed is good, but wood is very scarce 
and the buffalo chips are not a very good substitute for wood 
when they are wet. This morning I baked some bread and fried 
some antelope meat, made some coffee and had a very good 
breakfast, all cooked with wet buffalo chips. 

Sunday, May 16th. The morning was cold and the wind was 
still blowing from the north. The buffalo that was killed yes- 

_40 P I X E E K I N G T H E W E S T 

terday evening- was divided this morning to the Captain-3 of Tens. 
This forenoon my time was principally occupied baking bread 
and drying beef. President Young and Kimball with several 
others went ahead on horseback to explore the country, and re- 
turned this afternoon, reporting that we pass over the bluffs 
by going about four miles. 

The bugle sounded this afternoon for the brethren to come 
together for meeting. Brothers H. C. Kimball, Dr. Richards, 
Markham and Rockwood spoke. The principal part of the time 
was occupied in exhorting the brethren to faithfulness, and also 
to obey the council of those whom God had placed in the Church 
to lead and direct the affairs of His Kingdom. Brother Kim- 
ball spoke in his usual and interesting and impressive manner, 
exhorting the brethren to adhere to council and to be humble 
and prayerful, and the Lord would continue to bless us, and 
we should be healthy, and not one of us should fall by the way. 
He also stated that he had traveled much, but never witnessed 
so much union as there was in the camp. He advised the breth- 
ren not to hunt on the Sabbath day, w 7 hen there was plenty of 
meat in the camp, but said he had no fault to find. He believed 
that everybody was trying to do the best they could. He said 
that if Ave were faithful the angel of the Lord would go before 
us and be around about us to ward off the harm of the de- 
stroyer. He knew the Lord was w T ith us, that our teams were 
gaining strength and the prayers of the Saints were answered. 
He had prayed that the Indians would turn to the right and to 
the left that we might pursue our journey in peace, and asked 
the brethren if they could get sight of an Indian near? Their 
answer was, No. He also cautioned them not to use profane 
language, as the angel of the Lord would turn away from a man 
that would swear and take the name of the Lord in vain. The 
Lord loves a faithful man as a father loves a faithful son. The 
Spirit of the Lord rested upon him and he spoke with power, 
which cheered my soul. 

A number of buffalo herds are in sight, and some of them 
are making down the bluffs toward our horses. Brother Eric 
Glines went out to stop them, but they still kept on, when he 
fired three shots at them, all the shots taking effect on one, 
which ran a little way and then fell. Francis (*Boggs) came 
with an antelope. The revenue cutter went out and brought the 
buffalo in, and it was divided among the camp. I have the 
pleasure this eveninsr of writing by the light of a candle made 
by Brother Edson Whipple out of buffalo tallow, and it burns 
beautifully. The evening was calm and pleasant, and the rules 
and regulations for the camp (of April the 18th) were read by 



Brother Bullock. President Y<'.inu ami Kimball took a 

to the bliit!'^ ,-i))iiui d;iik. :tn<i rctiniK'il ;uid went t President 
Young's \v;iui !) :Tii<i remained in council until after 10 p. in. 


Monday, May 17th. The morning was cold and chilly and 
the wind was northwest. Dr. Richards left another letter on the 
camp ground for the benefit of the next company, putting it 
up the same as the others. About 8:13, after traveling about a 
mile and a half, we arrived at the range of bluffs, which ex- 
tended to the river, came about a quarter of a mile and crossed 
a stream of fresh spring water about three feet wide. When 
we first ascended the bluffs our course was north for a short 
distance, but we then turned westward and passed over a num- 
ber of sand bluffs. After traveling two and a half miles be- 
yond the above mentioned stream we arrived at the west side 
of the bluffs, the last part of the road being very sandy with 
several very steep pitches to go down. The teams got over 
without any difficulty. The grass is very good west of the 
bluffs, and about a mile from the bluffs we passed three streams 
of spring water. The whole of the bottoms seem to be full of 
springs. We have to keep near the bluffs, the bottoms are so 
soft and wet. About 11 :45 we stopped to feed, having traveled 
about six and three-quarter miles; we encamped about half a 
mile west of a stream of spring water, which we crossed. 
Brother Bedding and myse]f went back to get some water. We 
went to the head of the stream and found five boiling springs, 
boiling up several inches. One of Brother Phineas Young's 
horses got mired in a swamp where he went in to feed. The 
brethren hauled him out with ropes. 

This forenoon is warm and pleasant, the first warm day we 
have had for some time. At 2 p. m. we proceeded on our jour- 
ney and traveled about half a mile, when we came to a stream 
of pure water about thirty feet wide and very shallow, and there 
was no difficulty in crossing it. We passed over same safe, 
some hills a quarter of a mile further, and then came to level 
prairie again, which is low and soft. We crossed a number of 
small streams which rise from springs near the bluffs. About 
3 o'clock word came that there was a buffalo killed by the hunt- 
ers about a mile from the camp and two men were sent out to 
dress it. About the same time the revenue cutter arrived with 
two buffaloes and an antelope. The meat was taken out of the 
boat, and a fresh team put on and sent after the other buffalo. 
At 4:30 the wagons moved onward and traveled until 6 o'clock, 
when we encamped on the wide bottom plain. We have traveled 
today about twelve and three-quarters miles in about a Avest 
course. We are about a half mile from the river. Brother Har- 
ris and myself went down to the river and brought up a keg of 
water. The brethren dug several wells. Soon after we arrived 
the boat came in with the other buffalo. The meat Avas di\ T ided 


.equally among the companies. We are in latitude 41 degrees 12 
minutes 50 seconds. 

Tuesday, May 18th. The morning was fine and pleasant 
.and at 7 o'clock President Young called the Captains of Tens to- 
gether and gave them instructions not to let their men kill any 
more game, as we had more on hand now than we could take 
care of, and for them not to take life merely to gratify their 
propensities. He also stated that life was as dear to the animal, 
.according to their understanding, as it was to us. That if the 
horsemen hunters would go ahead and hunt out the road they 
would be of more utility to the camp than pursuing every band 
of antelope that passed the camp; that there were men among 
us in responsible positions who cared no more for the interest 
of the camp than the horses that they rode; that the spirit of 
the hunter as was now manifested would lead them to kill all 
the game within a thousand miles as inconsistently as the butch- 
er would apply the knife to the throat of a bullock. President 
Young, after some other remarks, dismissed the captains, tell- 
ing them that they must lead their men by their own good 
example, for the men would do well if the captains would set 
them the proper pattern. 

Soon after meeting was dismissed the bugle sounded to 
collect our teams. At 8:15 a. m. we proceeded on our journey, 
Brigham, Heber and some others going on ahead on horseback- 
After traveling three and three-quarters miles a west course 
we arrived at a stream twenty or twenty-five feet wide and 
about eighteen inches deep, with a very strong current. ' We 
gave it the name of Rat Bank creek. From this stream we trav- 
eled near the bank of the river, about a northwest course. At 
11 :10 a. m. we stopped to feed, having traveled about six and a 
half miles. This afternoon has been very hot. We saw several 
spots of small cedar trees growing in the sandy crevices of the 
rocks opposite here, the head of Cedar bluffs, as named by 
Fremont, is three miles west of where we were encamped last 
night. We continued our journey, our route lying near the 
Isanks of the river. This forenoon we crossed a number of 
small streams. We had a little rain this afternoon, accom- 
panied with lightning and distant thunder. This afternoon 
we traveled nine and a half miles, and during the day fifteen 
and three-quarters miles. The feed is not 1 very good here. 

This evening Colonel Markham called the camp together 
to remind them of their duty in regard to traveling and get- 
ting up their teams. After some other instructions the meet- 
ing was dismissed. The wind changed to the north and blew 
up cold and cloudy. 

44 P I O N E E R I N G T PI E W E S T 

Wednesday, May 19th. This morning was cloudy and it 
rained considerable last night. About 10 o'clock 1 got up to 
put the harness under the wagons, H. C. Kimball 's saddle and 
other things which would get damaged by rain, when I discov- 
ered Brother Jackson Redding, who was captain of the guard, 
g*oing around with some of his men picking up the harness 
and other things and putting them under cover. Captain 
Redding is a faithful, praiseworthy man, and a man who works 
for the good of the camp. 

As the feed is not good here it was thought best to move 
on a few miles before breakfast and find better feed. We 
started out about 5:05 and crossed two small streams, travel- 
ing three and three-quarters miles and stopped to eat break- 
fast. Some of the teams are a quarter of a mile ahead of the 
main body of the camp. H. C. Kimball and Brother Woolsey 
went ahead to hunt a place where the feed was good. As they 
neared the bluffs they discovered that the feed was not so 
good, and Brother Kimball sent Brother Woolsey back to tell 
the brethren to stop, while he went on to look out the road 
through the bluffs. He returned just before \ve started. After 
traveling about ten miles alone, he saw a number of wolves, 
some of them being very large. He tried to scare them, but 
they would not move out of their tracks, and he had no fire- 
arms with him. If he had .been afoot I presume they would 
have attacked him. Brother Kimball has rode so much ahead 
to look out the way for the carnp he has almost broke himself 
down and is pretty near sick, but his ambition and the care 
he has for the camp keeps him up. 

At 8 :40 we again started, came about three miles and began 
to ascend the bluffs, which are very steep and sandy. Just 
before we came to the bluffs we crossed a stream about twenty 
feet wide. We traveled a winding course of about three-quar- 
ters of a mile through the bluffs, came 200 yards from the 
west side and crossed another small stream. It has rained 
heavy all the time since we started after breakfast. About 
10:30 the camp halted, having traveled six miles. About 2:30 
the weather looked a little more favorable, and we started at 
2:55. Soon after we started it commenced raining again very 
heavy. We traveled two miles and encamped for the nio-ht 
on the banks of the river, having come eight miles today. The 
small stream that we crossed west of the bluffs we named Wolf 
creek. The evening was cold and cloudy, but it cleared off 
about 6 o'clock. 

Thursday, May 20th. The morning W ;is cloudy with light 
winds from the northwest and cold. We starte 1 about 7:45, 

P I O X K K K I X ( I T H E W E 8 T 45 

and soon after passed Brother Clayton's wagon. He and 
Brother Harmon were repairing: the roadometer, which had 
suffered by the rain and broke one of the teeth out of the 
small wheel. Three-fourths of a mile from where we started 
we crossed a stream eight feet wide and two and a half feet 
deep. About 11:1") we halted to feed, having traveled seven 
and three-quarter^ miles, tin latter part of the road being very 
good. The bluffs on the south side of the river project near 
to its banks. They appear rocky, and several beautiful groves 
of cedar are growing on them. Brothers O. Pratt, L. Johnson, 
A. Lyman and J. Brown went across the river in the boat and 
discovered we were opposite Ash Hollow, where the Oregon 
road crosses to the North fork of the Platte. Brother Brown 
found the grave W!I<M<> he helped to bury an emigrant last sum- 
mer when he was going west. The boat returned and we again 
moved onward. Some of the brethren killed a large rattle- 
snake. This afternoon about three and a half miles from where 
we stopped for noon we crossed a stream six or eight rods wide 
and two and a half feet deep, the bottom being quicksand and 
the current swift. At 5 :30 we encamped, having come eight 
miles, which makes fifteen and three-quarters miles during the 
day. The road has been very good this afternoon, and the feed 
is pretty good. We had a light shower this afternoon, but the 
evening is pleasant. 

Friday, May 21st. The morning was very calm and pleas- 
ant, but tolerably cool. At 7:3.") we proceeded on our journey. 
Brother Clayton put up a guide board this morning with the 
following inscription on it: "From Winter Quarters, 409 miles; 
from the junction of the North and South forks of the Platte, 
93*4 miles; Cedar Bluffs on east side of the river, and Ash 
Hollow 8 miles ; Camp of Pioneers, May 21st, 1847. Accord- 
ing to Fremont, this place is 132 miles from Laramie. N. B. 
The bluffs on the opposite side are named Castle Bluffs." 

We found the prairie very wet and many ponds of water 
standing, which must have been caused by the heavy falls of 
rain. At 11:15 we stopped for dinner, having traveled seven 
and three-quarters miles in a north-northwest course, it being 
warm and calm. 

President Younir and Kimball rode ahead to pick out the 
road. Near this place they saw a not <>t \vi.lves. Thev killed 
two of them and three others escaped to their holes. Brother 
Kimball oauirlit one of them by the tail and killed him. At 
1:30 we proceeded on our journey, and found the prairie very 
wei and high grass of last year's .growth. Brother Clayton saw 
a very large rattlesnake. At 5 o'clock Brother Kimball stopped 


the forward teams to let the rear teams get up, saying that he 
saw Indians come down from the bluffs. When the last wagons 
got up we traveled on a quarter of a mile and encamped in a 
circle, the wagons close together. We have come seven and 
three-quarters miles this afternoon, which makes fifteen and a 
half miles during the day. 

While we were forming- our camp an Indian and his squaw 
came near the camp. They were Sioux. They made signs that 
there was a party of them on the bluff north of us, not far 
distant. President Young ordered them not to bring them into 
the camp. The Indian was well dressed. Their horses appear 
to b work horses, which I presume they had stolen from some 
travelers. The day has been quite warm and some of our teams 
lagged a little. Brother Gushing drove my team this afternoon, 
while I rode in Brother King's wagon and drove some for him. 
The feed is not so good here, there being considerable old grass. 
This evening is very pleasant. The latitude at noon was 41 
degrees 24 minutes 5 seconds. 

Saturday, May 22d. This morning is calm and pleasant; 
all is peace and quietness in camp. At 8 o'clock we started on 
our journey, and having to bend to the banks of the river made 
our road much more crooked than usual. The prairie was soft 
and uneven. We traveled about five and a half miles and 
crossed a very slow stream about twenty feet wide. The bluffs 
are about a mile from the river, and on the south side about 
two miles. At 11 :30 we stopped to feed, having come about seven 
and a quarter miles, the latter part of the road being much 
better. Our course was west-northwest, and a light breeze from 
the east was blowing. Brother Kimball and others go ahead as 
usual to look out the road. The stream last crossed was named 
Crab creek, as some of the brethren had seen a very large crab 
in it. 

While we were stopped Brother Clayton went up on the 
bluffs, which were very high and romantic in their appearance. 
He said he could gee Chimney Rock with the naked eye very 
plain. He judged it to be about twenty miles distant. We 
started again at 1 :30 p. m. and crossed a number of dry creeks 
today from one rod wide to six, all appearing to have been very 
rapid streams some seasons of the year. We found the prairie 
so much broken between the bluffs and the river that it was 
impassable with wagons. We traveled a winding course be- 
tween the bluffs of about two and a quarter miles, and again 
emerged on the bottoms. Between 4 and 5 o'clock this after- 
noon the clouds gathered very black from the west, streaks of 
lightning can be seen and the distant rumbling of thunder can 

* Reading matter on page 48 belongs on page 47 

PI O X ]: E K 1 X ( r Til K W K S T 47 

northwest, thick black clouds gathered all around us, and about 
7 o'clock rain began to pour down, accompanied with thunder 
and lightning > n d hail for a short time. We feared for some 
time that our waimn to) s should blow off. The rain ceased 
about 10 p. m. and the wind continued to blow nearly all night. 
We found all things safe in the morning, not sustaining any 
damage whatever. 

Monday, May 24th. The morning was very col. 1 ., the wind 
continuing northwest. At 8:3.") a. m. we started ard traveled 
over a level prairie somewhat sandy. At 1M:4~> N e stopped to 
feed, having come ton miles. About noon the weather moder- 
ated a little. Two Iruians came across the bin its to our camp 
on foot. They made signs that we should give them something 
to eat and they would go away. Some of the brethren gave 
them some bread. They started up the river a little way and 
crossed over. At 3 p. m. we proceeded on our journey and 
traveled until 6 o'clock, six and a half miles. This afternoon 
several of the horse teams gave out. Just before we stopped, 
a party of Indians was discovered on the opposite side of the 
river. After we camped, which was a quarter of a mile from 
the river, we discovered the Indians had a flag flying, which 
is their mode of finding out whether they would be admitted 
in the camp or not. President Young sent a man up the river 
with a white flau 1 , when they all crossed the river on their 
ponies, some of them singing. Thev were thirtv-five in num- 
ber. Some of them were women. They were all well dressed 
and behaved themselves better than any Indians I have ever 
seen before. Four of their chiefs came down to the camp. 
Colonels Markham and Sherwood showed them around the camp. 
They took some provisions to those who were encamped up 
the river, and gave the chiefs their supper at the camp. The 
brethren put up a tent for the head chief and his squaw to 
sleep in. The evening was pleasant, and we left our horses out 
until 11 o'clock to feed, with a guard to watch them. H. C. 
Kimball's health is very poor and he is unable to ride ahead, 
but is confined to his wagon most of the time. 

Tuesday, May 25th. The morning was fine and pleasant. 
All the Indians, both men and women, came into camp this 
morning. Some of the brethren traded horses with them and 
bought moccasins from them. At 8:20 we proceeded on our 
journey. Soon after we started the Indians left us. Thev ap- 
peared, to be well satisfied. They crossed the river and went 
in the direction thev came from. After traveling one mile we 
ascended a sandy ridge, traveled about three-quarters of a mile 
over very deep sand and came on the bottoms again. We came 


be heard. It has the appearance of a tremendous storm. About 
5 p. m. the Avind blew up strong from the northwest and the 
storm passed to the northeast of us. At 5:45 we encamped in 
a circle within a quarter of a mile of the river, having come 
eight and a quarter miles this afternoon, which make-s fifteen 
and a half during the day. I saw a very large rattlesnake this 

Wood is very scarce. We find a few sticks along the bank 
of the river, which has been drifted there by high water. We 
have not seen any buffalo for a number of days, and very little 
game of any kind. Some of the brethren brought a young eagle 
into camp, which they took out of its nest on the top of one of 
the high bluffs. It measured forty-six inches from tip to tip 
of its wings when stretched out. The bluffs and peaks have a 
very remarkable appearance, the tops being like the ruins of 
some ancient city with its castles, towers and fortifications. I 
had no time to examine them. Brother Clayton has given a 
full description of them, which is very interesting. This even- 
ing is very pleasant and all is peace and harmony. The feed is 
not very good. The inside of our circle i-3 a solid bed of sand, 
and there were four rattlesnakes killed in the camp. 

Sunday, May 23d. This morning is very fine and pleasant. 
I went down to the river before sunrise and made a fire and 
washed some clothes. President Young, Kimball and others 
walked up to the bluffs to view them, and returned about 11:30. 
Brother Clayton saw an adder about eighteen inches long. 
Brother Nathaniel Fairbanks came into camp, having been bit 
on the leg with a rattlesnake. He had been up on the bluffs, 
and he said he felt the effects of it all o\er his body. Three 
minutes after he was bit he felt a pricking in his lungs. They 
gave him a dose of Lobelia and some alcohol and water. He 
is suffering much from pain. 

Brother 0. Pratt said the highest bluff was 235 feet above 
the surface of the river. At 12 o'clock the horses were all tied 
up and the brethren called together for meeting. After sink- 
ing and prayer. Brother E. Snow made some remarks, followed 
by President Young. We had a first-rate meeting. Brother 
Y 7 oung gave us some glorious instructions, which done my soul 
good. He said he was perfectly well satisfied with the con- 
duct of the camp and the spirit which thev manifested toward 
him and toward one another and all things were going right. 
Brother George A. Smith and others made some remarks. 
Brother Young 'notified the four Bishons present to prepare 
to administer the sacrament on next Sunday at 11 o'clock. 
Soon after the meeting the wind blew up very cold from the 

P I O X K K R I X (J T H K W K S T 


two and a half miles and stoppe 1 to feed at 1 1 :!.'. several small 
ponds of water being: there. We continued our journey at 1:30 

p. m., havirur come four and three-<|ii:u-ter< miles over a low, 
soft prairie bottom. By the appearance of it there must have 


been very heavy rains ahead of us. The traveling was very 
heavy for our teams, but at 3 p. m. we started on again and 
traveled until 5:45, having come four and three-quarters miles, 
and twelve miles during the day. We encamped about two 
miles from the river. The brethren dug a number of wells and 
found very good water. Our camp ground is very low and wet, 
which makes it very disagreeable. The evening was very pleas- 
ant and the brethren were in good spirits. 

Wednesday, May 26th. This morning was calm and pleas- 
ant, and at 8 a. m. we proceeded on our journey. After travel- 
ing between four and five miles we came to a point directly 
opposite Chimney Rock. We had traveled forty-one and a half 
miles since it was first seen with the naked eye. At 12 o'clock 
we stopped to feed, having come seven and a quarter miles in a 
north-northwest course. This forenoon the roads were good. 
Brother Kimball rode ahead to look out the way. The hunters 
brought in four antelope to camp today. 

Brother Pratt ascertained Chimney Rock to be 260 feet 
high. It is in about latitude 41 degrees 42 minutes 58 seconds. 
At 2 :25 we again started and traveled near the river. We came 
five miles and encamped on the bank of the river about 5 p. m., 
having come twelve and a quarter miles during the day. The 
feed is better than we have had for a number of days, but wood 
was very scarce. Soon after we encamped, a heavy black cloud 
arose in the west, which had the appearance of a heavy storm 
The wind blew up very strong from the northwest, accompanied 
with a few drops of rain. About 6 o'clock it cleared off and 
we had a beautiful evening. Some of the brethren were mov- 
ing Brother George Billings' wagon and run the wheel over the 
young eagle and killed it. Brother Billings discovered that the 
end of an axeltree w T as broke, and Brother Harper went to work 
on it. 

Thursday, May 27th. This morning was very fine and the 
scenery was beautiful. The bluffs north of us are about three 
miles from the river, the prairie is level and the feed very good. 
At 7:50 a. m. we proceeded on OUT journey along the bank of 
the river and stopped to feed at 11:45, having come eight miles. 
0. P. Rockwell killed two antelope and brought them into camp 
and they were divided. There are some heavy thunder clo'uds 
in the south and west. At 2 p. m. we again" moved westward, 
the prairie being level and the road very good. We passed 
Scott's bluffs, which is nineteen and three-quarters miles from 
Chimney Rock, between 3 and 4 o'clock. At 4:45 we encamped 
a short distance from the river, having come five and three- 
quarters miles, which makes thirteen and three-quarters miles 



during the day. Brother Pratt measured the North fork of the 
Platte river with his sextant and found it to be 792 yards wide. 
The north peak of Scott's bluffs is in latitude 41 degrees 50 
minutes 52 seconds. 

Buffalo Hunt Near Scott's Bluffs. 

Friday, May 28th. The morning was cool and damp, cloudy 
weather, and some rain with wind northeast. At 8 a. m. the 
brethren were called together and the question proposed, whether 
we should go on or wait for fair weather. All agreed to wait 
for fair weather. About 11 o'clock it cleared off, and we gath- 
ered up our teams and started. 

Before we started Brother Luke Johnson and myself went 
up the river about three miles with the cutter in search of wood. 
We came to a beautiful clear stream of water about eight feet 
wide, and saw large numbers of small fish in it. It is not VIMV 
deep, has a gravel bottom and the water tastes very good. It 
is about three miles long, rises from springs and runs in a line 
with the river for some distance, then takes a turn to the south 
and empties into the river. 

Part of the road today was sandy. At 4:45 we encamped 
near the river, having come eleven and a half miles. The feed 
is not so good here, but driftwood is tolerably plenty. The even- 
ing was cold and the weather dull and cloudy, with wind north- 
east. 0. P. Rockwell and Thomas Brown went out hunting north 
of the bluff. The latter saw five or six Indians and the signs 
of a large company. 

Saturday, May 29th. This morning was cold, wet and 
cloudy, with wind northeast, but about 10 a. m. it cleared off. 
At 10 :30 the bugle sounded to get up our teams. After we got 
all ready to start there was notice given for the brethren to 
come together to the boat in the center of the ring. President 
Young, taking his station in the boat, ordered the Captains of 


Tens to call out their respective companies and see if all their 
men were present. He then ordered the clerk to call all the 
names to see if they were all present. Joseph Hancock and 
Andrew Gibbons were reported to be absent hunting. President 
Young- arose and addressed the meeting as follows: (Reported 
by Brother Wm. Clayton, who has kindly permitted me to copy 
it from the journal.) 

Pioneer Sermon by President Young. 

"I remarked last Sunday that I had not felt much like 
preaching to the brethren on this mission. This morning I feel 

Brigliam Young Before Pioneer Days. 

like preaching a little, and shall take for my text, that ; As to 
pursuing our journey with the company, with the spirit they 
possess, I am about to revolt against it.' This is the text I 
feel like preaching on this morning, consequently I am in no 
hurry. In the first place, before we left Winter Quarters it 
was told the brethren, and many knew it by experience, that 
we had to leave our homes, our houses and lands, our all, be- 
cause we believed in the Gospel as revealed to the Saints in 
these last days. The rise of the persecution against the Church 
was in consequence of the doctrine of Eternal Truth taught by 


Joseph. Many knew this by experience. Some lost their hus- 
bands, some lost their wives, and some their children through 
persecution. And yet we have not been disposed to forsake 
the Truth and mingle with the Gentiles, except a few, who have 
turned aside and gone away from us. And \ve have learned in 
a measure the difference between a professor of religion and 
a possessor of religion, before we left Winter Quarters. 

"It was told the brethren that we were going to look out 
a home for the Saints, where they could be free from persecu- 
tion by the Gentiles, where we could dwell in peace and serve 
God according to the Holy Priesthood, where we could build up 
the Kingdom so that the nations would begin to flock to our 
standard. I have said many things to the brethren about the 
strictness of their walk and conduct, when we left the Gentiles ; 
and told them we would have to walk uprightly or the law would 
be put in force, and many have turned aside through fear. 

"The Gospel does riot bind a good man down, and deprive 
him of his rights and privileges; it does not deprive him of en- 
joying the fruits of his labors ; it does not rob him of blessings ; 
it does not stop his increase; it does not diminish his kingdom; 
but is calculated to enlarge his kingdom as well as to enlarge 
his heart; it is calculated to give to him privileges, and power, 
and honor, and exaltation, and everything which heart can de- 
sire in righteousness all the days of his life. And then, when 
he gets exalted in the eternal worlds, he can still turn around 
and say: 'It hath not entered into the heart of man to con- 
ceive the <?lory, and honor, and blessings, which God hath in 
store for those who love and serve him.' 

"T % want the brethren to understand and comprehend the 
principles of Eternal Life, and watch the Spirit, be wide awake, 
and not be overcome by the adversary. You can see the fruits 
of the Spirit, but you cannot see the Spirit itself. With the 
natural eye you behold it not. You can see the result of yield- 
ing to the evil spirits and what it will lead you to, but you do 
not see the spirit itself, nor its operations only by the spirit 
that i* in you. 

"Nobody has told me what was going on in this camp, but 
I have known it all the while. I have been watching its move- 
ments, its influence, its effects; and I know the result of it. if 
it is not put a stop to. T want you to understand tliat, inasmuch 
as we are beyond the power of the Gentiles, where the devils 
have tabernacles in the priests and all the people; but we are 
beyond their reach, we are beyond their power, we are bevond 
their grasp: and, what has the Devil now to work upon? Upon 
the spirits of the men in this camp. And if you don't open your 


hearts so that the Spirit of God can enter your hearts and teach 
you the right way, I know that you are a ruined people, I know 
that you will be destroyed and that without remedy. And, un- 
less there is a change and a different course of conduct, a dif- 
ferent spirit to that which there is now in this camp, I go no 
further. I am in no hurry. 

"Give me the man of prayer; give me the man of faith; 
give me the man of discretion; a sober-minded man, and I 
would rather go among the savages with six or eight such men, 
than to trust myself with the Avhole of this camp with the spirit 
they now possess. Here is an .opportunity for every man to 
prove himself, to know whether he will pray, and remember his 
God, without being asked to do it every day. To know whether 
they will have confidence enough to ask of God that they may 
receive, without my telling them to do it. If this camp was 
composed of men who had newly received the Gospel; men who 
had .not received Priesthood ; men who had not been through 
the ordinances in the Temple; and who had not had years of 
experience, enough to have learned the influence of the spirits, 
and the difference between a good and an evil spirit, I should 
feel like preaching to them and watching over them and teach- 
ing them all the time, day by day. But here are the Elders of 
Israel, men who have had years of experience, men who have 
had the Priesthood for years; and have they got faith enough 
to rise up and stop a mean, low, groveling, contentious, quarrel- 
some spirit? No. They have not, nor would they try to do it, 
unless I rise up in the power of God and put it down . I don't 
mean to bow down to the spirit there is in this camp, and which 
is rankling in the bosoms of the brethren, which shall lead to 
knockdown, and perhaps to use the knife to cut each other's 
throats, if it is not put a stop to. I don't mean to bow down 
to the spirit which causes the brethren to quarrel and when 
I wake up in the morning, the first thing I hear is some of the 
brethren .jawing each other and quarreling because a horse has 
got loose in the night. 

"I have let the brethren dance and fiddle and act the 
nigger, night after night, to see what they would do, and what 
extremes they would go to, if suffered to go as far as they 
would; but I don't love to see it. The brethren say they want 
a little exercise to pass the time evenings; but if you can't 
tire yourselves enough with a day's journev, without dancing 
every night, carry your guns on your shoulders and walk, and 
carry your wood to camp, instead of lounging and sleeping in 
your wagons, increasing the loads until your teams are tired 
to death and ready to drop to the earth. Help your teams 


over mudholes and bad places, instead of lounging in your 
wagons, and that will give you exercise enough without dancing. 

"Well, they \vill play cards; they will play checkers; they 
will play dominoes; and, if they had the privileges, and were 
where they could get whisky, they would be drunk half of their 
time, and in one week they would quarrel, get to high words, 
and draw their knives to kill each other. That is what such a 
course of things would tend to. Don 't you know it 1 Yes. Well, 
then, why don't you try to put it down? I have played cards 
once in my life, since I. became a i Mormon/ to see what kind 
of a spirit would attend it, and I was so well satisfied that I 
would rather see the dirtiest thing in your hands that you could 
find on the earth, than to see a pack of cards in your hands. 
You never read of gambling, playing cards, checkers, dominoes, 
etc., in the Scriptures. But you do hear of men praising the 
Lord in the dance, but who ever heard of praising the Lord in 
a game of cards? If any man had sense enough to play a 
game of cards, or dance a little, without wanting to keep it up 
all the time; but exercise a little and then quit it, and think 
no more of it, it would be well enough. But you want to keep 
it up till midnight, and every night, and all the time. You 
don't know how to control yourselves. 

"Last winter when we had our season of recreation in 
the Council House, I went forth in the dance frequently; but 
did my mind run on it? No. To be sure, when I was dancing 
my mind was on the dance, but the moment I stopped in the 
middle or the end of a time, my mind was engaged in prayer 
and praise to my Heavenly Father; and whatever I engage in, 
my mind is on it while engaged in it, but the moment 1 am 
done with it, my mind is drawn up to my God. 

"The devils which inhabit the Gentile priests are here. 
Their tabernacles are not here. We are out of their power. 
We are beyond their grasp. We are beyond the reach of their 
persecutions. But the devils are here and the first we shall 
know, if you don't open your eyes and your hearts, they will 
cause division in our camp, and perhaps war, as they did the 
former Saints, as you read in the 'Book of Mormon.' 

"We suppose that we are going to look out a home for 
the Saints, a resting place, a place of peace, where we can build 
up the Kingdom and bid the nations welcome, without a low, 
mean, dirty, trifling, covetous, wicked spirit dwelling in our 
bosoms. It is vain, vain! 

"Some of you are very fond of passing jokes, and will 
carry your joke very far, but will you take a joke? If you 
don't want to take a joke, don't give a joke to your brethren. 


Joking nonsense, profane language, don't belong to us. Sup- 
pose the Angels were witnessing- the hoedown the other even- 
ing, and listening to the haw-haws, would they not be ashamed 
of it? I have not given a joke to any man on the journey, 
nor felt like it. Neither have I insulted any man's feelings, 
but I have bellowed pretty loud, and spoke sharp to the breth- 
ren, when I have seen their awkwardness at coming into camp. 

"The revelations in the Bible, in the 'Book of Mormon,' 
and Doctrine and Covenants teaches us to be sober. And let 
me ask you Elders that have been through the ordinances in 
the Temple, what were your covenants there 1 ? I want that you 
should remember them. When I laugh I see my folly and 
nothingness, and weakness, and am ashamed of myself. I think 
meaner and worse of myself than any can think of me. But 
I delight in God, and in His commandments, and delight to 
meditate on Him, and to serve Him; and I mean that every- 
thing in me shall be subject to Him, and I delight in serving 

"Now let every man repent of his weakness, of his follies, 
of his meanness, and every kind of wickedness and stop your 
swearing, and your profane language for it is in this camp. 
I know it and have known it. I have said nothing about it; 
but T tell you, if you don't stop it. you shall be cursed by the 
Almighty, anil shall dwindle away and be damned. Such things 
shall not be suffered in this camp. You shall honor God and 
confess His name, or else you shall suffer the penalty. 

"Most of this camp belong to the Church, nearly all, and 
I would say to you brethren, ancl to the Elders of Israel, if you 
are faithful you will yet be sent to preach the Gospel to the 
nations of the earth, and bid all welcome, whether they believe 
in the Gospel or not. And this Kingdom will reign over many 
who do not belong to the Church; over thousands who do not 
believe in the Gospel. By and by every knee shall bow, and 
every tongue confess, and acknowledge, and reverence, and 
honor the name of God and His Priesthood, and observe the 
laws of the Kingdom, whether they belong to the Church and 
obey the Gospel, or riot. And I mean that every man in this 
camp shall do it. This is what the Scriptures mean by 'Every 
knee shall bow,' etc., and you cannot make anything else out 
of it. 

I understand that there are several in this camp, who do not 
belong to the Church. I am a man who will stand up for them, 
and protect them in all their rights; and thev shall not trample 
on the rights of others, nor on the Priesthood. They reverence 
and acknowledge the name of God, and His Priesthood, and, if 


they set up their heads and seek to introduce iniquity into this 
camp, and to trample on the Priesthood, I swear to them they 
p.-hall never go back to tell the tale. I will leave them where they 
will be safe. If they want to return they can now have the 
privilege; and any man, who chooses to go back, rather than 
abide the laws of God, can now have the privilege of doing so 
before \\e go further. 

"Here are the Elders of Israel who have got the Priesthood, 
who have to preach the Gospel, who have to gather the nations 
of the earth, who have to build up the Kingdom so that the na- 
tions can come to it. They will stoop to dance like nigers. I 
don't mean this as debasing the nigers by any means. They 
will hoedown, all turn summersets, dance on their knees, and 
haw-haw out loud. They will play cards, and they will play 
checkers and dominoes. They will use profane language. They 
will swear. 

"Suppose when you go to preach, the people ask you what 
you did, when you went up on this mission to seek out a location 
for the whole Church? What was your course of conduct'? Did 
you dance ? Yes. Did you play cards ? Yes. Did you play check- 
ers T Yes. Did you use profane language ? Yes. Did you swear ? 
Yes. Did you gamble with each other and threaten each other? 
Yes. How would you feel ? What would you say for yourselves ? 
Would you not want to go and hide up? Your mouth would be 
stopped, and you would want to creep away in disgrace. 

"I am one of the last to ask my brethren to enter into a 
solemn covenant, but, if they wall not enter into a solemn coven- 
ant to put away their iniquity, and turn to the Lord, and serve 
Him, and asknowledge and honor His name. I want them to take 
their wagons and return back, FOR I SHALL NOT GO ANY 
FARTHER under this state of things. If we don't repent an* 
quit our wickedness, we w T ill have more hinderanees than we have 
had and worse storms to encounter. I want the brethren to be 
ready for meeting tomorrow at the appointed time, instead of 
rambling off and hiding in their wagons to play cards, etc. I 
think it will be good for us to have a fast meeting tomorrow, and 
a prayer meeting, and humble ourselves and turn to the Lord, and 
He will forgive us. ' ' 

He then called upon all the His p h Priests to step out in a line 
in front of the wagon; and then the Bishops to step out in front 
of the High Priests. He then counted them and ascertained their 
numbers to be four Bishops and fifteen High Priests. He jthen 
called for all the Seventies to form a line in the rear. There' was 
scventy-eisrht in number. The Elders were then called out in line. 
Their number was eight. There was also eight of the Twelve. 


He then asked the brethren of the Twelve, if they were will- 
ing to covenant to turn to the Lord with all their hearts, to re- 
pent of all their follies, to cease from all their evils, and serve 
God according to His laws ? If they were willing, to manifest it 
by holding up their right hands. Every man raised his hand. He 
then put the question to the High Priests, and Bishops, to the 
Seventies and Elders, and last to the other brethren. All 
covenanted with uplifted hands, without a dissenting voice. 
He then addressed those who were not members of the Church 
and told them they should be protected in their rights and 
privileges, while they would conduct themselves well and not 
seek to trample on the Priesthood, nor blaspheme the name of 
God, etc. 

He then referred to the conduct of Benjamin Rolfe's two 
younger brothers in joining with the Higby's and John C. 
Bennett in sowing discontent and strife among the Saints in 
Nauvoo. and remarked that, " There will be no more Bennett 
scrapes suffered here. He spoke highly of Benjamin Rolfe's 
conduct, although not a member of the Church, and also re- 
ferred to the esteem in which his father and mother were held 
by the Saints generally. He then very tenderly blessed the 
brethren and prayed that God would enable them to fulfill 
their covenants, and withdrew to give a chance to others to 
speak, if they felt like it. 

Brother Heber C. Kimball arose and said: that he agreed 
to all that President Young had said. He received it as the 
word of God to himself, and it was the word of the Lord to 
iihis camp, if they would receive it. He had been watching 
the motions of things and the conduct of the brethren for some 
time, and had seen what it would lead to. He had said little 
but had thought a good deal. It had made him shudder, when 
he had seen the Elders of Israel descend to the lowest and 
dirtiest things imaginable the last end of everything. But 
what had passed this morning would be an everlasting bless- 
ing to the brethren, if they would repent and be faithful and 
keep their covenants. He could never rest satisfied until his 
family were liberated from the Gentiles and their corruptions, 
and established in a land where they could plant and eat the 
fruit of their labors. He had never had the privilege of eat- 
ing the fruits of his labors yet, neither had his family, but 
when this was done he could sleep in peace, but not until then. 

He said: "If we will serve the Lord and remember His 
name to call upon Him, we shall not one of us be left under 
the sod, but shall be permitted to return and meet our fam- 
ilies in peace, and enjoy their society again. But, if this camp 


continues the course of conduct they have done, the judg- 
ment of God will overtake us. I hope the brethren will take 
heed to what President Young has said, and let it sink deep 
into their hearts." 

Brother Kimball made some very feeling remarks, with 
some instructions, that have not been written. He blessed 
the brethren in the name of the Lord, and he appeared to be 
very much affected and very humble. 

Elder Orson Pratt wanted to add a word to what had been 
said. "Much good advice has been given to teach us how 
we may spend our time profitably by prayer, meditation, etc. 
but there is another idea which I want to add : There are 
many good books in the camp and worlds of knowledge before 
ns, which we have not attained, and, if the brethren would de- 
vote all their leisure time to seeking after knowledge, they 
would never need to say, they had nothing to pass away their 
time. If we could spend twenty-three hours of the twenty- 
four in gaining knowledge, and only sleep one hour, all the 
days of our lives, there would be worlds of knowledge in store 
yet for us to learn. 

"I know it is difficult to bring our minds to dilligent and 
constant studv, in pursuit of knowledge all at once, but by 
steady practice and perseverance we shall become habitual to 
it, and it will become a pleasure to us. I would recommend to 
the brethren, besides prayer and obedience, to seek after 
knowledge continually, and it will help us to overcome our 
follies and nonsense. We shall have no time for it." 

Elder Woodruff said: "He remembered the time Zion's 
camp went up to Missouri to redeem Zion, when Brother Jo- 
seph Smith sfood upon a wagon wheel and told the brethren- 
that the decree had passed and could not be revoked; that: 
the destroying angel would visit the camp; and the brethren 
began to feel what Brother Joseph had said. We buried 
eighteen in a very short time, and a more sorrowful time I 
never saw before. There are nine men here that were in that 
camp, and they all recollect the circumstances well, and will 
never forget it. I was thinking while the President was 
speaking; that, if I was one who had played cards or checkers, 
I would take every pack of cards, and checker board and burn 
them up, so that they would not be in the way to tempt us." 

Colonel Markham acknowledged that he had done wrong, 
in many things. He had always indulged himself before he 
came into the Church, with everything he desired and be 
knew he had done wrong on this journey. He knew his mind 
had become darkened since he left Winter Quarters. He hoped 


the brethren would forgive him, and he would pray to God to 
forgive him, and he would try to do better. While he was 
speaking, he was very much affected indeed, and wept like a 

Many of the brethren were very much affected, and all 
seemed to realize for the first time, the spirit to which they 
had yielded, and the awful consequences of such things, if per- 
sisted in. Many were in tears and felt humble. President 
Young returned to the boat as Brother Markham closed his re- 
marks, and said in reply: 

"That he knew that the brethren would forgive him, and 
the Lord will forgive us all, if we turn to Him with all our 
hearts and cease to do evil. The meeting was then dismissed, 
each man returned to his wagon. 

At 1 :30 p. m. we again pursued our journey in peace, all 
reflecting on what had been said today, and many expressing 
their gratitude for the instructions they had received. It 
seemed as if we were just starting on this important mission, 
and all began to realize the responsibility resting upon us, to 
conduct ourselves in such a manner, that this mission may 
prove an everlasting blessing to us, instead of an everlasting 
disgrace. No loud laughter was heard, nor swearing, no pro- 
fane language, no hard speeches to man or beast ; and it 
seemed as if the cloud had broke and we had emerged into a 
new element, and a new atmosphere, and a new socity. 

We traveled six miles about a north-northwest course, and 
then arrived at the foot of the low bluffs, which extended 
within ten rods of the river, the latter forming a large bend, 
northward at this point. At the foot of the bluffs the road 
was sandy and very heavy en our teams. Like all other sandy 
places, it is entirely barren, there being only a tuft of grass 
here and there. After passing over the sand, we changed our 
course to a little north of west, not, however, leaving the 
bluffs very far. The river tends again to the south, where we 
then found the ground hard and good to travel over, but per- 
fectly bare of grass for about a mile. 

At 5 o'clock it commenced raining very hard, accompan- 
ied with lightning and thunder and a strong northeast wind. 
It also changed to considerable colder again. At 5:30 we 
found our encampment, near the highest bench of the prairie. 
The feed is not very good on the bottoms/ and here there is 
none at all. We have passed a, small grove of tolerable sized 
trees, all green, growing on an island in the river. There is 
no timber on this side of the river. We picked up driftwood 
^enough to" do our cooking. The distance we have traveled to- 


day is eight and one-half miles, and during the week seventy- 
four and one-half miles, making us 514V 2 miles from Winter 
Quarters. There is a creek of clear water about 200 yards to 
the south of us from which we obtain our water. 

Sunday, May 30th. The morning was fair and pleasant, 
and about 9 a. m. the brethren met together a little south of 
the camp, and had a prayer meeting. Many of the brethren 
expressed their feelings warmly, and confessed their faults 
one to another. Between 11 and 12 o'clock the meeting was 
dismissed, and the brethren gathered up their horses and tied 
them, and met again about 12 o'clock, and partook of the Sac- 
rament. The Twelve with some others went north of the 
bluffs and had a meeting. All conducted themselves peaceably 
and quiet today. They seem to have profited by the instruc- 
tions we got on Saturday. We had some rain this afternoon, 
but the evening is pleasant. 

Monday, May 31st. This morning was cool but pleasant, 
and at 8:15 we proceeded on our journey over a good hard 
road. At 12:30 we stopped to feed, having come nine and one- 
half miles. At 3 p. m. we again started, coming seven and 
one-quarter miles and stopped at 6:45 and encamped near a 
stream about a rod wide, the feed being very poor. We came 
sixteen and three-quarters miles today: This afternoon we 
passed some timber on this side of the river, the first we had 
seen since the 10th inst. (being a distance of 215 miles), ex- 
cept a little driftwood the brethren have picked up. The road 
has been very sandy. Some of the brethren killed a deer this 
afternoon, and wounded two others. Last Sunday President 
Young and Kim ball saw the Black Hills. The camp are all 
well and in good spirits. 



Tuesday, June 1st, 1847. The morning was very fine r 
warm and pleasant, and at 9 o'clock we proceeded on our 
journey. At 11:30 we halted to. feed, having come about four 
and one-half miles. At 1:30 we started on again and contin- 
ued until 4:15, and came in sight of Fort Laramie, about four 
miles southwest of us. At 5:45 the wagons formed an en- 
campment in the form of a V, having traveled seven and one- 
half miles. 

Six wagons, which are a part of the Mississippi Company, 
that wintered at Pueblo, are here. They have been here two 
weeks, and they report that the remainder of their company 
were coming on with a detachment of the '" Mormon Battalion," 
who expected to be paid off and start for this point about the 
first of June. Two of the brethren came across the river to 
see us, and they report that nothing has been heard from the 
main body of the Battalion and that there has been three or 
four deaths at Pueblo. They said that three traders from the 
mountains arrived here six days ago, having come from the 
Sweet Water in six days and nights, traveling day and night 
with horses and mules to prevent them from starving to 
death. Two of their oxen ' had died for want of feed. The 
snow was two feet deep at the Sweet Water. It is evident 
that we are early enough for the feed. 

I make the distance from Winter Quarters to Laramie 
541^4 miles, which is two -miles less than Brother Clayton, and 
we have traveled it in seven weeks, lacking half a day, and 
have not- traveled but a few miles on Sundays. We have come 
this far without accidents, except the loss of two horses stolen 
by the Indians, and two killed. The Lord has blessed and 
prospered us on our journey, and the camp enjoys better health 
than they did when they left Winter Quarters. The country 
begins to have a more hilly and mountainous appearance, and 
some of the Black Hills show very plainly from here. The 
timber is mostly ash and cottonwood on the low bottoms on 
the river, but there are some cedar groves on the bluffs. 
There is an Indian baby wrapped around with skins, deposited 
in the branches of a large ash tree, which is in the center of 
our camp. It is said that this is the mode of burying their 


dead. The bark is peeled off of the tree to prevent the 
wolves climbing up. 

Wednesday, June 2nd. The morning was pleasant, and 
about 9 o'clock the Twelve and some others went across the 
river to view the fort, and inquire something concerning our 
route. Brother Pratt measured the distance across the river 
and found it to be 108 yards. The water is deep in the chan- 
nel, and the current runs about three and one-half miles an 
hour. There is an. old fort near the bank of the river on the 
other side, and the outside walls are still standing, but the 
inside is ruins, having been burned. The walls are built of 
Spanish brick, which is large pieces of tempered clay dried in 
the sun, and laid up like brick with mortar. The dimensions 
of this fort, outside, from east to west, is 144 feet, and from 
north to south 103 feet. There is a large door fronting the 
south, which led to the dwellings, fourteen in number when 

Fort Laramie is about two miles from the Platt, situated 
on the bank of a stream, called by the same name, which is 
forty-one yards wide with a very swift current, but not very, 
deep. The brethren, who went to the fort, were informed that 
we could not travel more than four miles further on the north 
side of the Platte, the bluffs being impassable with wagons; 
also that the first year corn was planted there it done very 
well, but none could be raised since for want of rain as it had 
not rained for two years there until a few days ago. They, at 
the fort, have a very good flat boat, and will let us have it 
for $15, or ferry us over for $18, or 25c per wagon. The trade 
of this place is principally with the Sioux Indians. The Crow 
Indians came here a few weeks ago and stole twenty-five 
horses, which were within 300 yards of the fort and a guard 
around them. The lattitude of this place is 42 degrees 12 
minutes and 13 seconds. 

When the brethren returned they brought the boat with 
them. Some of the brethren went fishing this afternoon with 
the seine, in the Laramie Fork, and caught sixty or seventy 
small fish. The Twelve have decided that Brother Amasa 
Lyman should go with R. Stevens, John Tippets and T. 
Woolsey to Puebio. 

Thursday, June 3rd. This morning was cold with a strong- 
southeast wind, and the first division commenced crossing their 
wagons early. The wind blowing strong up the river, made it 
easier crossing. They ferried a wagon bver in fifteen minuets. 
The blacksmiths got their forges up, and went to work repair- 
ing wagons and shoeing horses. At 11 :15 the brethren started 


for Pueblo on horseback. President Young, Kimball, Richards 
and Pratt accompanied them to the Lararnie Fork and there 
held a council, kneeled down and dedicated them to the Lord 
and blessed them. At 1 :40 p. m. it commenced raining, ac- 
companied by hail and lightning with very loud thunder, 
which lasted until 3:30. During the storm the horses were 
secured in the old fort, and the ferry ceased running. About 
5 o'clock the first division was over. The boat was then 
manned by the second division, lead by John S. Higby. They 
averaged a wagon across in eleven minutes. 

About 7 o'clock it commenced raining again with wind 
southeast, which stopped the ferrv, leaving three companies 
of about fifteen wagons on the other side. Four men have 
arrived from St. Joseph, Mo., who report that tw y enty wagons 
are three miles below and 600 or 700 were passed on the road. 
They think that there will be about 2000 wagons leave the 
states this season for Oregon and California. The Crow 
Indians stole four of their horses. 

Friday, June 4th. The morning was very fine, and Lara- 
mie Peak shows very plain. The brethren commenced ferrying 
at 4:30, and at 8 o'clock President Young, Kimball and others 
went up to Fort Laramie, returning about 11 o'clock. They 
heard very favorable reports from the traders about Bear 
River valley, being well timbered and plenty of grass, light 
winters arid very little snow; also fish in abundance in the 
streams. About 11:30 Brother Crow's company came and 
joined the second division. 

At 12 o'clock we again started on our journey, following 
the wagon road, and at 1:20 we halted to feed, having come 
three miles. The bluffs are very high and come near the river. 
At 2 :30 we continued our journey and found the road very 
uneven and sandy. About seven and three-quarters miles from 
Laramie we descended a very steep pitch, or hill, and had to 
lock our wheels for the first time for six weeks. At 5:30 
we encamped, having come eight and one-quarter miles during 
the day. About the time we encamped we had a very heavy 
thunder shower. 

I will give the names of Brother Crow's company. They 
are as follows:. .Robert Crow, Elizabeth Crow, Benjamin Crow, 
Harriet Crow, John McHenry Crow. Walter H. Crow, William 
Parker Crow, Isa Venda Exene. Crow, Ira Minda Almerene 
Crow, Geors-e W. Therlkill, Matilda Jane therlkill, James 
William Therlkill, Milton Howard Therlkill, Archibald Little, 
James ChesiieV .and .Lewis B. Myers, seventeen in number, 
making 161 souls in the Pioneer company, deducting the four 


that have gone to Pueblo. J. B. Myers is represented as know- 
ing 1 the country to the mountains, having traveled it before. 
They have five wagons, one cart, eleven horses, twenty-four 
oxen, twenty-two cows, three bulls and seven calves. The num- 
ber of animals in the camp are ninety-six horses, fifty-one 
mules, ninety oxen, forty-three cows, nine calves, three bulis r 
sixteen chickens, sixteen dogs, seventy-nine wagons and one 

Brother Clayton put up a signboard at the ferry: In- 
scription, "Winter Quarters, 56114 miles." Brother 6. Pratt 
took the altitude of Fort Laramie and found it to be 4090 feet 
above the level of the sea. Fremont makes it 4470, a difference 
of 380 feet. The longitude of Fort Laramie is 104 degrees 
11 minutes 53 seconds. 

Saturday, June 5th. The morning was pleasant though 
somewhat cloudy, and the bugle sounded early to start, but 
we were detained until 8:30 on account of several oxen being* 
missing. After traveling a little over four miles we ascended 
a steep bluff, where the road runs on top of it for a short dis- 
tance in a winding direction. The surface in some places is 
very rough, and many places are covered with ledges of rocks, 
which shakes our wagons very much. In descending there is- 
a short turn near the bottom, where Brother Crow's cart turned 
over, though there was no damage done. After winding our 
way around and through sand and over rocks we came to a 
very large spring, the water of which was warm and soft. 

At 11:35 we stopped to feed, the grass being very short. 
We had come six and one-half miles. About a quarter of a 
mile ahead we discovered a company of eleven wagons bound 
westward. They came on to our road from a south direction, 
where the road forks. One runs to Fort John (*Laramie) and 
the other that we came on runs by the old fort. They say the 
road they came on is ten miles to the spring, and the one we 
came on is fourteen and one-quarter miles. While we were 
stopped we had a fine shower. At 1:40 we proceeded on our 
journey. The latitude of the warm spring is 42 degrees 15 min- 
utes 06 seconds. 

After traveling a mile we turned in a narrow pass to the 
northwest between two high bluffs, and after traveling half 
a mile further we came to where the road rises a very high, 
steep bluff, at the foot of which is a short sudden pitch, and 
then a rugged ascent of a quarter of a mile. When we ar- 
rived at the top, we found the road tolerably good, but still 
rises for a quarter of a mile. After traveling: five and one- 
quarter miles we descended the bluff, the road being sandy 


though pretty good. At 6:30 we encamped on the west bank 
of a small stream and near a spring of very good water, having 
come ten and one-half miles. 

Brother Clayton put up a guide board every ten miles. 
The feed is very good here and there is plenty of wood. The 
Oregon company is encamped about a quarter of a mile back. 
Brother Kimball has traveled ahead this afternoon and picked 
out this camp ground, which is the best we have had for a long 
time. About dark it rained, accompanied with thunder and 
lightning. Tomorrow is set apart as last Sunday was for 
prayer and fasting. It is reported that there are three or four 
companies between here and Fort John (*Laramie), which was 
formerly called Laramie. The camp are all well and in good 
spirits and the Lord continues to bless us. 

Sunday, June 6th. This morning is cool and cloudy and 
looks like rain. At 8 a. m. the eleven wagons that camped back 
a little ways passed us again. At 9 o'clock the brethren as- 
sembled for prayer meeting, and we had a very good meeting. 
Brothers E. Snow, Little and. others occupied the time. The 
meeting was dismissed a little before 11 a. m. Three or four 
men came to camp on horseback and reported that their com- 
pany was a short distance back. They had encamped at the 
warm springs last night. 

At 11 :40 the brethren assembled for preaching, when it 
commenced raining very heavy, accompanied with lightning 
and thunder. While it was raining the Oregon company came 
up, and they had nineteen wagons and two carriages. They 
have a guide, who says he shall find Avater six miles ahead 
and no more for fifteen miles. Between 12 and 1 o'clock the 
leather cleared off, and it was thought best to travel six 
Itoiles this afternoon, in order to shorten our day's travel to- 
tnorrow, and at 2:30 we moved forward, crossing the stream 
three-quarters of a mile ahead. Brother Young, Kimbal] and 
Woodruff went ahead to look for a camp ground. We came 
a little over four miles to where the company of seventeen 
wagons were encamped, south of the road, and at 5:30 we en- 
camped, having come five miles. The feed is very good and a 
stream of water is running near the camp and there is wood in 
plenty. The company of eleven wagons are encamped a short 
distance ahead of us, but, notwithstanding, we have much the 
best camping ground. Brother Frost put up his forge and done 
^omfe blacksmithing. There is a strong wind blowing from the 

Monday, June 7th. The morning was fine and we took 
our horses out earlv. about half a mile east, where the feed 



was very good. At 6:30 the Oregon company passed us and 
at 7:10 we again commenced our journey. At 11 o'clock we 
.halted to feed on the west bank of a small stream, the grass 
being short. We had come seven and three-quarters miles in 
a course north northwest, and the road was even and good 
traveling. Soon after we halted another Oregon company of 
thirteen wagons passed us. They say they are from Andrew 
County. Missouri. At 12:40 we proceeded onward and after 
traveling a short distance we came to a hill, which was a 
quarter of a mile from the bottom to the top, the ascent being 


Top <' the Rockies Just Below the Sky. 

From the top of this hill, we had a very pleasant view 
of the surrounding country, the scenery being truly romantic. 
The country is very much broken, with a forest of pine cov- 
ering the surface. From this hill we have a fine view of 
Limavama Peak, and there appears to be snow on the top of 
it. At 3:30 we arrived at Horse Shoe Creek and formed our 
encampment in the center of a grove of ash and cottonwood, 
having traveled five and one-quarter miles over a crooked road, 
and during the day thirteen miles. We have the best feed we 
have had since we left Winter Quarters, and the most pleasant 
camp ground. There is a beautiful large spring of cold water 
here also. 

Brother Kimball picked out this camp ground and found 
the spring and called it Heber's Spring. The creek is also 
clear and is said to have trout in it. There is an abundance 
of wild mint and sage growing here. Just before we stopped a 
very heavy thunder shower blew up, and while we were form- 


ing our encampment the rain poured down in torrents, ac- 
companied with thunder and lightning, which lasted a little 
over an hour. The hunters killed a deer and an antelope this 
afternoon. The evening is very cool. 

Tuesday, June 8th. The morning was fine, though it con- 
tinues cool. At 7 :30 a. m. we started on our journey, crossing 
the creek, which is about a rod wide, and we traveled two 
and one-half miles winding around the high bluffs and then 
began to ascend them. This is the worst bluff we have had to 
ascend since we started. It is nearly a half mile, and three 
very steep pitches to go up, and most of the teams had to 
double. From the top of this hill we saw a buffalo south of 
us, which is the first we have seen since the 21st of May. Two 
and a half miles from the foot of this bluff we passed over a 
small creek, nearly dry, and then ascended another high bluff. 

At 11 :45 we halted for noon near a small creek, with very 
little water in it. We came six and three-quarters miles this 
forenoon. One of Brother Crow's daughters got run over by 
one of their wagons, the wheel passing over the leg, but there 
was no bones broken. At 1:40 we proceeded on our journey 
and after traveling a mile and a' half we crossed a small creek, 
and again ascended a high bluff. This afternoon there was a 
strong wind from the west, and it was very cold. The country 
is very much broken and our road is very crooked and tendipg 
to the north. After traveling five miles we began to descend 
gradually, and at 6:10 we crossed a stream about forty feet 
wide and about two feet deep, the current being very swift. 
It is called on Fremont's map Fabant river. We traveled this 
afternoon eight and three-quarters miles, and during the day 
fifteen and one-half miles. The evening is cold and has the 
appearance of rain. 

The hunters killed a deer and an antelope. 0. P. Rockwell 
says he has been to the Platte river, and it is about four miles 
from here. Soon after we stopped three traders came into the 
camp. They were part of the company that lost their cattle 
in the snowstorm on the Sweet Water. 

Wednesday, June 9th. The morning was very pleasant, 
and the feed being scarce, it was thought best to start before 
breakfast, and at 4:45 we moved onward. At 5:45 we halted 
for breakfast near the traders' camp, having come one and one- 
quarter miles. It was thought best to send a small company 
ahead to build a raft, as the traders say it is about seventy 
miles to \vhere we cross the Platte. They left some hides at 
the crossing, that they used on a wagon box, which answered 


for a ferry boat. They told Brother Crow that he might have 
them, if he could get there before the Oregon company. 

There was nineteen of the best teams with about forty- 
nine men sent ahead; five wagons from the first division and 
fourteen from the second. TTiey started about half an hour 
before we did. About 7:45 we proceeded onward, and soon 
after we started we came to a gully, which was very difficult 
to cross. Four men on their work horses and mules passed 
us. They said they were from Pueblo and were going to Green 
River. We came three and one-quarter miles and crossed a 
stream about ten feet 'wide, the banks of which, on either side, 
were very steep. Some of the teams required help. 

This forenoon the soil we have passed over looked red as 
far as the eye could reach, and most of the rocks and bluffs 
were of the same color. President Young and Kimball saw a 
large toad about a quarter of a mile from the camp that had 
a tail and horns, though it did not jump like a toad, but crawled 
like a mouse. At 12:40 we halted for noon, having come ten 
miles since breakfast. Feed is scarce and there is very little 
water. Our road has been crooked, and hilly, and mostly 
rocky. The ground is literally covered with large crickets. 
At 2:30 we were on the move again. The road has been much 
better this afternoon. At 6 :15 we encamped on a stream about 
a rod wide, two feet deep, with a very swift current. We have 
traveled eight miles this afternoon, and during the day nineteen 
and on-quarter miles. The feed is good. A number of antelope 
have been killed today. The evening was fine and pleasant. 

Thursday, June 10th. The morning was calm and very 
pleasant. At 7:30 we moved .on and came four and one-half 
miles and crossed a small stream, passed on a little farther 
and crossed another creek some larger. At 11:20 we halted for 
noon on the east side of a stream about thirty feet wide and 
tolerably deep with a rapid current, having come eight and 
three-quarter miles. We had several long steep bluffs to ascend 
and descend, and it was very difficult to cross some of the 
creeks without help. We saw one of the Oregon companies a 
few miles ahead of us. Our road has been crooked and mostly 
winding northward. The creek where we camped last night 
is called La Pine. About a mile from where the road crossed 
it, it runs through a tunnel from ten to twenty rods under the 
liiu'h bluffs. The tunnel is high enough for a man to stand 
upright in it, and the light can be seen through from the other 

At 1:45 we continued our journey, with more even ground 
and good traveling. This afternoon we came in sight of the 
Platte river. We left it last Saturday and since then we have 


been winding through valleys and over bluffs all the way to 
here. As we near the river the road is more level, but sandy. 
At 5:45 we crossed a stream about thirty feet wide and two 
*eet deep, the current being swift and the water clear, with 
plenty of timber on its banks, and the feed very good. We 
encamped on its west bank, near a grove of large timber. We 
traveled nine miles this afternoon, and during the day seven- 
teen and three-quarters miles. 

In this stream there is plenty of fish. Brother Clayton 
caught twenty-four with a hook and line, that would weigh 
sixteen pounds, all herring. Some of the brethren caught a 
few catfish. Some of the camp found a bed of stone coal about 
a quarter of a mile up stream. The hunters killed a number 
of antelope this afternoon. The evening was warm and pleas- 
ant. I noticed that Brother Ellsworth brought an antelope into 
camp this evening and it was cut up and divided among 
their own Ten by Brother Rockwood. A few days since Brother 
Rockwood gave Brother Crow a lecture for not dividing an 
antelope among the camp, when Brother Crow's companions 
are -short of provisions, and only have five ounces to a person 
per day. If this is consistency I don't know what consistency is. 

Friday, June llth. The morning was very pleasant. I 
stood guard the later part of the night, in the place of some 
of the brethren that have gone ahead. About 3 o'clock this 
morning I commenced cleaning the fish Brother Clayton caught. 
I fried them and we had a firstrate breakfast. This is the first 
place I have seen since we left Winter Quarters, where I should 
like to live. The land is good and plenty of timber and the 
warbling of the birds make it very pleasant. At 7:35 we pro- 
ceeded on our journey, along the bank of the river, which ap- 
pears wider here than at Laramie. We came four and one- 
half miles and Brother Clayton put up a guideboard, "100 miles 
from Laramie," which we came in a week lacking two and 
one-quarter hours. At 11:50 we halted for noon in a grove, 
where the feed is very good. 

The road this forenoon was generally level and sandy, but 
there was very little grass. We have traveled nine and one- 
half miles this forenoon. At 2 o'clock we started again, and 
after traveling one mile we crossed a very crooked, . muddy 
stream about twelve feet wide and one foot deep, came five and 
three-quarters miles and crossed another creek. At 5:30 we 
came to a halt, and we saw a number of wagons encamped 
about a mile ahead. After waiting about half an hour. Brother 
Kimball, who was ahead, returned and reported that there was 
no feed ahead for three miles. 


The company ahead is one of the Oregon camps. They are 
making a raft to cross here. They say the regular crossing 
place is twelve miles ahead. We turned off to the river about 
a half mile from the road near a grove, the feed being tolerably 
good. We encamped about 6 o'clock, having come six and 
three-quarters miles, and seventeen during the day. Brother 
Kimball reports that he and some of the brethren tried to find 
a fording place to cross the river, but were unable to do so. 
Some places the water was deep enough to swim their horses. 
The brethren killed three antelope today. 

Saturday, June 12th. The morning was very fine with a 
light breeze from the east. Brother Markham has learned, this 
morning, that Obediah Jennings was the principal in killing 
Bowman in Missouri. Bowman was one of the guard of Joseph 
and Byrum Smith and the others that got away when prison- 
ers in Missouri. The mob suspected him, and they rode him on 
a bar of iron until they killed him. 

At 8:15 we started on our journey and came one and one- 
half miles, where we crossed a deep ravine with a steep bank 
that was very difficult to ascend. We came one and three- 
quarters miles and crossed a creek about two feet wide on a 
bridge, which the brethren had made. One mile from this we. 
crossed another creek about five feet wide and one and one-half 
feet deep. At 11 :45 we halted for noon, having come seven and 
one-quarter miles, over a sandy, barren prairie. Here the breth- 
ren tried to find a fording place. They succeeded in riding 
across the river, but it was considered unsafe to cross with our 
wagons, as the current runs very swift. The brethren turned 
out this noon to diir down the banks of a deep ravine, and made 
it passable for wagons in a short time. 

At 2 :30 we again started, came about three and one-quarter 
miles and crossed a creek about five feet wide. At 4:30 we 
encamped on the bank of jthe river, having traveled about six 
miles this afternoon, and during- the day eleven and one-quarter 
miles. Our camp is about half a mile below the camp of the 
brethren who went ahead. They arrived here yesterday about, 
noon, and two of the Missouri companies arrived soon after. 
The brethren made a contract with them to ferry our wagons 
over for $1.50 each, and take their pay in flour at $2.50 per. 
hundred. They, crossed the last of them this evening. The bill, 
amounted to $34. They received 'their pay mostly in flour, but 
some little in meal and bacon. Brother Badger traded a wagon 
with one of them. He got a horse and 100 pounds of flour, 
twenty-eight pounds of bacon, and some crackers to boot. The 
horse and provisions were worth as much as his wagon. 


Since the brethren arrived hero, they have killed three 
buffalos, one grizzly bear, three cubs and two antelope. The 
buffalos are very fat and the brethren say they are very 
plenty back of the hills. Brother J. Redding- made H. C. Kim- 
ball a present of a large cake of tallow, and dried some beef 
for the benefit of the camp. Tunis Rappleyee and Artemus 
Johnson are missing: this evening:. A company was sent out 
in search of them. Brother Rappleyee returned about 11 o'clock 
at night. He said that he started to go up to the mountains 
to get some snow, about 5 o'clock, thinking he would be back 
before dark, but he found the hills to be eight or ten miles off. 
Johnson was found by the company. He went out hunting and 
got lost. They returned still later. 

Sunday, June 13th. The morning was fine and pleasant. 
At 9 o'clock the brethren assembled for meeting. Some of the 
brethren freed their minds, and Brother Kimball arose and 
addressed them, exhorting them to be watchful and humble, 
and remember their covenants, and above all tilings to avoid 
everything that would tend to a division. He gave some very 
good instruction and council. Brother Pratt made some re- 
marks, followed by Brother B. Young arid others. The captains 
or Tens were notified to meet at Brother Young's wagon. It 
was agreed to take the wagons over on rafts and the provisions 
in the cutter. % 

I went across the river with five or six men and built a 
raft, while some of the brethren went up to the mountain to 
get some poles. The day has been very warm and more like a 
summer day than any we have had since we left. The ground 
here is covered with crickets. 

Monday, June 14th. The morning- was cloudy and cool. 
The first division commenced ferrying their provisions over 
the river in the cutter, and the second division with the raft, 
but the current was so strong it was not safe to take provisions 
over on the raft, and we only took two loads. The second di- 
vision then stretched a rope across the river at the narrowest 
place, and lashed two wagons together, and made the rope fast 
to them to float them across. When the wheels struck the sand 
on the other side, the current being so strong, it rolled them 
one over the other, and breaking the bows, and loosening the 
Irons, etc., to the amount of $30, belonging to Brother John 
Pack. We next lashed four together, abreast and dragged them 
over as before, with poles each side of the wagon, and then long 
poles to reach across endways. They all got over safe. One 
of the poles broke and let the upper one turn on its side, but 
there was no damage done. 


Not having poles or rope enough to lash them, we thought 
we would try one wagon alone. Some of the brethren thought 
that if some person would get in the wagon and ride on the 
upper side, it would prevent it from turning over. I volunteered 
to go across in it. Soon after we pushed off, Brother Gibbons 
jumped in the river and caught hold of the end of the wagon. 
When we got out about the middle of the river, the wagon 
began to fill with water, and roll from one side to the other, 
and then turn over on the side. I got on the upper side and 
hung on for a short time, Avhen it rolled over leaving me off. 
I saw that T was in danger of being caught in the wheels or 
the bows, and I swam off, but one of the wheels struck my leg 
and bruised it some. I struck out for the shore with my cap 
in one hand. The wagon rolled over a number of times and 
was hauled ashore. It received no damage, except the bows 
were broken. We then thought it the safest way to take the 
wagons over on a raft, notwithstanding it is very slow, and 
will take three or four days. 

The wind blows very strong from the southwest, which is 
very nearly down stream. We have cattle on the other side 
to tow the raft up. The current and the wind being against 
us, we nave to tow our raft up about one mile above, where 
we load the wagons. At 3:30 we had a very heavy thunder 
stortn, the rain pouring down in torrents, accompanied with 
hail, and the wind blew a perfect gale. After the storm was 
over we continued ferrying the wagons over. The river is 
rising very 'fast. After toiling all day nearly up to our armpits 
in the water, we got over eleven wagons in the afternoon, mak- 
ing twenty-three during the day. 

Tuesday, June 15th. The morning was fine but very 
windy, and we continued ferrying over our wagons. We took 
Brother George Polling's wagon over this morning. The breth- 
ren have built two more rafts. The wind continues to blow 
down stream, which makes it very hard work to cross with the 
rafts. This afternoon Brother Crow's company commenced 
swimming their horses over. They forgot to take the rope off 
of one of the horses, and after he got out in the middle of the 
river, they discovered that it was drowning. They pulled to him 
with the cutter and dragged him ashore, but he was dead. They 
supposed that he got the rope around his legs and could not 
swim. It was concluded today to leave about ten of the 
brethren here, to build a boat and keep a ferry, until the next 
company comes up. Brother Kimball told me to have a wagon 
and six mules ready to start early in the morning after a log 


to make a canoe. The wind continued to blow nearly all day. 
We succeeded in getting twenty wagons over today. 

Wednesday, June 16th. This morning was fine, with a 
strong uind from the west. I got Brother Coitrin's wagon 
and Brother Gleason's mules, and a pair of mules belonging to 
Brother Flake, drove by a colored man, and a pair that Brother 
Billings drives, and delivered them to those who were going 
after the timber for the boat. The first division sent a wagon. 
There was about twenty men went, principally those who had 
their wagons across the river. I understand there is a contract 
made to ferry over a company of wagons at the same rate the 
others A\ere crossed. 

Two men came up from a small company below, who they 
say belong to a company ahead. They stopped at Ash Hollow 
in consequence of some of them being sick. They also wished 
to be ferried over. There was a small company sent up the 
river this afternoon to get out timber for the boat. J crossed 
the river this forenoon and eat dinner with Brother Whipple. 
My health is not very good, having worked in the water for two 
days, and in the course of it I caught cold, and have pains in 
my bowels. The wind blows very strong this afternoon from 
the west. The brethren that went down the river, returned 
this evening, and brought two canoes twenty-five feet long and 
partly finished. 

Thursday, June 17th. The morning was windv and cold, 
and all hands were engaged ferrying. We hauled our three 
wagons down to the river and unloaded Brother King's wagon 
and lashed the wagons, and took the loading over in the cutter. 
We took a part of the loading out of Brother Kimball's wagon, 
and took it over on the large raft. Brother Hansen and myself 
pulling it over. The wind blowing very strong down stream 
made it very difficult to cross. President Young also crossed 
liis wagon this forenoon. 

Early this morning we tried to swim our horses across, but 
the water being so rough we could not get them in. Soon after 
noon we got the last of our wagons over. Two of the Oregon 
companies arrived^, and the brethren made preparations to cross 
them at $1.50 per wagon. The brethren suffered much workit'ir 
in the water, for it is very cold. Our wagons formed in a cir- 
cle, this afternoon, near the ferry. We got our horses up this 
afternoon to swim them across, but Brothers Young and Kimball 
thought it was too cold, and the wind blowed too strong, and 
they told us to leave them until morning. A company of men 
are working at the canoes. 

Friday, June 18th. This morning was calm but very cold. 


The brethren had worked all night and ferried over one com- 
pany of ten wagons and part of another. They paid the brethren 
$5.00 extra for working in the night. We went across the river 
early, and swam our horses over. The camp concluded not to 
start toda^y, but stop and help to finish the boat, and wait for 
the pay we were to get for ferrying the companies over. Brother 
Clayton crossed the river this afternoon and went back to the 
last creek we crossed, about one and one-half miles, and caught 
sixty fish that would weight about half a pound apiece. 

The new canoe was launched this afternoon, and the 
brethren commenced ferrying over the company of Missourians. 
The boat would carry a common sized wagon and its load, and 
it works very well considering the wood is gTeen. There ha& 
been a small company of the brethren appointed to remain at 
this place until the next company of Saints comes up, and then 
to come on with them. They are to take charge of the boat 
and cross all wagons they can until the brethren arrive, at $1.50 
per wagon. About dark this evening the Twelve and those who 
were appointed to remain, went off a little ways from the camp 
to council. The names of those who were to stop were read 
over as follows : 

Thomas Grover, John S. Higbee, Luke S. Johnson, Appleton 
M. Harmon, Edmund Ellsworth, Francis M. Pomeroy, William 
Empey, James Davenport and Benjamin F. Stewart. Thomas 
Grover was appointed their captain. The President then re- 
ferred to Eric Glines, who wanted to stay, but the President 
said he had no council for him to stay, but he might do as he 
pleased. Some explanation followed by Glines, but the unani- 
mous feelings of the brethren were for Glines to go on. The 
President preached a short sermon for the benefit of the young^ 
Elders. He represented them as eternalty grasping after some- 
thing ahead of them, which belonged to others, instead of seek- 
ing to bring up those who were behind them. He said the way 
for the young Elders to enlarge their dominions and to get 
power, is to go to the world and preach the gospel, and then 
they can get a train and bring it up to the house of the Lord 
with them, etc. 

The letter of instructions Avas then read and approved by 
the brethren. The council was then dismissed. This evening 
Brother Rockwood divided some of the provisions which was 
realized for ferrying, among some of the Tens. Brother Kimball 
let the brethren have a coil of rope to use on the boat, worth 
about $15. He got 263 pounds of flour, 100 pounds of meal and 
twenty-feveu pounds of soap toward the pay. There has been 
provisions enough received for ferrying to last this camp for 


about twenty-three clays, which is a great blessing, which we 
should all be thankful to the Lord for. At the rate they sell 
provision* at Fort Laramie, what we received would cost about 
$400, which was earned in about a week, besides ferrying our 
own wagons over. 

Saturday, June 19th, The morning was fine but cool, and 
at 7:50 a. in. we proceeded on our journey, all enjoying good 
health. The first six miles we traveled about a west course, 
over several high bluffs, where the road turns to the south and 
rises a high bluff about a mile long. The whole face of the 
country as far as the eye can extend, appears to be barren and 
very much broken. The descent on the south side of the bluff 
was crooked and uneven. At 1 o'clock we halted for noon on 
a spot of good grass, about a quarter of a mile from a good 
spring, which is the first water we have come to since we left 
the ferry, which is about eleven and one-quarter miles. There 
is no timber nearer than the bluffs, which is about two miles. 
The Red Buttes are nearly opposite this place in a southeast 

After stopping about an hour it was thought best to move 
on to the spring. We found it to be a small stream of water 
rising out of the quick sand. About twelve miles from the ferry 
there is a lake, supposed to be supplied by the spring. We 
could see the water boiling out of the mud in several places. 
The grass on the banks of this lake is very good. After water- 
ing our teams we proceeded on our journey, at 2 :50 p. m., bearing 
a southwest course over a rolling prairie. Aoout eight miles 
from the spring there is a steep descent from a bluff, and at 
the foot there is a ridge of sharp-pointed rocks, running parallel 
with the road for nearly a quarter of a mile, leaving only a 
narrow space for the wagons to pass and the road is very rough. 

At 7:40 we encamped on a small spot, surrounded by high 
bluffs, having traveled ten and one-quarter miles and during the 
day twenty-one and one-half miles. Our camp ground this 
evening is the poorest we have had for some time; very little 
grass and no wood and bad water. The country is sandy and 
barren, very little vegetation growing here. * There is plenty of 
wild sage, and several low marshes near our camp ground, where 
our cattle get mired. 0. P. Rockwell came into camp and re- 
ported that he had a fat buffalo about two miles from the 
camp. A team was sent out to bring it in, which did not return 
for some time after dark. M"yers killed two buffaloes and took 
the tallow and tongues, and left the meat to rot on the prairie. 
J. Norton and A. Gibbons left the camp at the springs and 
went out hunting, expecting that we would remain there until 


Monday. Gibbons has not been heard from since. Norton 
has returned and reported that he had killed a buffalo back 
near the spring's. 

Sunday, June 20th. The morning was fine. We found two 
oxen almost buried in the mud. At 5 :15 we left this miserable 
place. The first mile was very bad traveling, there being several 
steep pitches to pass over. A number of the brethren went 
ahead with picks and spades to improve the road. We traveled 
three and three-quarters miles and halted at 7 a. m. for break- 
fast near a small stream of clear spring water. The feed is 
good but there is no wood. Brother Kimball and Benson state 
that, when they were riding ahead last evening to find a camp 
ground, they saw six men suddenly spring up out of the grass, 
with blankets, that looked like Indians. They turned their 
horses and rode in a parallel direction to the road. The brethren 
also kept on their course. After going a short distance one of 
the supposed Indians left the rest and rode toward the brethren 
and motioned with his hand for them to go back. They went., 
on and paid no regard to him. When he discovered that h< 
could not bluff them off, he turned his horse and run for t hn 
others, and all put spurs to their horses and galloped off. Th<^ 
soon descended a ridge and were soon out of sight. Brothe*^ 
Kimball and Benson run their horses to the top of the ridpo 
and discovered a camp about a mile off. The brethren were 
satisfied that those Indians were Missourians, and that they had 
taken this plan to keep us back from this camp ground. It is 
considered an old Missouri trick and an insult to our camp r 
and if they undertake to play Indian games, they might meet 
with Indian treatment. 

Their camp left here a little before we arrived this morning. 
It is President Young's intention to press on a little faster, and 
crowd them up, to see how they will like it. We have learned 
from one of the emigrants in the rear that Andrew Gibbons 
staid with them last night, and that when he arrived at the 
springs he found a Missouri company there and us gone. He 
told them where the buffalo was and they went and got it. At 
D :15 we proceeded- on our journev, and after traveling three 
miles we arrived at the WilloAv Springs and halted a little while 
to water. The spring is about two feet wide and the water 
about ten inches deep; clear, and. as cold as ice. The grass 
is very good here and it is a very good camp ground. About a 
ouarter of a mile bevond the sprinsr we ascend a hill, which is 
nbout one mile from the foot to the top of it, and the ascent 
very steep. 

From the top of the hill snow 7 can be seen on the top of 


the mountains a long- distance off. The Red Buttes appear only 
a few miles distant. Three-quarters of a mile further -we found 
good feed, but no wood or water. We traveled one and one-quar- 
ter miles and came to a heavy slough. About a mile from this 
place we ascended a very steep bluff, and at 2:45 we stopped 
to feed in a ravine, where the grass is very good and a g-ood 
stream of water about a quarter of a mile south of the road, 
but there is no wood. We have traveled nine miles this fore- 
noon over a barren, sandy country, there being no feed only 
in spots as above mentioned. At 5 o'clock we proceeded on our 
journey, and after traveling two and one-half miles we descended 
to the bottom land again, and saw a small stream a little to the 
left of the road, where there is plenty of feed. 

We crossed a stream one arid three r quarters miles further, 
of .clear water about six feet wide and one foot deep, but there 
is neither grass nor timber on its banks. After traveling seven 
miles this afternoon we turned off of the road to the left, and 
at 8 :20 we found our camp ground, as selected by Brother Kim- 
ball, on a ridge near the above mentioned creek, about a quarter 
of a mile from the road. Our travel this afternoon was seven 
and one-quarter miles, exclusive of turning off from the road, 
and during the day twenty miles. There is no wood and we have 
to use the sage roots for cooking, as it grows wild in abundance 
in this region. Brothers Woodruff and J. Brown went ahead 
this morning- and have not been seen or heard of since. 

Monday, June 21st. The morning was very fine and warm, 
arid at 8:35 a. m. we proceeded on our journey. After traveling 
three and one-quarter miles we came to a bed of saleratus, 
which was a quarter of a mile across, and on which were several 
lakes of salt water. This place looks swampy and smells bad. 
Lorenzo Young gathered a pailful in a short time, and tested its 
qualities, which he considers very good. It is reported by trav- 
elers that there is poison springs in this region, but we have 
not yet seen any. It is probably the brakish water, which 
tastes some of saleratus, that make them call it poison springs. 
We passed along a little further and saw two more lakes of the 
same nature, with the banks mostly white with saleratus. At 
12 o'clock we arrived on the bank of the Sweet Water, having 
<?ome nine and one-half miles over a very sandy road, destitute 
of wood, water and feed. The distance from the upper ferry 
on the Platte is forty-nine miles. There has formerlv been a 
ford here, but latelv it has been crossed about a mile higher up. 
The river is probably about seven or eight rods wide and about 
three feet deep at the fording place, but much deeper in other 


places. The current runs very swift and the water tastes good, 
but is some muddy. 

On the river there is plenty of good grass, but no wood. 
There is plenty of wild sage, which answers for fuel. Brother 
G. Billings and Baird Went back about a half mile and got a 
bucket of the saleratus. Brother Kimball was ahead looking 
out a camp ground and he and Brother Richards were close to 
Independence Rock, about a half mile ahead, when they waved 
their hats for us to come on there, but we did not see them. 
The day has been very hot and no wind, which makes it very 
unpleasant traveling. Here Brothers Woodruff and Brown passed 
the camp. They had passed the night with one of the Oregon 

There are many huge hills or ridges and masses of granite 
rock in this neighborhood, all destitute of vegetation, and pre- 
senting a very wild and desolate as well as romantic appear- 
ance. The brethren killed two snakes here. Some of the brth- 
ren went ahead to view Independence Rock, which is about a half 
mile west of where we are encamped. The river runs within 
about three rods of the rock and runs about a west course, while 
the rock runs a northwest direction. It is a barren mass of ba*e 
granite, more so than any others in this region, and is probably 
400 yards long and 80 yards wide, and about 100 yards perpen- 
dicular height, as near as Brother Clayton could judge. The 
ascent is very difficult all around, but the southwest corner ap- 
pears to be the easiest to ascend. There are hundreds of persons 
who have visited it and painted their names there with different 
colored paint, both male and female. 

At 3 p. m. we proceeded on our journey. Brother Clayton 
put up a guide board opposite the rock with the following in- 
scription: "To Fort John, 175% miles. Pioneers, July 21st, 
1847, W. R." Dr. Richards requests that his brand be 'put on 
all the signboards that the Saints might know them, as his 
brand is generally known by the Church. After traveling one 
mile beyond the rock we crossed the river, all the wagons cross- 
ing without difficulty. We then continued a southwest course 
and traveled four and one-half miles when we were opposite to 
the Devil 's Gate, which is a little west of the road. We traveled 
a quarter of a mile further, where the road passes between two 
high ridees of granite rocks, leaving: a surface of about two 
rods of level ground on each side of the road. The road then 
bends to the west, and a quarter of a mile further we passed 
over a small creek about two feet wide, but very bad to cross, 
$t being deep and muddy. 

We proceeded on a short distance and found our encamp- 



ment at 6 :35 on the banks of the river, having traveled seven 
and three-quarters miles this afternoon and during the day fif- 
teen and one-quarter miles. The feed is very good here, but wood 
is scare. I went to view the Devil's Gate, and while ascending 
the rocks I fell in with some of the brethren, and we went up in 
company. Where we arrived at the top of the east rock we 
found it perpendicular. The river runs between two high rocky 
ridges, which were measured by Brother Pratt and found to be 

Ready to Move From Camp on Platte River. 

309 feet 6 l / 2 inches high and about 200 yards long. The river 
has a channel of about three rods in width through the pass, 
which increases its swiftness, and it dashes furiously against the 
huge fragments of rocks, which has fell from the mountains, 
and the roaring can be heard a long distance. It has truly a 
romantic appearance, and the view over the surrounding country 
is very sublime. The Sweet Water mountains show high and 
appear spotted with snow. Mountains can be seen from twenty 
to thirty miles distant. West of us, covered with snow, the 
high barren rocky ridges on the north side of the river, seem 
to continue for many miles. 

Tuesday, June 22nd. The morning was fine, and at 7:20 
we continued our journey, and when about 200 yards from where 
we camped we crossed a very crooked creek, about six feet 
wide, descending from the southwest. After traveling about 
three miles over a very heavy sandy road, we crossed another 


creek, about two feet wide. Brother Lorenzo Young broke an 
axletree, which detained him for some time. One of the Oregon 
company came up, and one of them took Brother Young's load 
into his wagon, and spliced his axletree, which enabled him to 
follow the camp. At 11:55 we halted on the bank of the river 
to feed, having traveled ten miles over a very sandy, barren 
land, there being no grass only on the banks of the creeks and 
the banks of the river. During the halt Brother Pratt took an 
observation and found the latitude to be 42 degrees 28 minutes 
24 seconds. 

The Oregon company passed us- white we were getting up 
our teams. At 2 :25 we started again, the road leaving the river, 
and traveled about a half mile, passing a large lake on our left. 
After traveling five and three-quarters miles we crossed a creek 
about six feet wide and a foot deep, the banks on either side 
being steep and sandy. The banks of the creek are lined with 
wild sage, which i* very large and thick, instead of with grass. 
Brother Kimball named it Sage Creek. After passing the creek 
one and three-quarters miles we again arrived at the banks of 
the river, and continued to travel near to it, and on three and 
three-quarters miles we crossed a stream three feet wide, but not 
to be depended on for water. At 7:50 we encamped at the foot 
of a very high gravelv hill and near the river, ha ving^ traveled 
this afternoon ten and three-quarters miles, ajid during the day 
twenty and three -quarters miles, mostly over a sandy road. The 
feed is very good here, and is w r ell worth traveling a few miles 
further for. Brothers Barney and Hancock have each killed 
an antelope today, but there appears to be no buffalo in the 
neighborhood. The camp is all well and we continue to be pros- 
pered on our journey. 

Wednesday, June 23rd. The morning was pleasant and 
warm, and we proceeded on our journey soon after 6 o'clock and 
traveled one and one-half miles, where we crossed a very shallow 
stream of clear cold water, about five feet wide. There is but 
little grass here, but there is a number of bitter cottonwood 
tjees growing on its banks. There being no name on the map 
for this creek, it is called Bitter Cottonwood Creek. It is prob- 
able that this stream is caused by the melting snow on the 
mountains, and, if so, it should not be depended upon for a 
camp ground in the dryer summer. 

After traveling five miles beyond the last mentioned stream, 

we again descended to the banks of the river, where there would 

be a very good camp ground. We traveled until 11 :05 on the 

bank of the river, and then halted for noon, as the road and the 

river separated at this point and the road was very sandy. Our 


course has been about south. The day has been very warm with 
a high south breeze. At 1:10 we continued our journey, and 
after traveling six and three-quarters miles we came to the 
banks of the river, and at 6 :20 we encamped, having 1 made eight 
and one-half miles this afternoon and seventeen miles during 
the day. There is plenty of grass on the river banks, but no 
wood. There is two Oregon companies about a mile ahead of us. 
Brother Frost set up his forge after we stopped and done some 
work for the Missourians. The Sweet Water Mountains appear 
very plain from here, and all of the mountains that are in sight 
are all covered with snow.. 

Thursday, June 24th. This morning was fine but cool. We 
proceeded on our journey at 6:15, and after traveling a little 
over five miles we came to a swampy place, where there is some 
water standing, and there is a hole here called the Ice Spring, the 
ice in it being about four inches thick, and the water tastes good. 
A short distance further we passed two lakes on our left, the 
water of which tastes soft and is not fit for use. After trav- 
eling ten and one-quarter miles from the Ice Spring, over a very 
uneven road, we descended a very steep bluff, close in the rear of 
an Oregon company. The other company halted a few miles 
back and we passed them. 

At 3 :30 we turned a little south from the road and found a 
camp ground, and formed a line so as to close a bend of the 
river. We came seventeen and three-quarters miles without 
stopping. The feed is good here, and there are plenty of willows, 
which answers for fuel. The river is about three rods wide, and 
the water clear and cool. A little before dark, when the breth- 
ren were driving up their teams, one of President Young's best 
horses got shot. While driving him up he tried to run back, 
when John Holman reached out his gun to stop him. The cock 
caught in his clothes and it went off, the load entering the 
horse's body. The horse walked to camp, but it is thought by 
many it cannot live. The ball entered a little forward of his 
right hind leg, and he appears to be in much pain. 

Friday, June 25th. The morning was fine but cool. The 
President's horse is dead. At 6:40 we started on our journey, 
and forded the river a quarter of a mile below where we camped, 
the water being about three feet deep and the current very swift. 
We traveled about a half mile and came to a stream about a 
rod wide and a foot deep. It appears to come from the north 
and empty into the river. About a half mile beyond this stream 
we turned to the northwest and began to ascend a very high 
bluff, it being over one and one-half miles to the top of it. I 
was informed, while crossing the river, that Brother Whipple 


could not find a yoke of his oxen. I went up to the top of the 
bluff and looked back to the north and discovered two oxen 
lying down in a ravine near the river. I went back and, while 
preparing to ford the river, I discovered Brother George Billings 
hunting for them, and called to him to come and get them. 

I remained at the river until he drove them up, the camp 
being about three miles ahead, i staid with them for about 
four and one-quarter miles from where we encamped. We came 
to the river, and traveled a little further, ascending a very steep, 
sandy ridge, and after leaving the west foot of the ridge we 
came to a stream about twenty-five feet wide, and a quarter of 
a mile further we crossed the same, which was only six feet 
wide. The last crossing the banks were very soft. About 12 
o 'clock we caught up with the camp, they having halted for noon, 
having come eight and three-quarters miles. The wind was blow- 
ing very strong from the northwest, making it cold and un- 
pleasant traveling. Brother Pratt took an observation at this 
place and found the latitude to be 42 degrees 28 minutes 36 

At 1:20 we proceeded on our journey, the road running on 
the river bank for about two miles, when we began to ascend hill 
after hill for three miles. After traveling seven and three- 
quarters miles over a very uneven road we came to a low, swampy 
place which was very difficult to cross. About one and one-third 
miles beyond the swamp a creek, about a foot wide, was crossed 
and another a quarter of a mile further about two feet wide. 
At 6 :45 we formed our encampment on the north side of a creek 
about five feet wide, having come this afternoon eleven and one- 
half miles and during the day twenty and one-quarter miles. This 
is a good camp ground, with wood, water and grass in plenty. 

Saturday, June 26th. The morning was very cold and we 
had a severe frost last night. At 7:40 we crossed the creek and 
proceeded on our journey, and after traveling one mile we passed 
a small creek south of the road and two and one-half miles be- 
yond we crossed a branch of the Sweet Water about two rods 
wide and two feet deep, with willows growing on the banks, 
making it a very good camp ground. After crossing the last 
stream, we crossed another high range of hills, from which we 
had a good view of Table Rock to the southwest, and the high 
broken chain of mountains of the Wind River on the north. At 
12:40 we halted for noon on the main branch of the Sweet 
Water, having traveled eleven miles. 

The river here is about three rods wide and three feet 
deep and tlie current is verv swift, the water being very clear 
and cold. The snow lays on its banks in some places six and 


eight feet deep. This is a lovely place for a camp ground. 
Some of the younger folks amused themselves snowballing each 
other on a large bank of snow. Eric Glines came into camp 
soon after we halted, having left the brethren at the upper 
ferry on the Platte River. At 2:20 we proceeded on our 
journey, ascending 1 a high hill, and found the road pretty good 
latitude 42 degrees 22 minutes 62 seconds. After traveling 
seven miles we arrived on a level spot of low land, where 
we found some grass and halted, while President Young and 
some others went over the ridge to look out a camp ground. 
Brother Young sent back word for the camp to come on. 
Leaving the road and traveling a northwest course we found 
our camp ground, at 6:45, on the banks of the Sweet Water 
about a quarter of a mile from the road, having come this 
afternoon seven and three-quarters miles, and during the day 
eighteen and three-quarters miles. This is a good camp ground, 
there being plenty of grass and willows. 

Brothers Kimball, Pratt and some others went ahead and 
about dark Brother Young told me I had better get up a horse, 
as there was a small company going in search of them, and he 
wanted me to go along with them. We got about a mile from 
the camp and met Brother Kimball traveling on foot, who in- 
formed us that Brother Pratt and the others were encamped 
about six miles ahead, with a small party of mountaineers, who 
were going to the states. The word came to Brother Kimball 
that there was no prospect of finding water without traveling 
some distance ahead. He was to go ahead and find a camp 
ground, and if the teams were tired they could stop and 
feed, and then go on again, but finding a good camp ground 
over the bluffs to the right, it was thought best to stop for 
the night. Brother Kimball not seeing the camp coming up, 
started back alone with any fire arms and traveled six miles 
after dark. 

The brethren made a fire on the ridge south of the camp, 
which he saw some distance off. When he got to camp he was 
about tired out, as he had traveled on foot about fifteen miles 
in the afternoon, which blistered his feet very bad. It is ascer- 
tained that we are about two miles from the descending ridge 
of the South Pass by the road. This ridge divides the head- 
waters of the Atlantic from those of the Pacific, and, although 
not the highest land we have traveled over, may with pro- 
priety, be said to be the summit of the South Pass. 

Sunday, June 27th. The mornins: was fine, but cold. The 
ox teams started at 7:55 and the horse teams soon after. The 
camp passed the eight men that were going back. They had 


twenty horses and mules, mostly laden with packs, and some 
of the brethren sent letters back by them. We went two and 
three-quarters miles and arrived at the dividing ridge. Brother 
Pratt took a barometrical observation and -found the altitude 

to be This spot is 27S l / 2 miles from Fort John (*Lara 

mie) and is supposed to divide the Oregon and Indian Terri- 
tories by a line running north and south. Between two and 
three miles further we arrived at the place where Brother Pratt 
and company camped last. night, at the head waters of Green 
River, and, although the streams are small, we have the satis- 
faction of seeing the currents run west instead of east. 

There is good grass here, but no wood. One of the moun- 
taineers is traveling with us today. He wants to pilot some of 
the companies to Oregon. He has two pack mules loaded with 
skins to trade. His name is Harris. He gives a very discour- 
aging account of Bear River Valley and the surrounding coun- 
try'. He said: "It is destitute of timber or vegetation, and 
the country is sandy, nothing growing there but wild sage. ' ' We 
crossed the stream, which is about three feet wide, and stopped 
on its bank to feed about 12 o'clock, having come six and three- 
quarters miles. The latitude of this place is 42 deg. 18 min. 58 
sec. At 2:25 we started on again, the roads being pretty good. 
At 7 :20 we encamped on the west bank of the Dry Sandy, hav- 
ing traveled nine miles, and during the day fifteen and a, quar- 
ter miles. There is no wood here and but little water, and the 
feed is poor. 

Monday, June 28th. The morning Avas fair, and many of 
the brethren are trading with Mr. Harris for buckskins. I tried 
to trade with him, but I considered them too high. He .sold 
them from $1.50 to $2.00, and made into pants $3.00 and $4.00. 
At 7:30 we proceeded on our journey, Mr. Harris waiting for 
the Oregon company to come up. After traveling about six 
miles the road forked, one continuing a west course and the 
other taking a southwest course. We took the left hand road to 
California. The junction of the road is 297!/2 miles from Fort 
John (*Laramie). 

About 1 :40 we arrived at the Little Sandy and stopped on 
its east bank to feed, having traveled fourteen and a quarter 
miles without seeing wood or water or feed for our teams. This 
stream is about twenty feet wide on an average, but at the ford- 
ing place it is over three rods wide and two and a half feet deep, 
the water being muddy and the current swift. At 5:15 we com- 
menced fording the river, and at 5:45 all the wagons were over 
safe, with no other loss than two tar buckets. After traveling 
a short distance we were met by Mr. Bridger, the principal man 


of the fort which bears his name, on his way to Fort John, ac- 
companied by two men. 

Corn for Jim Brid^er at $1,OOO an Ear. 

As we wished to make some inquiries about the country, 
he said if we would encamp he would stay with us all night. We 
turned off the road a quarter of a mile and encamped near the 
Sandy at 6 o'clock, having come a mile and three-quarters, and 
during the day fifteen and a quarter miles. We found the feed 
pretty good. Soon after we encamped the Twelve and some oth- 
ers went to Mr. Bridger to make some inquiries about the coun- 
try. I understand that it was impossible to form a correct idea 


from the very imperfect and irregular way in which he gave the 
description. My health has been very poor for the last two 
days. I have been afflicted with a very severe headache, but 
feel a little better this evening:. As I had not washed my cloth- 
ing for some time, I was under the necessity of washing this 
evening, and did not get through until after dark. After I ate 
supper I went down to where Mr. Bridger was encamped, and 
from his appearance and conversation, I should not take him 
to be a man of truth. In his description of Bear River Valley 
and the surrounding country, which was very good, he crossed 
himself a number of times. He said that Harris knew nothing 
about that part of the country. He says there is plenty of tim- 
ber there; that he had made sugar for the last twenty years 
where Harris said there was no timber of any kind. But it is 
my opinion that, he spoke not knowing about the place, that 
we can depend on until we see for ourselves. Brother King is 
sick and there are many in the camp complaining. Brother Kim- 
ball does all in his power for the comfort of those that are sick 
around him. 

Tuesday, June 29th. The morning was very pleasant, and 
we started at 7:40 a. m., traveling over a very good road, though 
a barren land. At 10 :45 we halted for noon, near the banks of 
the Big Sandy, having traveled six and three-quarters miles. 
Most of the second division stopped on the other side of the 
river, the first division stopping on the north side. The stream 
appears to be about seven rods wide at this place and two feet 
deep in the channel. There is some timber on its banks and 
pretty good feed. 

At 1:30 we again preceded on our journey, the road being^ 
tolerably good. After traveling nine and a half miles Brother 
Young, who has been ahead, rode back and told the camp that 
they would have to travel at least six miles before they could find 
feed. It was then 6:15, but at 9:05 we found ourselves again 
on the low lands near the banks of the river. We traveled since 
noon seventeen miles, and during the day twenty-three and 
three-quarters miles. The feed is very good here. The brethren 
found some willows about a mile from the camp, which an- 
swered for cooking. 

Wednesday, June 30th. The mornimr was hot, but at 8:15 
we proceeded on our journey. Several of the brethren were re- 
ported sick, and not able to drive their teams. The brethren are 
all taken alike, with violent pains in the head and back and a 
very hot fever. Some think it is caused bv using the salaratus 
that was picked up on the lakes. At 11 :30 we arrived on the 
banks of the Green River, having traveled eight miles. It is 


about as wide as the Platte, and the current is swift. After din- 
ner the second divsion was called together, and twelve men se- 
lected to build a raft. The first division also went to work to 
build a raft. 

There were men picked out to guard the cattle and some to 
burn charcoal. Brothers George Billings and Whipple are very 
sick. Brother Kimball told me to baptize Brother Billings, as 
he had a very high fever. He got relief immediately. 

This afternoon Brother Samuel Brannon arrived from the 
Bay of San Francisco and had two men with him. One of them 
I have seen in Nauvoo. His name is Smith. Brother Brannon 
sailed with a company from New York. He reported them all 
doing well. There has been some few deaths among them. He 
gives a very favorable account of the country. About dark the 
brethren completed the rafts. 

Native Belles. 



Thursday, July 1st, 1847. This morning was pleasant, and 
the brethren commenced crossing wagons. The raft made by 
the second division did not work well, the logs being water 
soaked. They went to work to make another raft. The wind 
blew high today and we only got fourteen wagons across. 
Brother Clayton was taken very sick this morning. 

Friday, .July 2nd. The morning was calm and pleasant. 1 
crossed the river early this morning, and helped the brethren 
finish the raft, and about 9 o'clock we commenced crossing the 
wagons. The Twelve had a council and decided to send three 
or four men back to pilot the next company up. 

Saturday. July 3rd. The morning was pleasant, and about 
noon we got the last wagon over. We hauled one of the rafts 
up on the east side of the river for the next company. Brothers 
Young and Kimball went ahead to look out a camp ground. The 
brethren returned soon after noon and gave orders for us to 
harness our teams, and at 3 :15 we again proceeded on our jour- 
ney, coming three miles and encamping on the river. The feed 
was good. The brethren were called together this evening and 
volunteers called for to go back to meet the companies, when 
the following persons offered their services: Phineas Young, 
Aaron Farr, Eric Glines, Rodney Badger and George Woodard. 
As there were not spare horses enough in the camp for each 
man to ride, President Young let them have a light wagon to 
carry their provisions. 

Sunday, July 4th. The morning was fine and pleasant, and 
the five brethren started back to meet the camps. President 
Young and Kimball and others went back to the ferry with them. 
While they were absent some of the brethren assembled in the 
circle for meeting. At 2:30 the brethren returned from the 
ferry, accompanied by twelve of the brethren from Pueblo, who 
belonged to the army. They report the remainder of the com- 
pany about eight flays* travel behind. One of Brother Crow's 
oxen was found dead this afternoon. My health is very poor, 
for I have taken cold from working in the water, which has 
brought on the mountain fever again. It is a distressing com- 
plaint, and I took a lobelia emetic this evening, and H. C. Kim- 
ball administered to me, which relieved me some. 


Monday, July 5th. At 8 o 'clock we proceeded on our jour- 
ney, though there are many of the brethren sick. I spent a 
very sick night. We traveled three and a half miles on the 
banks of the river, at which point the road leaves the river and 
bends to the westward. At 4 :45 we arrived at Black 's Fork and 
encamped, having come twenty miles, sixteen and a half of it 
without water. This stream is about six rods wide and the cur- 
rent is very swift. There is a place where we might have saved 
a mile by digging down a bank. We have passed over several 
steep places today. 

Tuesday, July 6th. The morning was very pleasant, and at 
7:50 we started on our journey. We traveled four and three^ 
quarters miles and crossed Haw's Fork, a rapid stream about 
three rods wide and two feet deep. It would be a good camp 
ground, as the f eed? is good. We came a mile and a half further 
and crossed Black's Fork, a stream about eight rods wide and 
two and a half feet deep. There is but little grass on its banks. 
After traveling eleven miles beyond the last stream we crossed 
a small creek about two feet wide. At 4 o'clock we crossed 
Black's Fork again, and encamped on its banks, having come 
eighteen and one-quarter miles. 

Wednesday, July 7th. We proceeded on our journey at 7 :45 
a. m., and after traveling two and one-half miles we crossed 
Black's Fork again. There is an abundance of good feed here, 
and a large quantity of wild flax, also beautiful flowers growing. 
We traveled two and three-quarter miles further and crossed 
a stream about two rods wide and two feet deep, the current 
being very swift. At 12 o'clock we halted for noon on the 
banks of the last stream, having traveled nine miles over a very 
rough road. The wind blows strong, which makes it dusty and 
disagreeable traveling. 

At 1:40 we started again, and after traveling seven and a 
half miles we came in sight of a number of Indian lodges on 
the south side of the road. The most of them are occupied by 
half-breed traders. There are also American traders here. One 
of them, Mr. Goodall, was one who passed us at the Platte River. 
We continued on and crossed four streams that would average 
about a rod wide, the current being very swift, when we arrived 
at Fort Bridger, which is 397 miles from Fort John. We came 
about half a mile past the fort and encamped, after crossing 
three more creeks. This afternoon we traveled eight and three- 
quarters miles, and during the day seventeen and three-quarters 
miles. Grass is much higher at this place than we have generally 
seen it. The whole region seems to be filled with rapid streams, 


all bending their way to the principal fork. They all, doubt- 
less, originate from the melting snows in the mountains. 

Iiidian Encampment. 

Bridger's Fort is composed of two log houses, about forty 
feet long each, and joined by a pen for horses, about ten feet 
high, and constructed by placing poles upright in the ground 
close together. There are several Inclian lodges close by, and 
a full crop of young children, playing around the doors. The 
Indians are said to be the Snake tribe. The latitude of Fort 
Bridger is 41 deg. 19 min. 13 sec., and its height above the level 
of the sea, according to Elder Pratt 's observation, is 6665 feet. 

Thursday, July 8th. The morning was fine, but the wind 
was high. It was thought best to stop here today to set some 
wagon tires, and let the brethren have an opportunity to trade. 
I traded off two rifles, one belonging to Brother Whipple and 
one to Brother G. Billings, for nineteen buck skins and three 
elk skins and some other articles for making moccasins. A coun- 
cil met and settled some difficulty between George Mills and 
Andrew Gibbons. It was decided that Thomas Williams and S. 
Brannon should return from here and meet Captain Brown's 
company from Pueblo. 

Friday, July 9th. We started at 8 o'clock on our journey 
westward, the road being rough. We traveled six and a half 
miles and arrived at the Springs, where we halted to rest our 
teams). We then proceeded on three and a quarter miles and 
began to ascend a long, steep hill, near the top of which Brother 
Pratt took observations and found the latitude to be 41 deg. 16 
min. 11 sec. It is eight miles from Fort Bridger. The descent 
from the top of this hill is the steepest and most dificult we 
have ever met with, it being long and almost perpendicular. At 


3 o'clock we crossed the Muddy Fork, a stream about twelve 
feet wide, and encamped on its banks, having traveled six and 
three-quarters miles, and during- the day thirteen miles. There 
is plenty of tall bunch grass here. The day has been warm and 

Saturday, July 10th. At 8 o'clock we proceeded on our 
journey, and after traveling three and' a half miles we passed 
a small copperas spring at the foot of a mountain, a little to the 
left of the road; and two and a half miles from this spring we 
found a very steep and rough place to descend, and found it nec- 
essary to stop halfway down and repair the road. About twenty 
miles from Fort Bridger we passed another spring, came a short 
distance further and arrived at the bottom, where the grass was 
very plentiful. At 1 :45 we halted for noon, having come nine 
miles, which is in latitude 41 deg. 14 min. 21 sec. In about an 
hour and a half we again proceeded on our journey, and traveled 
three and a half miles, where we began to ascend the dividing 
ridge between the waters of the Colorado and the Great Basin. 
This mountain is very high, and the ascent is very steep. 

The descent was very steep, and we had to lock our wheels 
'for about a half mile, where we traveled on the bottom a few 
miles between high, rugged mountains. After rising another 
high ridge, w r e crossed a small creek about ten feet wide. At 
7:45 \ve encamped on its banks, having traveled this afternoon 
nine miles, and during the day eighteen miles, over the most 
mountainous road we have yet seen. Soon after we encamped 
Mr. Miles Goodier came into our camp. He is the man who is 
settled near the Salt Lake. He thinks it is about seventy-five 
miles from here to his place. He gives a favorable report of the 
country. There is a beautiful spring' of water 100 yards south- 
west of our camp. 

Sunday, July llth. The morning was very cool, and we 
found ice in our water pails. During the day some of the 
brethren found an oil spring, about one mile south of the camp. 
It resembled tar and is very 'oily. Porter Rockwell and Brother 
Little and some others went with Mr. Goodier to look out the 
road. After dark the brethren were called together to decide 
which road they would take, as there are two roads. They de- 
cided to take the right hand road. 

Monday, July 12th. The morning was cloudy and cool, and 
we proceeded on our journey at 7 :30, traveled one and one-quar- 
ter miles and ascended a very steep hill, and a half mile further 
we crossed Bear river, a very rapid stream about six rods wide 
and two feet deep, the banks of which were lined with willows 
and a little timber. About half a mile from the ford we passed 


over another high ridge, and descended into a narrow bottom, 
which appeared fertile, there being plenty of grass, but no tim- 
ber. Beyond Bear river three-quarters of a mile we passed a 
spring of clear, cold water, and at 11:50 we halted for noon, 
having come nine and three-quarters miles. 

President Young was taken sick this forenoon. After rest- 
ing two hours all the camp, except eight wagons, proceeded on 
their journey. President Young not being able to go on, Brother 
Kimball 's three wagons remained behind. Brother Rockwood is 
also very sick. 

Tuesday, July 13th. This morning was pleasant. Brother 
Brown and Brother Mathews returned and reported that the 
camp was six and three-quarters miles ahead. Brother Kimball 
and myself returned with the brethren to the camp. Brother 
Young and Brother Rockwood remained very sick today. When 
Brother Kimball arrived at the camp, he called a meeting and 
proposed that a company go ahead with Elder Pratt to hunt out 
the road. Soon after dinner a company of twenty wagons, 
with Brother Pratt at their head, prepared to go ahead. About 
a half mile west from the camp there is a cave in the rocks 
about forty feet long and fifteen feet wide and about five feet 
high. At 3 o'clock we returned back to the camp, accompanied 
by George A. Smith. 

The following is a list of the names of those who have gone 
ahead: Orson Pratt (commander of the company), Stephen 
Markham (aid), 0. P. Rockwell, J. Redding, Nathaniel Fair- 
banks, James Egbert, John S. Freeman, Marcus B. Thorpe, Rob- 
ert Crow, Benjamin B. Crow, John Crow. Walter H. Crow, George 
W. Thirlkill, James Chesney, Lewis B. Myers, John Brown, 
Shadrack Roundy, H. C. Hansen, Levi Jackman", Lyman Curtis, 
David Powers, Oscar Crosby, Hark Lay, Joseph Mathews, Gil- 
bert Sumner, Gilbroid Sumne, Green Flake, John S. Gleason, 
Charles Burke, Norman Taylor, A. P. Chesley, Seth Taft, Horace 
Thornton, Stephen Kelsey, David Grant. James W. Stewart, Rob- 
ert Thomas. C. D. Barnum, John S. Eldredge, Elijah Newman, 
Francis Boggs. Levi N. Kendall. 

First division 7 wagons 15 men 

Second division 16 wagons 27 men 

Total 23 wagons 42 men 

Wednesday, July 14th. The morninir was pleasant. Elder 
Woodruff and Adams came from the other camp to see the 
sick, who were getting better. Brothers Woodruff anil Adams 
ate supper with Brother Kimbali. Brother Woodruff is iroinp: 
to bring his carriage in the morning for Brothers Young and 


Rockwood to ride in, as they think they will be able to go 
ahead in the morning. I went on the top of a high mountain 
with Brothers Kimball, Benson, and L. Young and offered our 
prayers to the Almighty God in behalf of the sick and for 
our' dear families. 

Thursday, July 15th. The morning was cloudy. About 
8 o'clock Elder Woodruff arrived Vith his carriage, and we 
started soon after, and at 12 o'clock we arrived at the camp 
ahead, when orders were given for the brethren to gather up 
their teams, and at 1 :40 we proceeded on our journey. Just 
before we started we had a refreshing shower. After traveling 
two. miles we passed a cool spring of water at the foot of a 
hill to the right of the road. At 3:30 we encamped near the 
foot of a high red bluff, having traveled four and a half miles. 
We had two more beautiful showers this afternoon. The feed 
is good here, and a good spring of water to the left of the 

Friday, July 16th. This morning we had two pleasant 
showers, accompanied with loud thunder. At 8:45 we pro- 
ceeded on our journey, and traveled through a narrow ravine 
(Echo canyon), between very high mountains. After traveling 
one and one-half miles we passed a steep ravine, where most 
of the teams had to double to get up. A half mile further we 
crossed the creek and found the crossing very bad. Harvey 
Peirce broke his wagon reach and bolster. While they were 
repairing the wagon, the brethren found a better place to cross 
the creek. At 12:30 we halted to feed, having traveled six 
and three-fourths miles. 

0. P. Rockwell returned from Brother Pratt 's company, 
and reported that it is about twenty-five or thirty miles to 
the canyon, they have found, that leads to the cut-off over the 
mountains. They expect to arrive at the top of the mountains 
today. At 2:20 we proceeded on our journey. The road winds 
through a narrow bottom, bounded by high mountains on each 
side, towering some hundreds of feet above our heads, our road 
sometimes running over small hills, and through dense thickets 
of willows. At 6 p. m. we encamped, having traveled nine and 
one-fourth miles, and during the day sixteen and three-fourths 
miles. A short distance ahead can be seen Weber fork. 

Saturday, July 17. It was a bright and beautiful morning, 
and we started about 8:30 a. m. The ten to which Father 
Chamberlain belongs (eleventh ten), remained behind until his 
wagon was repaired. We descended a sloping hill, and carne 
to the Weber fork, and turned short to the right, came a mile 
and a half and encamped on its banks, about 10 a. m., having 


traveled about two and one-half miles. The reason of our 
stopping so soon was in consequence of President Young being 
suddenly taken quite ill, and could not endure to travel any 
farther today. 

The river is bounded in places by high banks, being lined 
on either side with dry and green cottonwood trees. The grass 
is very good on the bottom. I went in company with Elders 
Kimball, G. A. Smith, Dr. Richards, Brother Benson and others, 
nine in all, to the top of a very high mountain, and clothed 
ourselves to pray for President Young and others that were 
sick, and for our families, etc., etc. We had a glorious time, 
and I thank the Lord for the privilege. About 6 o'clock. 
Brother Kimball requested me to ride ahead with him and three 
or four others to see the canyon, which we supposed to be 
about seven miles from the camp, but when we arrived there 
it was dark and we could not see much. The evening turned 
very cold and we started for the camp and arrived about 
10:30 p. m. 

Sunday, July 18th. It was a pleasant morning, and the 
camp was called together before breakfast, at Dr. Richard's 
wagon, when Brother Kimball addressed them. He told them 
that President Young was very sick, and it wa? his mind that 
the brethren should stay in the camp and not go out hunting 
or fishing, but have a meeting, and offer up our prayers in 
behalf of President Young and others who were sick and 
afflicted. It was motioned that the brethren meet at 10 a. m. f 
the meeting to be conducted by the bishops. We had a very 
good meeting. It was decided that the camp move on in the 
morning, except a few wagons to remain with Brother Young; 
and the first good place they could find they were to put in 
seeds, such as potatoes, in order to save the seed buckwheat 
and all kinds that would grow this season of the year. After 
an hour's intermission the brethren came together again and 
partook of the Sacrament. Brother Kimball gave us some good 
instructions, which done my soul good, and we had a very good 

Monday, July 19th. The morning was pleasant, and the 
portion of the camp that were going ahead, forty-one wagons, 
started at 7:45. leaving fifteen wagons to remain. Three of 
Brother Kimball 's wagons remained behind and three went 
ahead. Dr. Richards lost one of his steers, and had to remain 
behind until we started, which was about 0:30. We traveled 
about a mile and a half and encamped. Soon after we stopped 
I rode ahead, with Elder Kimball, George A. Smith, Benson and 
Woodruff, to view the country. About two miles ahead we 


caught up with Dr. Richards' teams, and one mile further we 
found Brother E. Snow with his wagon broke down. We 
traveled about four miles further and came up with the camp, 
about 1 p. m. near the top of the mountain. We saw two 
springs on our way up, and crossed a small stream a number 
of times. 

We descended the hill aJ3out two miles and then turned off 
to the right, and ascended a hill to see w r hat direction the 
road ran. About two miles from the summit of the mountain, 
the road turned suddenly to the westward. Here Brother G. A. 
Smith left us and went on with the camp, and we returned 
to our camp. We found the flies very troublesome to our 
horses as we returned. We reached the camp about 4:30, hav- 
ing traveled about twenty miles. Brothers Gushing, Murray 
and some others rode ahead to see the canyon. The brethren 
have caught a number of trout. President Young is some bet- 
ter this evening. Elder Kimball's health is pretty good, but 
he is generally reduced, and fatigued by anxiety and riding 
and looking out roads, etc. All the sick are recovering. The 
evening is pleasant. In the canyon is a stream of water con- 
fined, flowing between rocks. 

Tuesday, July 20th. This morning was pleasant. Presi- 
dent Young's health continues to improve, and it was thought 
best to travel in the cool of the morning, so we started at 5 :30, 
came about one mile and crossed Weber river, which is about 
five or six rods wide and about two feet deep, and is a beau- 
tiful clear stream. We traveled about three-fourths of a mile 
and came to a guide board, put up by William Clayton, with 
the following inscription on it: " Pratt 's Pass, to avoid the 
canyon; 74*4 miles from Fort Bridger." Here the road turns 
to the southwest. We traveled about two miles further and 
stopped to get breakfast, near a cool, clear stream of water. 
The feed is pretty good here, and there is some little wood, and 
it is a pretty good camp ground. 

After one and one-half hours' stop, Ave again proceeded on 
our journey. I went ahead with four or five others to repair 
the road. We traveled about six miles, and encamped in a 
valley that is bounded in on all sides by mountains. There is 
plenty of feed and water here, and some willows and sage 
roots that answers for fuel. Elder Kimball and Benson went 
ahead to see if they could not travel much farther. The 
brethren returned about 3:30 and reported that they found a 
good camp ground about three and one-half miles ahead, where 
there was three wagons encamped, Brother Goddard, Father 


Case and William Smoot, who remained behind in consequence 
of sickness. 

We started about 4:30 and traveled about a quarter of a 
mile and began to ascend a long winding hill, the road bending 
to the south; we then descended a hill which was very rough. 
We passed over a number of steep pitches, the road bending to 
the west for a short distance, and then to the south again. 
We then came to a beautiful stream, about two rods wide and 
eighteen inches deep, which we crossed twice in traveling about 
one-fourth of a mile, and encamped on its banks. The feed is 
good here, and the banks of the stream are lined with willows. 
It is reported that Brother Pratt 's company is about eight 
miles ahead, and Brother G. A. Smith's wagon is broke down. 
For about five miles, it is said, the road is very bad. We 
traveled today twelve and one-half miles. 

Wednesday, July 21st. The morning was warm and pleas- 
ant. Brother Young- was not able to travel today, being much 
fatigued by yesterday's travel. Brothers Kimbail, Benson and 
L. Young rode out to survey the country, and returned this 
afternoon. They had been to the canyon, which is about seven 
and one-half miles from here. The stream that we are en- 
camped on. I understand, is Ogden's fork (*East Canyon creek). 
Its course here is about north, but a short distance below, it 
turns suddenly to the west, and runs between two mountains, 
for a half mile it is very narrow. The brethren went down it 
about half way on foot and could not go any further. The water 
rushes between the rocks, and some places under them, and is 
six or eight feet deep in places. President Young is much bet- 
ter this evening, and will probably be able to travel tomorrow. 
Father Sherwood and the other brethren that are sick are much 
better. I spent part of this afternoon washing clothes. Brother 
Biard and myself stood guard the better part of the night, last 

Thursday, July 22nd. The morning was cloudy. President 
Young is some better, and Father Sherwood is doing well. About 
7:30 we again proceeded on our journey, about a south course, 
and traveled about two miles when Father Case rode up and 
reported that one of his wagon wheels had broken down. About 
a mile further \ve stopped. I went back in company with 
Brothers Kimball and Benson to help Father Case up. Brother 
Kimbail cut a pole and we lashed it under the axletree, and put 
Brother Benson's horse ahead of the others and hauled him up. 
We had a Huht shower this forenoon. The brethren took out 
most of Father Case's load and we proceeded on our journey, 
having crossed Ogden's fork four times this forenoon. The 


road is stoney and rough. This afternoon we crossed the stream 
seven times, the road winding through a long narrow ravine, 
and over hills, and through dense thickets of willows and eot- 
tonwood groves. We came about eight miles and crossed a very 
bad slough. One of Brother Young's horses mired down. He 
had to unhitch him to get him out. 

We then ascended a steep hill and found a billet, leii by 
Brother Pratt, which read as follows: "July 20th, Canyon 
Creek, Tuesday morning: To Willard Richards, G. A. Smith or 
any of the Saints : From this point it is five miles west to the 

Aspen Forest in Wasatch Range. 

summit of the dividing ridge. The road will be of a moderate 
descent, and considerable better than the one you have passed 
over for a few miles back. The ravine up which you will go 
is without water, except two or three small springs, which 
soon loose themselves beneath the soil. You will pass through 
groves of quaking asp, balsam, and cottonwood, more than you 
have seen for many days. From the dividing ridge, you will 
make a more rapid descent. The hill for a short distance will 
be quite steep, though straight and smooth. We have descended 
worse since we left Fort Bridger. You will go down about six 
miles when you will find a camping place, the grass being 
middling good. You will find a small spring about 100 rods 
after leaving the dividing ridge, which soon loses itself in the 
soil. The bed of the stream remains mostly dry for two or 


three miles, where you will strike a stream nearly one-third 
as large as the one where I leave this note. Your road in 
descending will lead through quite a timbered forest, of prin- 
cipally aspens, but some underwood of oak and small maple. 
The soil is extremely rich. About one and one-half miles be- 
yond the camping ground, above mentioned, you will find quite 
a lengthy hill, to avoid passing through a rough rocky canyon. 
You will then descend in a ravine for three or four miles onto 
a broad and comparatively level valley, and which is probably 
an arm of prairie, putting up among the mountains from the 
western outlet. Most respectfully Orson Pratt." 

"Elders Amasa Lyman, Charles C. Rich, and the saints: I 
leave you an extract of a letter from Orson Pratt found at this 
camping ground, for your benefit and guidance. Yours very 
truly, Thomas Bullock, Clerk of Pioneer Camp." 

We then descended a steep hill and encamped on the banks 
of Ogden's fork about a quarter of a mile beyond where we 
found the letter, having traveled seven and one-half miles. The 
sick are getting better this evening. 

Friday, July 23rd. The morning was warm and pleasant, 
and we proceeded on our journey about 6:45, the road leaving 
the stream here and turning short to the west, and passing up 
a ravine, about a west course over a gradual ascent. The road 
is rough, rocky, and sideling in many places, and leads through 
dense thickets of underbrush, and quite a forest of hemlock and 
poplar trees. At length, after traveling about four miles, we 
attained the summit of the hill. Here we had a fine view of 
the snowy mountains and the open country in the distance. We 
have passed two or three springs during our travel this fore- 
noon. We have begun to descend a long steep hill (*Big moun- 
tain), part of the way we had to chain both wheels. The descent 
is winding over a rough road, there being many stumps to 
annoy us. 

About half way down Brother L. Young's ox wagon turned 
over. His two little boys were in the wagon at the time, but 
providentially escaped uninjured, though part of the load, hav- 
ing been disarranged, rolled upon them, stopping up the 
entrance, but they were liberated by cutting a hole in the wagon 

As we descended, the road bearing to the south, we crossed 
a small stream six times, which ran along the base of the hill 
through a ravine (*Parley's canyon), and after having come 
six and one-half miles down a gradual descent we encamped 
on an open area of ground, spoken of by Orson Pratt, as being 
an arm of prairie, putting up among the mountains from the 


western outlet, about 12 o'clock, having come this forenoon about 
eight and one-half miles. 

While we were stopped here, J. Pack and Joseph Mathews 
rode up on horseback. They reported both companies of the 
brethren to be about fourteen miles ahead, encamped in a valley 
about twenty-five miles from Salt Lake, which could be 
seen in the distance to the northwest. When they left this 
morning the brethren were preparing to move four miles 
farther, and then stop and commence planting. They say the 
soil is very rich and fertile. They also brought a letter from 
0. Pratt,. G. A. Smith and W. Richards to President Young, 
giving an account of the road and the general features of the 
country, etc. 

After a halt of about two hours we again proceeded on our 
journey, going south of west a short distance, the valley be- 
coming more confined in its limits as we advanced, until we 
began to ascend a long steep hill, which is about one and one- 
half miles to the top. Here Brothers Pack and Mathews left 
us and Avent ahead. We began to descend a long steep hill 
(*Little mountain), bearing a southwest course. The most of 
the way we had to chain both wheels. As we descended the 
above hill we saw an abundance of service berries. At 5 p. m. 
we encamped at the base of the hill, on the banks of a small 
clear stream of cool Avater (*Emigration Canyon creek). Its 
banks are thickly skirted with quaking asp and cottonwood 
trees. We have come this afternoon three miles, and during 
the day eleven and one-half miles. 

A short time after our arrival at this place, the sky be- 
came overcast with clouds, and a strong wind, setting in from 
the southwest, gives the appearance of a very heavy storm. The 
grass here is rather tall and rank, though in places is pretty 
good. The sick are gaining strength as fast as could be ex- 
pected, considering the fatigue of the journey. The day has 
been the hottest we have experienced since we left Winter 
Quarters. There was not a breath of air in the ravine, and 
the dust was almost suffocating. 



Saturday, July 24th. The morning was pleasant. In get- 
ting up our horses we discovered that some were missing, two 
of Brother Whitney's and two of Brother Smooths. The camp 
started, leaving Brothers Whitney's and Smoot's wagons be- 
hind. I rode ahead about a mile and could not find them, nor 
see any tracks. I then returned and went back about three 
miles and found them. After I got to the wagons, Brother 
Whitney and I got on our horses and rode ahead. The road 
was rough and uneven, winding along a narrow ravine, cross- 
ing the small stream, which we last encamped on, about fif- 
teen or twenty times. We then left the ravine and turned to 
the right and ascended a very steep pitch, where we beheld 
the great valley of the Salt Lake spreading out before us. 

My heart felt truly glad, and I rejoiced at having the 
privilege of beholding this extensive and beautiful valley, that 
may yet bec6me a home for the Saints. From this point we 
could see the blue waters of the Salt Lake. By ascending one 
of the ridges at the mouth of this canyon, the view over the 
valley is at once pleasing and interesting. These high moun- 
tains on the east side, extending to the head of the valley, 
about fifty miles to the south, many of them white on the tops 
ajid crevises with snow. At the south end is another moun- 
tain, which bounds the valley in that direction, and at its west- 
ern extremity it is joined by another range, forming its west- 
em boundary to the valley and extending in a northerly direc- 
tion until it ceases abruptly nearly west of this place. The 
valley between these mountains is judged to be twenty-five to 
thirty miles wide at the north end of the last mentioned moun- 
tain. The level valley extends to the Salt Lake, which is plainly 
visible for many miles in a western direction from this place. 

In the lake, and many miles beyond this valley, are two 
mountains projecting high in the air, forming a solemn but 
pleasing contrast with the dark blue waters of the lake. Be- 
yond these two mountains and in the distance, in a direction 
between them, is another hiirh dark mountain, supposed to be 
on the western boundary of the lake, and .111 dared to be eighty 


to one hundred miles from here. At this distance we can see, 
apparently, but a small surface of the water, extending- between 
this valley and the mountains referred to, but that surface is 
probably thirty miles wide. Looking to the northwest, another 
mountain appears, extending to the north till hidden by the 
eastern range. At the base of this mountain is a long ridge 
of white substance, which from its bright shining appearance 
is doubtless salt, and was probably caused by the dashing of 
the waves, and then hardened by the sun. 

The whole surface of the valley appears, from here, to be 
level and beautiful. The distance from here to the lake is 
judged to be forty to fifty miles. Throughout the whole ex- 
tent of the valley can be seen very many green patches of 
rich looking grass, which no doubt lays on the banks of creeks 
and streams. There is some little timber also on the streams, 
and in the direction of the great lake many small lakes appear 
upon the surface, the waters of Avhich are doubtless salty. 
From a careful view of the appearance of the valley from this 
place, it cannot be concluded to be otherwise than rich and 
very fertile. 

After leaving the canyon about two miles we came in sight 
of the other camps, a few miles to the west. Proceeding on 
we found the road descending gradually but very rapidly. At 
11:45 we arrived at the camp of the brethren, having traveled 
liine and one-fourth miles today, making the total distance 
from the guide board at Pratt 's Pass to this place 41 1 / 4 miles, 
arid from Fort Bridger 115 Vv miles, and from Fort John (*Lar- 
arnie), 512y 2 miles. 

On our arrival among the brethren we found them busily 
engaged in plowing and planting potatoes. They have already 
plowed a number of acres, and got considerable planted. Others 
of the brethren are engaged in building a dam on the creek to 
turn the water on the land, so as to supply the lack of rain 
by irrigation, for which this place is admirably adapted, on 
account of the manv streams descending from the mountains, 
The descent being rapid, the water courses can easily be turned 
to any portion of the land at pleasure and little labor. 

About 5 o'clock this evening the sky became overcast with 
clouds and the rumbling of thunder could be heard in the dis- 
tance, and to all appearance there was a heavy storm approach- 
ing. The wind blew up strong from the southwest, when it be- 
gan to rain, the wind changing to the north, but the heaviest 
of the storm passed to the southwest of us. Notwithstanding, 
we had a sufficient rain to moisten the soil, which is quite en- 
couraging to us. 



This valley is bounded by high mountains, some of them 
covered with snow, and from what knowledge we have of it at 
present, this is the most safe and secure place the Saints could 
possibly locate themselves in. Nature has fortified this place 
on all sides, with only a few narrow passes, which could be 
made impregnable without much difficulty. The scarcity of 
timber has probably been the reason that this beautiful valley 
has not been settled long since by the Gentiles. But I thini 
we can find sufficient timber up the creeks for present purposes, 
and also coal in the mountains. The saints have reason to 
rejoice, and thank the Lord for this goodly land unpopulated 
bv the Gentiles. 

Result of ThiM Flrt Start of Irrigation. 

Sunday, July 25th. The morning was warm and pleasant, 
and at 10 o'clock the bugle sounded for the brethren to come 
together for meeting. Elders Kimball, G. A. Smith and E. T. 
Benson spoke on different subjects and gave some general in- 
structions. After meeting Brother Kimball gave me a list of 
names of persons which he wished me to notify, and have them 
retire to a grove a short distance from the camp. The follow- 
ing is a list of the names : William King, Hosea Cushing, Orson 


Whipple, George Billings, Thomas Cloward, Robert Biard, Carlos 
Murray, Orson K. Whitney, Hans C. Hansen, Jackson Reding, 
H. K. Whitney, Philo Johnson, Charles Harper and myself. 

Heber C. Kimball. 

We met about 1 p. m., when Elder Kimball addressed them 
in substance as follows : Most of you here present have be- 
come adopted into my family, except a very few (calling- them 
by name), and Harris, who has become connected by marriage 
with my family. But I do not care for that, you are all the 
same to me, and your interest is my interest, for what is mine 
is yours and what is yours is your own. If I have the privilege 
of building a house, I want you lo help me and I will help 
you. Harris will want to build a house for his father's fam- 
ily, if they should come up, and there is plenty of timber in 
the hills. When my family comes up, we may conclude to 


settle somewhere else; if so, there will be plenty to buy us out, 
if we shall have made any improvements. 1 want you all to 
be prudent and take care of your horses and cattle, and every- 
thing entrusted to your care. It would be a good plan and 
pirobably will be done, for those who stay here, to go back 
on the Sweet Water and kill buffalos for winter consumption. 
We shall go tomorrow, if Brigham is well enough, in search of 
a better location if. indeed, such can be found. If not, we shall 
remain here. There should be an enclosure made for the pur- 
pose of keeping our hordes and cattle in nights, for there are 
plenty of Indians in the vicinity. I should a 1 vise you to 
keep the Sabbath day holv, whether others do or not. I want 
you to put all the seed into the ground that von think will 
come to maturity. I am satisfied that buckwheat will do as 
well here as any other seed we can sow. I want also some 
peach stones and apple seeds to be planted forthwith. Brothers 
Biard and Hanson I would like to have immediately engaged in 
making garments of buckskins, and Brother Cloward in mak- 
ing shoes, and Brother Johnson in making hats as soon as pos- 

If you wish to go hunting, fishing, or to see the country, 
select a week-day for that purpose. Do not let us get giddy and 
light-minded, as the Nephrites did of old, but strive to work 
righteousness in the beginning, inasmuch as we have reached 
"the promised land." If it is advisable to work in a familv 
capacity we will do so, and, if in a Church capacity, we should 
be equally willing to do that. T am going out on a scout with 
the brethren and T shall probably want one or two of you to 
go with me, and also one or two wagons. I am not going to 
take anything back with me to Wniter Quarters, only what is 
really necessary. Even some of my clothes I shall leave be- 
hind. I shall leave Bishop Whipple with you. He is quite a 
steady and economical man, and as such I recommend him to 
you. I want every man to be as industrious as possible while 
I am gone, and get into the ground all the turnips, cabbage 
and other seeds you can. 

In case a storm of snow should come on, it would be ad' 
visable to drive all the cattle among ihe willows, where they 
can remain till the snow goes off. T want you all to work to- 
gether until such time shall come that every man shall have 
his inheritance set off to him. I feel toward von as a father 
toward his children, and I want you to banish all peevishness 
from among your midst and accommodate yourselves as much 
as possible to each other's wishes. I have it to say; my boys 
have been faithful to their various duties on this journey, and 


other people have noticed it and expressed their opinions, that 
they never saw such an attentive set of men in their lives, and 
I consider their conduct is worthy of imitation. I want you to 
be sober arid prayerful, and remember me and my family in 
your prayers. ' ' 

A number of other good ideas were advanced by Brother 
Kimball of an edifying nature, and then he closed the meeting 
by prayer. At 2 p. m. we all retired separately to the camp, 
having enjoyed one of the happiest and best meeting's we have 
had for a long time. A meeting was again held this afternoon 
in the circle. The brethren were successively addressed by 
Elders Woodruff, Pratt and W. Richards on subjects of a gen- 
eral nature, and in particular, the good fortune that had attended 
our safe arrival at this place without the loss of any indi- 
vidual by death or otherwise on the road. Brother Young 
advised the brethren to tie up their horses every night. About 
6 p. m. the meeting was dismissed. 

Brother Young called the attention of the brethren a few 
moments. He said he hoped all those who had found articles 
of any description on the road would make it known, that the 
owners might get them. He said a dishonest man was a curse to 
the saints, and he might live with them 969 years and go to 
hell and be damned at last. He said that if a man retained 
anything which did not belong to him, it would leak out in the 
course of time, and it would prove a curse to him, and would 
be a stain on him and his posterity that never would be wiped 
out in time and throughout all eternity 7 , and the stain never 
would be wiped out until it was burned out in hell. 

Monday, July 26th. The morning was somewhat cloudy, 
and at 6 a. m. the bugle sounded for the brethren to collect 
their horses and cattle to recommence plowing and planting, the 
teams to be relieved at intervals of every four hours during the 
day. Fifteen men were selected to go and make a road through 
a defile in the mountains, where we expected to find timber for 
building. We put up our tent this morning, in the grove where 
we had our meeting yesterday, for the brethren to work in. 
Brother Biard has commenced making a pair of pants for me 
out of buckskins, and Brother Cloward is mending the Elders 

President Young, Kimball and others rode this afternoon 
to view the country. They went up a hgh mountain about three 
miles from the camp, which is about northwest from here. They 
appeared to be delighted with the view of the surrounding 
country on their return. Elder Kimball missed his spy glass- 
and returned back in search of it, accompanied by Brothers 


Benson and Richards. He went to the top of the mountain in 
search of his glass, but could not find it. 

At the foot of the mountain is a hot spring, where Brothers 
Benson and Richards bathed. They report it to be as hot as 
they could bear. Brothers Clayton and G. A. Smith went about 
two miles further than the brethren and came to a stream 
("Jordan river), about 5 or 6 rods wide and about 31/2 feet deep, 
which comes from the south end of the valley and runs into the 
Salt Lake. Brothers J. Brown and J. Mathews started out 
early this morning to explore the country. They returned this 
evening and reported that they had been on the mountain that is 
southwest of us. They found a horse near the mountain, a,bout 
six years old, and brought him to the camp. Elder Kimball 
found his spy glass as he returned home. 

Tuesday, July 27th. The morning was warm, but some- 
what cloudy. The bugle sounded as usual for the brethren to 
go to work, plowing and planting. There was a small company 
sent back on the road five or six miles with two wagons to get 
logs to saw up to make a boat. Soon after breakfast two 
Indians of the Eutaw (Utah) tribe came to camp. They were 
somewhat slightly clad in skins, and are quite small in stature. 
J. Redding exchanged a gun with one of them for a horse. 
Brother G. R. Grant also exchanged a gun for a pony. They 
gave us to understand by signs, that there was a large party 
of them about forty miles from here. 

The Twelve and some others started on an exploring ex- 
pedition this morning. Before they got out of sight three 
horsemen were seen coming toward the camp. Brother Kimball 
waited a few minutes until they arrived. It proved to be 
Brothers Amasa Lyman, Brannon, J. Stevens and Rodney 
Badger. They report the Battalion to be about two days' 
journey from here. Brothers Lyman and Brannon joined the 
expedition. This afternoon five or six more Indians came into 
camp, and staid all night. 

Before Brother Kimball left he informed me, that Brother 
Brisrham w r as going to move his wagons about three-quarters of 
a mile northwest, and he wanted me to move three of our wagons 
also. Soon after they started I commenced hauling the wagons 
up, crossing a small stream and encamped on the banks of 
another stream (City creek). We also moved our tent up this 
evening, and I hauled Brother Benson 's Avagon up. Dr. Richards 
is also going to move up, which will make quite a number. 

The brethren are all busily engaged, plowing and planting. 
Elder Kimball keeps an ox team and a four mule team plowing, 
and is going to start another four mule team. Brother Cushing 



and Brother Johnson are plowing- today. Brothers Whipple and 
Billings are planting. Brother King accompanied the expedition. 
Brothers Cloward and Baird and Hanson are at their usual 
occupation. Brother Clayton is engaged in writing up H. C. 
Kimball's journal. Brother C. Murray is waiting on Ellen 
(Saunders). There are five prairie teams kept constantly 
plowing and three teams harrowing. The longitude of the 
Warm Springs is 42 degrees 15 minutes 6 seconds. 

Wednesday, July 28th. The morning was warm and pleas- 
ant, and the brethren were engaged in plowing as usual. This 

Exact Size, Facsimile of July 28th, 1847, as Written by Howard 
l-:-n in His Diary, the Original of \Vhich We Have. 

morning Brother Redding and myself harnessed up a mule that 
never had been worked, in order to brake him in so he could be 
used to plow. He worked very well, and we hauled some poles 
to make a bowery over our wagons. Last night I was out late 
hunting our horses, and I took supper with Brother Redding 


and lodged with him. Brother Brannon returned this afternoon 
and reported that the Twelve were on their way back to camp. 
Brother Joseph Hancock brought in a deer, which he killed 
today, to camp. 

T4ie brethren of the Twelve arrived at the camp this evening 
very much fatigued by their journey. They report seeing a 
number of large caves in the rocks along the mountains, one 
of which they could ride their horses in forty or fifty feet. 
They also saw a number of wild goats. Brother Woodruff lost 
his whip, and went back about three miles, and saw a party of 
Indians a short distance off. One of them rode up to him and 
shook hands with him, and made signs that they were going to 
the north part of the lake. The brethren bathed in the lake, 
the waters of which are so extremely salt that a man could not 
sink in it, if he should try. On the margin is vast quantities 
of salt of a superior quality, a sample of which Brother Young 
brought home with him. They reported it as one of the most 
beautiful places they had ever seen. I will give a general de- 
scription of the lake and the surrounding country hereafter, as 
I expect to visit it before I return to Winter Quarters. 

The brethren of the Twelve wished me to notify Brother 
Markham to have the brethren meet close by our camp at 8 
o'clock this evening. They were addressed by President Young 
pertaining- to our locating here. He said he wanted the brethren 
to express their feelings on the subject. Many of the brethren 
did so, and were in favor of settling here. It was moved and 
seconded that we should locate in this valley for the present, 
and lay out a city at this place; which was carried without a 
dissenting voice. It was also voted that the Twelve act as a 
committee to superintend the laying out of the city, etc., the 
plan of which I will give in another place. President Young 
expressed his feelings warmly to the brethren on different sub- 
jects. He was filled with the Spirit of God and spoke with 
power, which caused the brethren to rejoice. 

Thursday, July 29th. The morning was warm with a strong 
wind blowing from the southeast. Last night C. Murray and 
myself slept in the tent, and the wind became so violent we 
were under the necessity of striking our tent (lowering it). This 
forenoon we moved our other three wagons up to where we are 
encamped. The Twelve and some others, rode out this morning 
to meet the detachment commanded bv Captain Brown. Brothers 
Whipple, King and myself engaged in sowing seeds in a garden 
spot about three miles southeast of the camp. This afternoon 
we had a heavy shower, which wet the soil to the depth of about 


three inches. Soon after the shower was over Captain Brown's 
company came in sight. 

I understand that ther is fourteen government wagons, and 
twenty wagons that belong to the Mississippi company, who 
wintered at Pueblo. Brother Kimball informed me that the 
slight rain we had raised the water in the canyon so high that 
some of the wagons could not cross for some time. The Bat- 
talion detachment has encamped on the other side of the creek 
between the two camps. Brothers Gushing and Billings are en- 
gaged in plowing, Brother Philo Johnson is also engaged in 
farming. The other boys are engaged at their usual occupations. 
After supper Brother Kimball asked me to come into his wagon, 
and read the minutes of last Sunday's meeting, after which 
Brothers Kimball, Whipple and myself took a walk. We had 
a very pleasant evening's conversation, then joined in prayer 
arid returned to camp about 11 p. m. The evening was pleasant. 

Friday, July 30th. -The brethren were engaged as usual 
plowing and planting. Brothers Whipple, King, Redding and 
myself went up to the garden and sowed some more seeds. We 
have put in a few of almost all kinds of seeds. This afternoon 
the Twelve and officers of the Battalion, with some others rode 
out as far as the Hot Springs. They had been in council about 
three hours. There is an appointment given out for a meeting 
this evening at 7 o'clock at the upper camp. Brother H. K. 
Whitney moved his wagons up to our camp this evening. I have 
tried on a pair of buckskin pants made by Brother Baird, which 
are the neatest and the best fit I ever had. All the brethren, 
including those who belong to the Battalion, met according to 
previous appointment, near our camp. The brethren were ad- 
dressed by President Young in his usual interesting and in- 
structive manner. The meetng was opened by a Honsannah to 
God, three times. 

He addressed the brethren of the Battalion very warm and 
affectionately. He said the council had proffered their assist- 
ance to the government to go to California, but they were always 
silent on the subject, until they heard we were driven from our 
homes and scattered on the prairie. Then they made a demand 
for five hundred men, that they might have women and children 
to suffer, and, if we had not complied with the requisition, they 
would have treated us as enemies, and the next move would 
have been to have let Missouri and the adjoining states loose on 
us, and wipe us from the face of the earth. This is what they 
had in comtemplation, and your going into the armv has saved 
the lives of thousands of people, etc. President Young* requested 


the brethren of the Battalion to turn out tomorrow and build a 
bowery to hold our meetings in. 

Saturday, July 31st. The weather was pleasant, and the 
brethren were engaged at their usual occupations. Brothers 
King, Whipple and myself were sowing turnips, buckwheat, oats, 
etc. The brethren of the Battalion are engaged in building the 
bowery, at the spot where the brethren first commenced plowing. 
Brother Markham thinks there is about fifty acres plowed, and 
the most of it is planted. At the garden spot there is about ten 
acres plowed and nearly all sowed. We have sowed for Brother 
Kimball 's family three acres of buckwheat, one acre of corn, one 
acre of oats, half an acre of turnips, one-fourth acre of different 
kinds of seeds, and one bushel of potatoes. 

Brothers G. Billings and Pack rode about six miles back on 
the road that we came on, and cut forty-one logs for building. 
There is some thirty or forty Indians at our camp today. There 
was a misunderstanding between two of them about a horse that 
was traded to one of the brethren for a gun, when one of them 
struck the other on the head with his gun. One of the old 
Indians, who is supposed to be a chief, horsewhipped both of 
them. A short time after, the one that got struck with the gun, 
took one of their horses and started off. They saw him and 
six of them rode after him. After they had been gone a few 
hours they returned and made signs that they had killed him. 
They said they had shot both him and his horse. 

Brother King and myself spent the evening with the breth- 
ren of the Battalion. I learned that President Young gave some 
general instruction to the Battalion pertaining to trading with 
the Indians, and their future course, etc. 



Sunday, August 1st. The morning was pleasant, with a 
strong breeze blowing from the northwest. A meeting was held 
in the Bowery, commencing at 10 a. m., and another this after- 
noon, commencing at 2 p. m. ' I was absent, but learned after 
that the revelation given early last spring in Winter Quarters, 
was read by Dr. Richards, and a vote taken that they would 
abide by the principles contained therein. The idea was sug- 
gested and finally adopted that we employ the Spanish mode of 
building houses with adobies, clay or durt moulded and dried 
in the sun. 

Monday, August 2nd. It was fine weather with a cool 
breeze from the northeast. This morning William King, George 
Billings and myself went into the mountains with teams for 
timber, with which we returned about sunset. Agreeable to 
previous arrangements, the two camps below commenced to move 
to this place. Prof. 0. Pratt, Father Sherwood and others com- 
menced surveying the ground for the city. Eight or nine men 
were today detailed or chosen to guard our cattle during our 
stay here, who are exempt from all other labors. The brethren 
are principally engaged in plowing, planting, sawing lumber for 
a boat, making coal pits, preparing to. make adobies, etc. 

Brother E. T. Benson, 0. P. Rockwell and three others 
started on horseback, about noon to go back and meet the next 
company, expected soon from Winter Quarters. Brother Clayton 
wrote a letter for Brother Kimball to James Smithies, the sub- 
stance of which was, that he wished him to forward by the 
bearer (Brother Benson) the general news in Winter Quarters, 
particularly as regards his (Heber's) family, and also all letters 
that have been written by our friends from that place. The 
wagons of the three camps, including the soldiers, were all 
formed into a compact circle, a short distance from this spot. 

Tuesday, August 3rd. It was warm and pleasant as usual, 
but the last night was the coolest one we have experienced for 
a long time. The brethren are engaged in their usual occupa- 
tions. Considrable of the corn and beans planted has already 
made' its appearance above the ground, and is in a flourshing 
condition. J. Redding and myself went this morning with a team 
eight miles up the pass, within one mile of the last camping 


place, where we cut down and brought to camp, two cedars, for 
the purpose of making: bedsteads, pails, etc. We arrived at 
home about 9 p. m. We had quite a hard time of it, the road 
being almost impassable on account of the bridges having 
floated off. 

President Young stated today, his intention of having the 
ox teams start back on Monday next, and the horse teams two 
weeks from that time. L. B. Myers returned from the Eutaw 
(Utah) Lake yesterday. He reports it to be about thirty miles 
south of this place, and that on the east side of it is plenty of 
timber, which might be easily floated down the river to this 
place, the outlet of the lake being a river passing near here. 
A number of huntsmen have gone back, within a day or two, 
some forty miles in pursuit of game. 

Wednesday, August 4th. The weather is pleasant with & 
slight breeze from the south. J. Redding, G. Billings, H. Gushing 
and myself, with three teams, went six miles to get timber. We 
returned this evening soon after dark with three loads of good 
logs (balsam), got for the purpose of building a store house. 
Brother William Clayton, with the assistance of William King 
and Orson (Whitney) was engaged today in making a new 
Roadometer, as he intends to start back with the ox teams on 
Monday next. 

Brother Brannon, J. G. Little, Lieutenant Willis and one 
or two others started this morning on an excursion to the south, 
intending to go to the Eutaw (Utah) Lake. I learned that a 
case was brought before the Twelve for trial today. It re- 
ferred to one of the soldier brethren, William Tubbs, who was 
accused of improper conduct with two females, who accompanied 
the Battalion. I did not learn particulars, but understood that 
the accused acknowledged that he had done wrong and was 
sorry for it; when the case was dismissed, and he was told to 
"go and sin no more." 

Thursday, August 5th. Tt was warm as usual. This morn- 
ing G. Billinirs, J. Redding, H. Cushinsr, Andrew Gibbons, Philo 
Johnson and mvself aerain went into the woods after logs with 
three teams. We returned toward nisrht. This evening Samuel 
Brannon, J. G. Little, and Lieutenant Willis returned from their 
excursion to the Eutaw Lake, of which and the adjacent country, 
thev gave a similar account, to that of Lewis B. Myers. During 
their travel, about ten miles from here, they saw lying bv the 
side of the trail, the dead bodies of two Indians, supposed to 
have been killed in the affray mentioned to have occurred on the 
31st ult. They also discovered the dead bodv of a horse with its 
throat cut, some six miles from here. This probably belonged 


to one of the Indians, and had been first shot, while they were 
endeavoring to make their escape. A number of Indians came 
into camp this evening and stopped for the night. 

Friday, August 6th. It was warm and sultry. The brethren 
were engaged in their usual avocations. This morning consid- 
erable alarm was created in the camp by the report that the 
Indians had left during the night and taken with them all our 
loose horses. This, however, proved groundless, as upon thorough 
search the horses, supposed to be missing, were found. They 
were not easily seen from here on account of the high grass on 
the bottoms. The preliminary arrangements, having been com- 
pleted, the brethren this morning commenced making adobies on 
the bottoms a mile below here, and during this forenoon, 
moulded and laid out 750 of them. H. Gushing, G. Billings, 
Andrew Gibbons and myself with four teams went after more 
logs for building. We got mostly balsam fir tree logs, and we 
returned toward evening. 

Saturday, August 7th. The hounds to G. Billings wagon 
having been broken, were repaired this morning. J. Redding, 
John Tibbits, G. Billings, Andrew Gibbons and myself, with 
three teams, again went into the woods. We returned about 
noon with a quantity of poles, of which we made a horse yard 
this afternoon on Brother Kimball's lot, which is situated on 
the other side of the creek, a few rods hence. Hosea Gushing 
made a hay rake today. William King is still engaged in con- 
structing a roadometer for Brother Clayton. Horace and Orson 
(Whitney) took their teams and went up the pass, near here, 
about half a mile and got a load of bushes, with which to cover 
the blacksmith shop, the first house built with logs, which stands 
a short distance from here. 

Today a number of brethren made a darn, a few rods above 
the wagons, on the small stream, which runs along the north 
side of the camp. After this two dikes were made communicating 
with the dam, the water of which will irrigate the whole camp 
ground, and laying the dust renders everything more cool and 
pleasant. This evening Brother Kimball invited all the members 
of his family to the dam, above here, where he administered to 
them the ordinance of baptism. A number of the other brethren, 
making, I believe, fifty-four in all, were baptized this evening 
by himself and others of the quorum of the Twelve. 

Sunday, August 8th. The morning was cloudy with con- 
siderable of rain. The ceremony of baptism was recommenced, 
and all who felt disposed were invited to come forward and 
receive the ordinance, which they did in great numbers, both 
men and women. A number of Indians again made their ap- 



pearance in the camp this morning. They came for the purpose 
of reclaiming a horse, one of them had sold to Brother J. Han- 
cock for a i:im, which the Indian had some way broken by acci- 
dent and still wished to keep it. By the president's advise, 
Brother Plancock refused to give up the horse, for, if we yielded 
to their claim in this instance, we might make up our minds to 
submit in future to every other demand they might make, of a 
like nature. 

Fimt House Built in Salt Lake City. 

A meeting was held in the Bowery, commencing at 10 a. in. 
Brother Kimhall first addressed the congregation, exhorting 
them to abide by their covenants, and to the observance of 
various duties devolving upon them as saints of God. He was 
followed by Elder Woodruff, who gave them a -.:<>< <i <K al of good 
instruction and advice of a like nature, and the meeting was 
dismissed at noon, being adjourned until 2 p. m. A council of 
the Twelve was IK Id in a tent near here, at which an " Epistle 
of the Twelve'' to the Battalion and the saints in California 
wa> read. This is to be transmitted bv Elder Samuel Brannon, 
who starts on his return tomorrow. 


Meeting- held pursuant to adjournment at 2 p. m. There 
were present of the quorum of the Twelve: President Young-, 
H. C.'Kimball, Willard Richards, W. Woodruff and 0. Pratt. 
Sacrament was administererd, during which time Brother 
Lorenzo Young made some remarks, after which Brother Kimball 
arose and said: "There is some business to bring- before the 
brethren. First In regard to building the stockade of adobies ; 
and now the idea is to call out a company of men to be under a 
leader, who shall attend to that business. Sixty to hoke, twelve 
to mould and twenty to put up walls. I think it best to beat 
up for volunteers." The names of seventy-six were taken 
as volunteers. 

President Young said: "We now propose to put up some 
log houses, and plaster them up outside, perhaps build one side 
with logs." Brother Kimball moved that we put the log houses 
on the line seconded and carried. Brother Robert Crow moved 
that we have four gates, one on each side seconded and carried. 
President Young said: "We want five or six men to assist 
Father Sherwood in surveying the city. Every man shall be 
credited what he does on the adobie houses, and then when others 
come in, they shall pay the price for it. We expect every man 
will have his lot and farm and will attend to it himself. A few 
men came with Thomas Williams when he came to Fort Briclger, 
when they came they borrowed flour of the Pioneer company, 
most of them refuse to pay what was borrowed for them. They 
ought to return the compliment." 

Thomas Williams said: "There are only two or three who 
have paid their portion. Those were the persons who returned 
to the Battalion." Captain Brown said: "Thomas Williams 
suggested the propriety of going- ahead to overtake the Pioneers 
and get back a couple of stolen mules. Tf Williams had asked 
for volunteers he could have had half the Battalion." 

President Young said: "You came and would not have 
eaten more if you had staid. Is there a man that would not have 
borrowed on the strength of his rations. Brother Rockwood let 
them have twenty pounds of flour, that we don't want, but the 
twelfth ten have not ten pounds of flour among them, and that 
ought to be paid.'-' He then related the "Sim" Goodel affair, 
and said "I anticipate the time will come when I shall enjoy 
good health in this valley, and be able to speak to the brethren. 
I deprive myself of preaching to the brethren in order to keep 
on this side of the vail. If the wind had not blowed so hard, 
I should have spoken upon the sealing principle. I perceive that 
I fail, that my bodily strength is decreasing. If I had spoken it 
would have hurt me. There are many things I want to say be- 


fore I go. I feel thankful that I am here, words and actions 
cannot exhibit what is in me. The hand of the Lord is stretched 
out. He will surely vex the nations that has driven us out. 
They have rejected the whole council of God. The nation will 
be sifted and the most come out chaff, and they will go to the 
firey furnace. They will go to hell. This is ^the spot I had 
anticipated. We will not have a hard winter here. The high- 
est mountains are near one and one-quarter miles high. We 
shall find that sugar cane and sweet potatoes will grow here. 
The brethren from Pueblo advise us all to build adoHjie houses. 
There never was a better or richer soil than this. Last fall we 
found there were lots of persons who had not two weeks pro- 
visions with them. If we had come on then, we should have 
led a people to the mountains to suffer. We told the pioneers 
to bring at least one hundred pounds of bread-stuff. If men 
have not bread, let them go where it is. There are some that 
would lie down and die before they would complain, and again 
others who would take the blood of man for it. The first com- 
pany were charged to bring a sufficient quantity to last them 
through the present season. I calculate we shall bring as much 
as will last us until we can raise food. We want all the breth- 
ren who are goins: back, to go to the Salt Lake and have a 
swim. The water is almost equal to vinegar to make your eyes 
and nose smart." After a benediction by the president, the 
meeting was dismissed at 5 :20 p. m. 

Monday, August 9th. It is fine weather this morning and 
Andrew Gibbons, George Billings, Horace Gushing, William 
King, Horace Whitney and myself, with four teams, went up the 
pass about six miles from here, where we got four loads of 
poles and took them to the yard, about a mile below here, where 
the brethren are engaged in making adobies with which to 
bnild the stockade or fort, which is to enclose ten acres. 
Captain Brown, Samuel Brannon, William H. Squires and some 
others started this morning on pack horses for California. 
Brother J. C. Little and some others went with them, intending 
to accompany them as far as Fort Hall, and a few only as far 
as Besir River. 

Tuesday, August 10th. It was a pleasant morning. Horace 
and myself with two teams went to the place where we got 
poles yesterday, and cut three loads of logs, which he, myself 
and Ozro Eastman with a third team, took to the adobie yard, 
where we arrived at 5 p. m. and found Brother Kimball, J. 
Redding, A. Gibbons and G. Billings engaged in laying the 
basement of a row of log buildings on the east side, which side 
of the stockade is immediately on the line, and I understand 


is to be entirely built of logs. President Young 7 s row of 
building's joins Brother Kimball ? s. 

I omitted to mention that last evening Brother Kimball 
invited Horace (Whitney), Brothers Whipple, William Clayton, 
William King, H. Gushing and myself to a walk over the 
creek, a short distance hence, to view the building lot he had 
selected. It is situated on a small elevated bench of ground, 
which commands a beautiful and extensive view of the valley 
to the north and south. Brother Kimball informed us that it 
was his intention to select two lots for Brother Whitney to the 
west and adjoining his own, and next to him Brother Clayton, 
if he chooses, could have a lot. He said that most of the 
Twelve had selected lots in the vicinity of the temple lot, which 
consists of forty acres (*changed after to twenty acres). After 
spending some time in conversation on different subjects, 
chiefly relating, however, to the prospect of our return to 
Winter Quarters, he proposed that we should pray. According- 
ly he made a beautiful prayer, returning thanks to the Lord 
for the preservation of ourselves, horses and cattle, and for 
conducting us to a goodly land, possessed of a rich and fertile 
soil, even ' ' a land of promise. ' ' He also prayed for our fam- 
ilies in Winter Quarters, that they might have no sickness 
among them, and finally for the saints throughout the world. 

After he. had closed we returned to camp. This afternoon 
the weather has been quite cloudy, and toward evening we had 
quite a gale of wind that prostrated quite a few of the soldiers' 
tents, but the wind did not last long. 

Wednesday, August llth. It was a fine day. and Orson 
(WhitnejO and myself went into the woods after logs. We 
returned just after sun down with two loads. The rest of the 
boys were engaged in laying up log's at the adobie yard. That 
part of the wall to be constructed of adobies was commenced 
today. A large band of Indians made their appearance in camp 
this morning on horseback. Not being permitted to come 
within the circle, after staying some time, they went down on 
the bottoms and encamped, about three miles below here. Four 
wagons (ox teams) started for Winter Quarters this morning, 
under the command of Captain Jacobs. These, I suppose, will 
remain on the Sweet Water and hunt buffalos till we come up. 

This afternoon we were much surprised and grieved by the 
unusual occurence among us of an afflicting' and domestic 
calamity. The following is a brief relation of the affair : 
Brother Brown Crow while getting a pail of water out of the 
small stream, which flows bv on the south side of the camp, 
discovered the dead body of his nephew, Milton Thirlkill, (a 


lad of about 3 years of age) lying in the deepest part of the 
water near the clam. The body was immediately taken out, and, 
notwithstanding every remedy usual in such cases, was resorted 
to for its resuscitation for an hour or more, but they were at 
length obliged to give up the ease as hopeless. The child had 
been seen playing with a young brother a short time previous, 
by the side of the stream; hence, they inferred that he must 
have been in the water some ten minutes. 

The grief of both of the parents was great, but that of the 
agonized mother baffles all description. She laughed, wept, 
walked to and fro, alternately, refusing all attempts at con- 
solation from her friends, being, apparently unable to become 
resigned to her domestic and melancholy bereavement. 

Thursday, August 12th. This was a very warm day, and 
we did not go after logs. The most of the boys, as usual, were 
engaged in laying up logs at the adobie yard. The funeral, or 
burial of the* child of George W. and Matilda Jane Thirlkill, 
took place about 2 p. m. Brother H. K. Whitney gave me the 
following account of the ceremony: 

"Myself with some others, accompanied as assistance, 
went to the place of burial, which is on Brother Crow ? s lot, 
about two miles below here, nearly opposite the adobie yard. 
As soon as we reached the grave, we all knelt and a beautiful 
and affecting prayer was made by Elder 0. Pratt in behalf of 
the bereaved parents and friends; after which, by request of 
Brother Crow, he made a few remarks by way of exhortation 
and instruction to us all, and concluded by a brief consoling 
address t<> the parents and friends of the deceased. About 3 
p. m. we returned to the camp." 

Two loads of salt arrived from the Salt Lake about 3 
o'clock. It is the best kind I have ever seen, being as white as 
snow, though somewhat coarse. The brethren who brought it ' 
in. remained on the shore of the lake for a day or two boiling 
down the salt together with water, in order to separate it 
from the particles of dirt with which it abounded. A number 
of brethren started today on horseback for Winter Quarters. 
Most of them were soldier brethren. 

Friday, August 13th. It was warm and sultry as usual. 
Brother John Tibbits and myself started for the woods about 
noon to procure timber for sawing. Just as we arrived at the 
mouth of the pass, we met Horace and Orson with their teams 
going to the adobie yard with a load of logs. 

Brother Kimball's row of buildings, consisting of five 
rooms, is already built up five logs high. Adjoining to the end 
of those, T)r. Richards and others of the Twelve, are building 


houses. There were two additional loads of salt brought in by 
the brethren this afternoon from the lake. 

Saturday, August 14th. This is a pleasant day. As it is 
the intention to start the ox teams on Monday next, all who 
are then going back, started this morning on an excursion to 
the Salt Lake. Some others were also permitted to go, among 
whom were Orson Whitney and Brother Clayton with his wagon. 
When they returned this evening Brother Clayton reported the 
distance to be twenty-two miles. The shaft or screw of the 
roadometer was broken on his return. Brother J. C. Little, 
Joseph Mathews, John Brown, Lieutenant Willis and John 
Buchanon, who accompanied Captain Brown and -others as far 
as Bear River on their way to California on Monday last, re- 
turned today. They had been as far as Cache valley on an 
exploring expedition, of which place they give a favorable 
account, although, they say, there is no more timber there than 
here, and that like this, being up the ravines in the mountains. 

Lewis B. Myers also returned today from the same country. 
Both parties report the game to be very scarce, neither having 
killed any. Some of them visited the settlement made by a man 
by the name of Miles, before referred to, and report the Amer- 
ican corn to be as high as ones shoulders, and the Spanish corn 
tassel ing out. 

G. Billings. H. Gushing and myself again went into the 
woods for logs today. While on the road we met with quite 
an accident. H. Gushing 's team, being ahead stopped suddenly, 
when one of the oxen of G. Billing's attached to the wagon im- 
mediately behind, ran with full force against the reach of the 
former wagon, which projected out considerably behind. The 
reach penetrated the breast of the ox nearly six inches, inflicting 
a wound large enough to admit a man's clenched hand, but, 
notwithstanding, having bound it up, we think he will get well. 
The fortification, or stockade has progressed bravely during 
the past week from the united diligence and industry of the 
brethren, and we indulge hopes to be ready to start back soon 
after Brother Benson returns. 

Sunday, August 15th. It was beautiful weather as usual, 
and a meeting was held at the Bowery, commencing at 10 a. m. 
President Young addressed the congregation on the sealing 
principles, or more particularly, on the law of adoption. He 
told them: It did not detract from a man's glory to be sealed 
to another, but added to it, for he still held that of his own 
and adopted parents at the same time. Meeting was adjourned 
at 12 noon, to meet again at 2 p. m. 


Meeting- met pursuant to adjournment and the congregation 
was addressed by Elder H. C. Kimball and 0. Pratt on various 
subjects. The meeting was dismissed at 6 p. m., with the re- 
quest by President Young that all those who intend to start 
back tomorrow should meet at his tent this evening at the sound 
of the bugle, which was accordingly done, and all the soldiers 
going brought their guns, ammunition, etc., and surrendered 
them into the president's hands, for the reception and safe 
keeping of which there will be a house built hereafter. I do 
not know the number going, but of those about Brother Kimball 
are the following: William Clayton, J. Redding, Robert Biard 
and Thomas Cloward. It rained considerably soon after we 
returned for the night, accompanied with a little wind. 

Monday, August 16th. It was somewhat cloudy and rained 
at intervals throughout the day. I was engaged in hunting up 
cattle this forenoon. Brother Biard and Cloward got started 
today, each having a wagon with two yokes of oxen attached, 
one yoke of which Brother Kimball got of Brother Huntington. 
William King repaired the roadometer this afternoon, and 
Wliliam Clayton, J. Redding and myself rode in the former's 
wagon as far as the Warm Springs, one and one-half miles dis- 
tant. This we done to see how the machinery would work. 
Quite a number of wagons started today besides the two above 
mentioned. Brothers Whipple and Allen w y ent up the hollow 
where we have been accustomed to get logs (Emmigration can- 
yon), and procured a large piece of sandstone, out of which 
this afternoon Brother Allen is fashioning a grindstone. There 
was quite a wind and storm soon after we retired for the night. 

Tuesday, August 17th. The sky was somewhat cloudy this 
morning. Brother Clayton started with his wagon from here 
today. He is accompanied by'J. Redding and E. Lamb. 

Brother Kimball, Dr. Richards, Colonel Rockw 7 ood, Thomas 
Bullock, Stephen H. Goddard and myself went up the Pass, 
about ten miles from here, where the brethren were encamped. 
They were soon called together, when Brother Kimball gave 
them some instructions for their observance and guidance on 
their journey. This company is intrusted to the commands of 
Captain Roundy and Tunis Rappleyee. The list of men and 
teams composing same is as follows : Fifty-nine men, thirty-two 
wagons, fourteen mules, sixteen horses, and ninety-two yokes 
of oxen. Brother Kimball and the rest of us returned toward 

This evening he called most of his boys together at 
Brother Wilkie's tent, where each chose his respective lot and 
Horace wrote their names on the blanks, representing the lots 


on the city plat or map. Brother William Clayton having left, 
Horace is hereafter to keep Brother Kimball's journal. The 
brethren are as usual engaged today at work on the adobie wall, 
which, when completed will be nine feet high and twenty-seven 
inches thick. Professor Pratt has taken observations and found 
the latitude of this place to be 40 degrees 45 minutes 50 seconds. 
The altitude above the level of the sea is 4309 feet, and above 
the Eutaw outlet (*head of Jordan) sixty-five feet. This even- 
ing after we returned, we again had quite a heavy wind from 
the southwest, accompanied by some rain, and, mingled with 
the latter last night, it is said, there was considerable snow. 
This heralds the approach of cold weather, and in the opinion 
of all, we ought not to remain here much longer. 

Wednesday, August 18th. There was fair weather this 
forenoon, though somewhat showery this afternoon. Nothing 
of importance occured today, except the usual work going on 
at the adobie yard, at which place I, for the first time, worked 
on the buildings, together with the rest of the boys. President 
Young has announced his intention that we shall start back on 
Tuesday next, and had his horses shod yesterday in preparation 
for that event. This afternoon Hosea and myself went to work 
at odd jobs about the wagons, unloading them, etc. 

Thursday, August 19th. It was a warm and pleasant day. 
Hosea and myself were engaged part of the day in drawing 
gravel with which to cover the houses. The remainder of the 
boys were also at work finishing them off. We had our horses 
and mules shod today, preparatory to our starting on Tuesday 
next. A party of Mountaineers (consisting of four white men 
and two squaws) arrived in the valley this afternoon from Fort 
Bridg'er. Their ostensible reason, for coming here was "to see 
how we get along, ' ' as they expressed themselves ; but undoubt- 
edly the real object of their visit was to trade with the Indians. 
They were encamped this evening about a mile below here on 
the bottoms. 

This afternoon Horace copied the names of those who had 
selected lots, as also the number of lots and block, opposite each 
one's name. Hans is engaged in making me a coat of buckskins. 

Friday, August 20th. It was pleasant weather, and Hosea 
Cushing and myself were engaged in hauling some loose logs 
that lay near here down to the adobie yard. Horace took a 
bar of iron to the blacksmith shop, had it cut in two, and 
carried it to the stockade to be used in constructing a chimney 
in one of Brother Kimball's rooms, which is being built by 
Brother S. Goddard. Brother Dockman is engaged in making 
a door. They have the covering laid over the top of one of 


the rooms, and the remainder are nearly ready for covering. 
Brother J. Mathews is engaged in sawing lumber at the saw-pit 
near by, with which to make the floors. 

The laying out of the city is now completed. It is composed 
of 135 blocks, each containing, ten acres, which is subdivided into 
eight lots, each containing one and one-fourth acres. The streets 
are eight rods wide. There are three public squares (including 
the adobie yard) in different parts of the city. The Temple 
block, like the rest contains ten acres. Father Sherwood re- 
turned from an exploring expedition to Cache valley this evening, 
whither he went day before yesterday, for the purpose of trading 
with the Indians. With him came a man by the name of Wells, 
who has lived some years in New Mexico among the Spaniards. 
I understand the brethren have given him the privilege of 
choosing a city lot, if he wishes to dwell here. 

Brother A. Carrington, John Brown and one or two others 
started this evening on an exploring expedition to visit the high 
mountains called the Twin Peaks, lying some distance to the 
southeast of this place. It is their intention to proceed to the 
base of the mountain and there encamp for the night, and on 
the morrow ascend the same in search of coal, etc. 

Saturday, August 21st. It was fair weather as usual. 
President Young and Kimball moved their wagons and effects 
down to the stockade today. Hosea Gushing, E. Whipple and 
myself assisted in the same . Nearly all of Brother Kimball 's 
rooms are now covered, and the floor of the one appropriated 
for Ellen Saunder's use is nearly laid. The most of the after- 
noon was employed by Brother Kimball, H. Gushing and myself 
in packing, unpacking, repacking and storing away the things 
in the house. The remainder of the boys as usual were engaged 
in working on the houses. Horace took his wagon to the black- 
smith shop, where, by my intervention Brother Burr Frost re- 
paired the skein to the axle tree, and also some of the hounds 
that had been broken, for which Horace gave him two-thirds 
of a pail of corn. 

Sunday, August 22nd. It was a pleasant day, though 
thunder could be heard in the distance this afternoon, and it 
probably rained considerably in the mountains. A meeting was 
held at^the Bowery, commencing at 10 a. m. The congregation 
was addressed by Elder A. Lyman upon the subject of our 
present situation as a people, the blessing we had received at 
the hands of the Lord, our further prospects, etc. 

A few remarks were made by President Young, stating the 
necessity of our holding a conference in order to transact some 
church business, which it was important should be brought before 


the people before we leave this place on our return to Winter 
Quarters. The meeting was then adjourned till 2 p. m. In the 
interim a council of the Twelve was held under the tree on 
Brother Kimball's lot. 

Pursuant to adjournment, conference met at 2 p. m. The 
following is the minutes of said conference, as reported by the 
clerk, Thomas Bullock : Sunday, August 22, 1847, 2 o'clock p. m. 
A special conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints, held in the Bowery on the Temple block in the Great 
Salt Lake City. Present : President Young, H. C. Kimball, W. 
Woodruff, A. Lyman, W. Richards and 0. Pratt, also Thomas 
Bullock and J. C. Little, clerks of said conference. 

President Young called the meeting to order and the choir 
sang "The Spirit of God Like a Fire Is Burning. " Prayer 
by W. Woodruff. The choir sang "From All That Dwell Below 
the Skies." Elder Kimball called for the business to be trans- 
acted before the conference and requested the brethren to be 
free and open, that it may be well for those that remain and 
those who are to come .here. It is necessary to transact a few 
items of business; to have a presidency to preside over this 
place, and to appoint such officers as are necessary to watch 
over and council them for their well being. Also the stockade; 
shall we continue our labors, and concentrate all our efforts in 
the building of that, or scatter, and every man work for himself? 
Shall we cultivate the earth in the vicinity of the city, or go 
three or four miles and make ^arrns and fence them so that our 
crops can be secure? Shall <ve scatter our labors? One man 
build his house, another fence his lot, another go hunting, etc., 
etc. These are matters for your consideration. 

If the brethren have any interest we want an expression of 
it ; if they have not, be silent, and we will transact the business. 
H. G. Sherwood said: "It meets my feelings to cultivate the 
city and fence it in with an adobie wall, and a high one will 
make a guard against the Indians and keep our cattle out. I 
am in favor of fencing in the city and cultivating it. ' ' 

X. Higgins said: "The Indians supposed the land to be 
all theirs, and are in the habit of taking a share of the grain 
for the use of the land." 

President Young moved that the brethren fence in the city 
and such portions as they had a mind to in sections and cul- 
tivate it. It was seconded by Dimick B. Huntington. H. C. 
Kimball said: "We have talked considerable about it, and the 
most prudent and economical way of doing it. It is best to 
farm in that portion which is tillable and that which is the most 
convenient for us. Suppose we divide it into three sections. 


Put the fence upon the line of the city just where we want it; 
and that which is not wet enough can be irrigated, and can raise 
100 to 1000 bushels for ourselves and those who come after us, 
and they shall pay you a good round price for it. I would rather 
fence a block of ten acres and have the crop, than plant 100 
acres for the cattle to destroy. Will you put your " mites" 
together for that which is the best for every mail, woman and 
child? Will you do it? (Cries of "Yes") I say put our fence 
together and fence the city, and sow our wheat safely." The 
motion was carried unanimously. 

President Young said: "I move that there be a president 
to preside over this place." Seconded and carried. "That 
there be a High Council." Seconded and carried. "That all 
other officers that are necessary be appointed for this place." 
Seconded and carried. "That we call this place the Great Salt 
Lake City of the Great Basin, North America. That we call 
the postoffice the Great Basin Postoffice." Seconded and 
carried. H. C. Kimball said: "I move that we call the river 
the ' Western Jordan.' ' Seconded and carried. 

President Young said: "It is the right of the Twelve to 
nominate the officers, and the people to receive them. We wish to 
know who is coming in the next company. If Uncle John Smith 
comes it is our minds that he preside. Colonel Rockwood is my 
principal man, attends to all my duties." H. C. Kimball said: 
"I move that Colonel Rockwood be honorably released from 
his duties as overseer of the Stockade." Seconded and car- 
ried. "I also move that Tarleton Lewis be appointed to that 
office." Seconded and carried. President Young said: "There 
will be thousands of instances of men being discharged and 
who are never shown on record as being appointed. It is the 
business of all clerks to write the business that is transacted, 
and not to ask questions. Colonel Rockwood is my aide-de- 
camp. I was acknowledged as their General and their dictator. 
If I appoint him to do a thing and don't tell the clerk, 
the clerk is not to blame, and when he is discharged it can be 

"The brethren are not requested to labor for nought. You 
don't know what dangers you are in. I am full of caution. I 
wish this people may grow and increase and become a great 
nation. It ought to suffice the elders of Israel to go and do 
as they are told. Is it not necessary that the yard should be 
secured, that the Indians cannot get in? About forty persons 
are going to live in those houses; that would only be one-fourth 
of the whole, and have three sides exposed, but common sense 
teaches us to build it all around. Men laboring here will be 


glad to buy a cow, some sheep, clothing, and other things. Some 
wealthy men are coming and will want rooms. The men who 
build them are entitled to their pay. 

" Don't be so devilish hoggish as to be afraid to do a day's 
work without getting pay for it. And I can prophecy in the 
name of Jesus Christ, a man having such a spirit will be 
damned; and I say further, that such a man shall not live here. 
Get up your walls four and one-half feet high and that will 
keep the cattle out. "Who is there sick in this camp through 
living in your wagons'? Now, if you go and leave those walls 
and build up your own house, and I venture to prophecy that 
you or some of your family will be sick and you will have 
to watch over them. I had rather they sleep in the Bowery 
than in a close house. We propose to fence in thirty rods 
square that, in case of necessity, the cattle can be placed in, 
and in the inside stack your hay. In the spring remove your 
fence. Plow a trench about twenty feet from the houses and 
the women can raise a multitude of garden sauce. 

I want to engage 50,000 bushels of wheat and other grain 
in proportion, and I will pay you 50 cents per bushel for corn, 
$1.25 for wheat and 25 cents for oats. Why not? I bring 
glass for you and you raise grain for me. Raise all you can. 
You can buy sheep, teams, or a cow or two. We want you 
to live in that Stockade until we come back again, and raise 
grain next year. If you only fence in forty acres, make it so 
an Indian cannot see in, and then they won't be tempted." 

Elder 0. Pratt said: "It would be impossible to fence in 
this city with a fence so an Indian cannot see in it. It will 
take 2300 rods to fence in the whole city, and it would take a 
good many months." H. C. Kimball said: "There are some 
creeks that have no names." President Young said: "I move 
that this creek be called the City Creek." Carried. "That 
the large creek about eight miles south be called Mill Creek." 
Seconded and carried. "That the little creek, a little south, 
be called Red Bute Creek. "Seconded and carried. "That the 
next be called Canyon Creek." Carried. "That the next be 
called Big Canyon Creek." Seconded and carried. 

"Now I want to know if the people are satisfied with the 
labors of the Twelve?" 

T. Lewis said: "I move that we give them our approba- 
tion, that we are satisfied with their labors, and give them 
our blessing." Seconded and carried. 

Lorenzo Young reminded those brethren who did not pray, 
that it was a good time for them to begin and fulfill their 


covenants that they have now made. When we covenant to 
do a thing, be careful and always do it. 

President Young said: "I want to know who are going 
back to winter quarters? Those who are going to stay, will 
you finish that adobe wall? If so, stand up. (A number 
arose.) I should have no hesitation in taking five men and 
build a mile of adobe wall eight feet high this fall. Keep it 
in mind: 50 cents for corn, $1.25 for wheat, and other grain 
in proportion. " 

H. C. Kimball said: "My feelings are for the welfare 
and wellbeing of all this people. I am your brother and you 
are my brethren, all being born from the same parents; and I 
am now approximating back again to those feelings, in them 
again being restored to their parents. You should throw away 
selfishness for it is of hell, and I say in the name of Jesus 
away with it to hell. (Cries of Amen.) A man possessed of 
such feelings stinks worse than a skunk. I want to cultivate 
a feeling of union, of peace, toward my brethren, and, if they 
knock me over, I'll try to forget it. 

The Holy Ghost will rest upon you and I shall see the day 
when the heavens will be opened and we will render up our 
stewardships to our Heavenly Father. Brother Brigham is go- 
ing to be greater than he was. He will be greater in strength, 
in beauty and in glory. A man don't know how to appreciate 
a thing until it is taken away. A man don't appreciate a wife 
until she is away, nor a wife appreciate a husband until he is 
gone. Call upon God and we shall increase here. Away with 
the spirit of alienation and let us be united. I believe I shall 
receive power to thrust everything beneath my feet and rise 
in glory. I wish to God we did not have to return. If I had 
my family here, I would give anything I have. This is a 
paradise to me. It is one of the most comely places I ever 
beheld. I hope none of us will be left to polute this land. I 
had rather depart than do as a great many do." 

President Young said: "I move that Brother Maclntyre 
be clerk and keep an account of public labors." Carried. "In 
regard to our starting get ready as fast as possible, and on 
Tuesday night we will start out and see if we are ready to go. 
I move that we adjourn this conference to October 6, 1848. at 
10 o'clock a. m., at this place." Carried. "I also move that 
Edson Whipple attend to the distribution of water over the 
plowed land." Seconded and carried. Elder 0. Pratt dis- 
missed the conference by benediction. 

After the meeting the rest of the boys and myself assisted 


Horace in taking his wagon by hand from the blacksmith shop 
down to the Stockade. 

The Twelve held another council this evening in front of 
the buildings. Brothers Carrington, Brown and others returned 
during- the session of conference from the exploring expedition 
to the mountains, on ascending which they had found no coal, 
but plenty of black slate. 

Monday, August 23rd. It was somewhat cloudy with a 
little rain. George Billings and A. Gibbons went after poles 
with which to cover the buildings. The rest of the boys and 
myself were at work on the houses, getting the wagons ready 
for the journey, etc. Ellen Saunders has moved into her room, 
and the other rooms will soon be finished. Thomas Williams 
and others returned from Fort Hall today. The former was 
the bearer of a letter from Captain Brown to Brother Kim- 
ball, merely stating his health, prospects, etc. Brother Kim- 
ball has recently got a good wagon of Brother Shelton. This 
he loaned him for the purpose of assisting in bringing up the 

Tuesday, August 24th. It was fair weather until about 
noon when it suddenly became cloudy and we had quite a 
heavy shower. The boys this forenoon were usually busy at 
work on the houses. About 2 p. m., it having cleared off, 
Horace and myself, with his wagon, and Hosea Gushing, G. 
Billings and Carlos Murray, with one of Brother Kimball 's 
wagons, started on an excursion to the Salt Lake. - It is un- 
necessary to relate particulars connected with our visit, or 
give any farther description of the lake, as there has been 
sufficient mention made of it already; but suffice it to say, 
that we had a fine bath in its waters, and staid all night on 
its shore, together with a number of others who had come in 
wagons and on horseback. 

Wednesday, August 25th. It was a bright and clear morn- 
ing and we arose early, got our breakfast and, after waiting 
a short time to fill a bag with salt, we started back and ar- 
rived at the Stockade about noon, where we found the brethren 
making preparations to go back to winter quarters, as it is 
the intention to start about 6 o'clock in the evening. After 
our return from the lake we busied ourselves this afternoon in 
getting up the horses, cutting grass for them, that we may 
hitch them up for all night in order to be ready with the rest 
to make an early start. Brothers Kimball, Whipple and my- 
self met in Ellen's room a little after dark to talk over busi- 
ness matters, after which we had prayers and retired about 
10 p. m. 


Thursday, August 26th. The weather was beautiful and 
as fast as they got ready this morning they started out, one 
by one, the first about 9 o'clock. The last of our wagons 
started about 10 o'clock. I remained behind to settle some 
business with Brother Whipple, who concluded to accompany 
me on horseback to the camp. We overtook the wagons about 
nine miles from the valley, and traveled six miles further and 
encamped near the cold springs on Canyon Creek, on the arm 
of prairie spoken of by 0. Pratt in his letter as we came out. 

Friday, August 27th. The weather was somewhat warm 
and sultry. We arose early and got our breakfast and resumed 
our journey. Brother Whipple returned to the valley. We 
ascended the long, steep hill, spoken of heretofore, and at 
length we attained its summit, having traveled four miles. We 
halted a short time for the last teams to get up, many of 
which had to double in order to do so. We then traveled down 
about four miles and came to Ogden's Fork. After crossing 
the stream, we traveled a short distance and stopped to bait 
about 4 p. m. Here we continued about one hour and pro- 
ceeded on and encamped about sundown, having traveled about 
fifteen miles today. We found the feed tolerable good. 

The following are the names of those going in Brother 
Kimball's wagons: Hosea Gushing, William King, George 
Billings, Andrew Gibbons, Carlos Murray, Ralph Douglass, Able 
M. Sargant, William Ferril, Albert Sharp, Thurston Lawson, 
Edwin Holden. Brother Markham is hauling Porter's wagon 
for us until we meet the companies. 

Saturday, August 28th. It was pleasant weather, we 
started about 7:30 a. m., traveled about twelve miles, forded 
Weber Fork, and halted to bait. This stream has fallen con- 
siderably since we were here last. We proceeded on our jur- 
ney about 3 o'clock, traveled about four miles along the banks 
of the river, and then turned abruptly to the left and traveled 
through a narrow pass about four miles and encamped, stopping 
in single file on the road a little after dark. Some of the 
brethren, who had been out hunting, found a steer, which had 
strayed from the Battalion. They killed it and divided it 
among the camp. Brothers King, dishing and myself made 
up our bed on the grass and slept in the open air. 

Sunday, August 29th. Tt was pleasant weather and we 
proceeded on our journey at 7:35 and traveled about twelve 
miles to Redding 's Cave, where we halted to feed about 1 
p. m. Soon after we halted. Brother Benson rode up, the 
brethren were very glad to see him and gathered around him 
to hear the news. He met the company about forty miles this 


side of Fort John. (Laramie), which consisted of 566 wagons. 
He brought a list of names from 1200 to 1500 in number. These 
were divided into nine companies. He and Porter left the 
forward company on the Sweet Water, where they had lost a 
number of their cattle by sickness, and many had strayed 
away. He brought a number of papers and letters. I received 
one from my wife dated 14th June, leaving them all well, 
which rejoiced my heart. I thank my Heavenly Father that 
He has blessed them with health and strength, and I pray 
God that He may preserve them from evil and from sickness 
and death, that we may enjoy each others society again. 

About 4 p. m. we proceeded on our journey, came about 
four miles and met Porter (Rockwell), four miles further we 
encamped in a small valley about dark, having come about 
twenty miles today. We had wild sage for fuel. Porter took 
supper with Brother Kimball, whom I cook for and mess with. 
The evening was cold and some frost. 

Monday, August 30th. It was cloudy, gloomy and cold 
weather. We started on our journey at 7:40, and after travel- 
ing six miles we came to Bear River. After fording, we stopped 
to feed at 11 a. m. During the bait, Brother Bullock read the 
names of six of the camp that were coming on, after which we 
proceeded and traveled on eiglit miles and encamped in the 
valley at 4 p. m., making fourteen miles during the clay. The 
feed here is pretty good and two good springs of water, and 
plenty of cedar on the mountains for fuel. The evening was 
cloudy and drizzling rain. 

The following is a list of the names in this company : Brig- 
ham Young, Alvarus Hanks, John Y. Green, Geo. Clark*, Tru- 
man 0. Angell, J. G. Luse*, Joseph S. Schofield, John G. Hoi-- 
man, A. P. Rockwood, G. R. Grant, Stephen H. Goddard, D. 
Laughlin*, Millen Atwood, Wm. Dykes, Thomas Tanner, David 
Grant, A. Everett, Thomas Woolsey, Geo. Wilson*, Haywood 
Thomas*, Jessie Johnson*, Samuel B. Fox, Willard Richards, 
John Brimhall*, Thomas Bullock, A. S. Huntly*, B. B. Rich- 
mond*, Rodney Badger, Eli Harvey Peirce, W. W. Rust*, Ezra 
T. Benson, Joseph Mathews, Daniel Powel*, James Camp*, Wm. 
Pack*, Erastus Snow, Green Flake, Wm. Maclntire*, Benjamin 
Stewart*, Geo. W. Brown, John Crow*, Porter Rockwell, P. T. 
Mashek*, Chas. Shumway, Wm. Rowe*, C. Rowe*, Andrew P. 
Shumway, Burr Frost, B. L. Adams, Wm. Carter, A. P. Chess- 
ley, Wm. Wadsworth, Thomas C *, Datus Ensign, John 

Gould*, Samuel Gould*, John Dixon, Simeon F. Howd, Amasa 
Lyman, Seth Taft, Albert Carrington, John Brown, Stephen 
Kelsey, G. A. Smith, J. J. Ferill*, Wilford Woodruff, S. Cham- 


berlin, Dexter Stillman*. Wm. Senill*, Wm. C. A. Smoot, Nath. 
Fairbanks, J. E. Stewart, C. A. Harper, Robert T. Thomas, 
Perry Fitzgerald, Isaac N. Weston*, James Case, Ozro East- 
man, J. C. Earl, Monroe Frink, Judson Persons, Levi N. Ken- 
dall*, Orson Pratt, S. Markham, Joseph Egbert, Geo. Mills, M. 
B. Thorpe, C. Kleinman, H. K. Whitney, S. Larsen*, Geo. Bill- 
ings, H. C. Kimball, Ralph Douglass*, Howard Egan, Edwin 
Holden*, H. Gushing, Wm. Gifford,*, Wm. A. King, Albert 
Sharp*, Carlos Murray, A. M. Sargent*, 0. K. Whitney, An- 
drew Gibbons, comprising 103 men, 36 wagons, 42 horses and 
35 mules. 

*Those not marked were returning members of the orig- 
inal band of Pioneers. The others were probably "Mormon 
Battalion" men, with some exceptions. 

President Young called the brethren together this even- 
ing for organization, when the following persons were elected 
to office: S. Markham, captain of one hundred; Barnabus 
Adams and Joseph Mathews, captains of fifties; Brigham 
Young, John Brown, Howard Egan, Geo. Clark, Geo. Wilson, E. 
Snow, Thomas Tanner and E. A. Harper, captains of tens. Pres- 
ident Young selected his ten, which included six of the Twelve, 
A. P. Rockwood, S. H. Goddard and J. Schofield. It was moved 
that we travel in order, after we had thus organized. Brother 
Young advised the brethren to gather up their horses and tie 
them, as it was his intention to start as early as 6 o'clock in 
the morning, which we accordingly did. Thomas Bullock then 
read a portion of the names of those coming on in the companies 

Tuesday, August 31st. The weather was pleasant and we 
proceeded on our journey at 7 a. m. and traveled ten miles and 
crossed Muddy Fork, the bed of which we found to be quite dry ; 
came seven miles and halted to bait at 1 p. m. Here we re- 
mained for two hours and then started on. The wagons arrived 
at Fort Bridger about 5 p. m. Brother King and myself and a 
few others rode ahead on horseback and arrived early in the 
afternoon. After the wagons had halted we discovered that one 
of our horses was missing and also one of Brother Snow's. The 
company moved on about a mile further and encamped, having 
come twenty-three miles today. Brother King and myself started 
back to look for the horses. Brother Snow overtook us about 
five miles from the fort. The evening was very cold. We trav- 
eled back within three miles of where we encamped last night 
and found our horses about 11:30 o'clock. We made a fire to 
warm ourselves and let our horses feed for about half an hour, 
and then started back, arriving at the camp a little before sun- 
rise. We got our breakfast and laid down to sleep, in order to 


give our horses a chance to feed, the camp starting ahead. 
Brother C. Murray remained with us. 


Wednesday, September 1st, 1847. It was pleasant weather. 
I understand the brethren found an ox belonging to the govern- 
ment at Fort Bridger. They killed it and divided it among the 
soldiers and others. At 10 o'clock Brother Porter, who had 
been back at the fort, came along and woke us up. We saddled 
our horses and started after the camp, bringing E. Snow's horse 
with us; traveled about three miles, when Brother Snow's horse 
started back. Brothers King and Murray went back to drive 
him up. They met a Frenchman, who helped them to catch the 
horse. He is one of three who are going back in company 
with us. 

We crossed Black's Fork twice, and came seventeen and 
three-quarters miles, and found the camp stopped to feed. Soon 
after we arrived the camp proceeded on again. I went ahead 
with the camp, leaving Brothers King and Murray to bait the 
horses. We crossed Black's Fork three times this afternoon, 
came fourteen and three-quarters miles and encamped on the 
banks of Ham's Fork, having traveled thirty-two miles today. 
The evening was very cold. 

Thursday, September 2nd. The weather was warm this 
morning. The' other two French men arrived at the camp. They 
had staid back to hunt up some of their horses that had 
strayed away. At 8 o'clock we proceeded on our journey, 
crossed Ham's Fork and traveled twenty-two miles and camped 
on the banks of Green River about 4 p. m., having traveled 
over a barren desert country during the day. We found an 
Indian here who had left his tribe (Snakes) two days before 
on the Sweet Water. He was going to Bridger 's (Fort). Soon 
after we arrived it suddenly blew up very cold. I wrote a letter 
this evening to send back to the valley. 

Friday, September 3rd. It continues cold and cloudy 
weather. We started at 6:30 o'clock, came two miles and forded 
the river, which we found to be very low; proceeded ten miles 
and stopped at 10 a. m. to feed on the banks of Big Sandy. 
Here we remained about two hours and then proceeded on sev- 
enteen miles, forded the Big Sandy and encamped on its banks, 
having come twenty-seven miles today. 

At this place we found Daniel Spencer's company, consist- 
ing of about fifty wagons. They reported P. P. Pratt 's com- 
pany to be encamped six and three-quarters miles back on the 


Little Sandy. Brother Spencer's camp was called together and 
Brothers Young, Kimball, G. A. Smith and others made some 
remarks and gave a general description of the Valley, etc. The 
evening was very cold. 

Saturday, September 4th. The weather was cool, but 
pleasant, and at 8 a. m. D. Spencer's camp was in motion. Some 
of our company here met with their families and returned back 
to the Valley. The following are some of their names: Wm. 
Mclntire, Burr Frost, Datus Ensign, Seth Taft. About the 
same time we proceeded on our journey. After going seven 
miles we encamped at noon on the banks of Little Sandy. Here 
we found P. P. Pratt 's company, consisting of between seventy 
and eighty wagons, a messenger having been sent to delay them 
this morning until we arrived. I saw many old friends. 

The Twelve were in council this afternoon. The people 
were again called together and similar instructions and infor- 
mation to that of last evening were given by the Twelve and 
others. Geo. Mills and E. Holden returned with this company 
to the Valley. I took supper with Brother Samuel Moore this 
evening. Sister Moore washed some clothes for me. The even- 
ing was pleasant. 

Sunday, September 5th. The weather was fine and we 
pursued our journey at 9 a. m. One of our horses was missing 
and I went down the creek about a mile and a half and found 
him and also one of Brother Brigham's and E. Snow's. We 
crossed the Big Sandy and came about twenty-six miles and en- 
camped near the Pacific Springs. Here we found two com- 
panies, Brothers Smoot's and Wallace's. Soon after we ar- 
rived Brother Rich 's company came up. Here we found Brother 
Kimball 's wagons. James Smithers, Peter Hanson, Mary Helen 
Harris and Mary Fosgrene were along. The brethren were 
called together this evening and received similar instruction to 
that which was given to the other companies. Brother Young 
said it was his intention 'to remain here tomorrow and have a 
meeting at 11 o'clock. The evening was very cold. 

Monday, September 6th. It was a pleasant day and the 
brethren came together about 11 a. m. and were addressed by 
E. Snow and others, who gave instructions similar to what 
were given to the other companies. The Twelve and some others 
met in council this afternoon. I took a list of the provisions 
in Brother Kimball 's wagons, which amounted to 2519 Ibs. of 
breadstuff, besides groceries. James Smithers has 1031 Ibs. of 
breadstuff, besides groceries. Brother Kimball thought it best 
to send back Thurston Larsen, one of the soldiers, to help 
Brother Whipple. Carlos Murray was also sent back with F. 
Granger, who has the charge of Hiram KimbalPs teams. 


Brother Whipple will have over 3000 Ibs. of provisions for 
five persons Hans C. Hanson, Peter Hanson, Thurston Larson, 
Mary Fosgrene and himself. Ellen Saimders and M. E. Harris 
have two barrels of flour, groceries, etc. They will not want 
much assistance from him. The evening was very cold. I wrote 
some in a letter for H. C. Kimball to send to Brother Whipple. 
A number of the brethren met their families and turned back. 

Tuesday, September 7th. The morning was very cold. The 
wagon we had belonging to Neff was sent back in Brother Wal- 
lace's care, and Brother Nebeker let us have a lighter one. 
About 9 a. m. we started on our journey. A messenger was 
sent ahead to stop Brother Taylor's company. Soon after we 
started it blew up very cold and began to snow, which continued 
until after we encamped, having come about fourteen miles. 
Here we found Brother Taylor's 100 encamped on the banks 
of the Sweet Water. When the brethren had learned that the 
Pioneer Company would encamp with them this evening, they 
immediately made preparations to give them a supper, which 
was done up in style. Toward evening the weather cleared off. 
(Here the Diary ends abruptly.) 

*The Diary ends very abruptly and we have no more writ- 
ten on the trip, which probably was because, as we learn from 
other sources, the Indians had commenced to be troublesome, 
stealing horses and committing other depredations. 

"An exciting affray took place between the Indians and 
the pioneers on the morning of September 21st. The brethren 
were just getting ready to start, when the alarm was given by 
the men who had been sent out to gather up the horses, that 
the Indians were 'rushing' them driving them off. The camp 
flew to arms just in time to receive the onslaught of the sav- 
ages, who, emerging from the timber and firing their guns, 
charged upon them at full speed. 

"There were at least two hundred mounted warriors. A 
return volley from the Pioneers broke the Indian charge, and 
the brethren then gave chase. The sight of their daring cour- 
age spread consternation among the Indians, who broke and 
fled incontinently. The old chief who had directed the attack 
now shouted to his band and proclaimed peace to the Pioneers, 
telling them that he and his warriors were good Sioux, and had 
mistaken them for Crows or Snakes, with whom they were at 
war. The brethren thought it good policy to accept the excuse, 
transparent though it was, and to appear satisfied with the ex- 
planation. "Life of Heber C. Kimball, page 394. 

Continuing on their way, the Pioneers of the returning 
company arrived in safety at Winter Quarters oh the 31st of 
October. The joy of their meeting was no doubt very great, and 



they found that during their absence that peace and prosperity 
had generally prevailed. Horace A. Egan was born August 17th, 
1847, and Helen Egan August 28th, 1847, at Winter Quarters, 
just before their return. The winter was spent there with their 
families. We now turn to H. K. Kiran's recital. 

Dave Kimball and Wife. 



How and when we left this place I do not know, or how we 
got to Winter Quarters, and I do not remember of seeing father 
from the time last seen in the rope factory to the time we were 
living in our log house in Winter Quarters. How well I remem- 
ber the excitement of us boys when we saw the smoke of a 
steamboat rising over the trees that were on a point of land 
just where the river made a great bend below the town. The 
boat was coming up stream and made a great cloud of smoke. 
It came on and passed between our shore and the island that 
lay opposite the town, then stopped at the next point above for 
wood. It was about a mile away. Some of the boys went up 
there to get a closer view, but I was afraid I would get my 
jacket dusted if I went, so refused to go with them. ' While at 
Winter Quarters I saw the largest fish I have ever seen in my 
life. It was a catfish caught by a man named Sheets. They 
had to load *it in the wagon by hauling it up with ropes. It was 
about two-thirds the length of the wagon bed, and oh, what a 
mouth! I do believe if it had not been for. the very long and 
sharp teeth I could have crawled into that fish very easy. It 
was still alive when I saw it, and the men warned us boys 
against putting our hands near enough to be struck by his bay- 
onet, that was laying on his back about one-third of his length 
from his head to his tail, and on a hinge or joint, so he could 
strike with it at will, or raise it and dive under an enemy and 
rip him open. That sight caused me ever after to be afraid of 
swimming in waters that I was not acquainted with. 

It was here that I did my first agricultural work. There 
was a path back of our house that ran straight through the 
field to the next street. Mother gave me a package of sun- 
flower seeds and told me to go down one side and back the 
other and stick my finger in the ground at every step and drop 
one seed in the hole and cover it up, and keep about one foot 
from the path. This I did and afterwards saw two rows of 
large sunflowers with pan-like heads. The rows were not ex- 
actly straight, for this was my first gardening and I had no 

One day I heard that the hazel nuts were ripe, so next day 
David Kimball and I went to the Bluffs after some. We 


found a nice patch that had not been culled over. We each 
had a small sack that would hold about two quarts. We had 
these about half full when Dave went to about the middle of 
the patch and said, "I claim from that tree to that bush and 
to that tree," and so on, turning and pointing out a circle that 
took in the whole patch except a small margin around the de- 
scribed circle. He kept watching that I did not trespass on 
his claim. The nuts were just as good and just as thick out- 
side of his claim as inside. If they had not been I might have 
got a drubbing for stealing. At that time I was a little afraid 
of him, although we had never quarreled. 

Well, we had filled the sacks and were piling the nuts in- 
side our shirts, having tightened bur belts to keep them from 
falling out. We had gathered about all we could handle, and 
Dave had not covered one-hundredth part of his claim, when 
there came up a heavy rainstorm and we had to leg it for home, 
where we arrived with clothes soaked through, and Jiad lost 
all the nuts but those in the sacks. We never went after hazel 
nuts again. 

One day, with a boy named Levi Green, we were peeling 
the bark off a slippery elm log that was laying in the back 
yard. We boys used to get the bark to eat or to dry for future 
use. Levi, on one side of the log, had a hatchet with which to 
cut off the outside rough bark and cut across the ends. Then 
the bark could be peeled off in long strips. 

He had made a strip ready for peeling, when I asked him 
to let me take his, hatchet to get some ready on my side of the 
log. He let me have it, and as I was working with it he said, 
''Give me the hatchet." I said, "Just a minute." "I want 
it right now," he said, so I handed it to him and laid both of 
my hands on top of the log. "Why didn't you give it to me 
sooner?" he said. "I will cut your fingers off," and made a 
motion as if to strike at my left hand, which I drew quickly 
off, but he changed the stroke and the hatchet cut off my two 
middle fingers of my right hand at the first joint. One finger 
was hanging by a little piece of skin. 

I ran to the house crying, and as Mother wanted to cut the 
skin that still held the finger, I put up a big cry and begged 
her to put the finger on again. She decided to do so, but 
hardly believed it would knit and grow there. She did the best 
she could with splints and bandages; then went out and found 
the other piece, but it was so dirty she decided not to try 
growing it to its place, but put it in a bottle with some liquid 
to preserve it. 

My fingers were not examined for three days ; then Mother 


saw that I, in my playing, had twisted the piece partly around, 
but it was too late to attempt to straighten it, as it was joined 
again good and fast. Many a time since then I have wished 
she had taken it off, for it would have saved me much trouble 
by being out of the way. 

So you see a small part of me lays buried at Winter Quar- 
ters, where at the resurrection I must go to make my body 
whole. But if that is the plan, what a job some people will 
have to collect the pieces and get them into place. There are 
some few other things I can remember about Winter Quarters, 
but will pass them by. 


*0n the 24th of May, 1848, the First Presidency organized 
the main body of the Saints on the Elk Horn, preparatory to 
the second journey to the Rocky mountains. The camp con- 
sisted of over six hundred wagons, the largest company that 
had yet set out to cross the plains, and were under the care and 
supervision of Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball. We 
have no family Diary of this trip, but Howard R. writes from 
memory as follows: 

I recollect getting in the covered wagon that took us away 
from Winter Quarters, but don't remember of seeing Father 
till later. We had arrived at the Horn River and crossed, the 
ferry and camped for the night about two hundred yards from 
it. That evening there was much excitement in camp, as a report 
had come in from the 1 herders that a band of Indians were run- 
ning off all the stock. The next morning we heard that the 
men had saved the stock, but a couple of our men had been 
wounded. Before noon, as I was sitting in the front of the 
wagon, I saw two men holding Father up and leading him 
towards our wagon from the ferry. His arms were hanging 
down and his chin was on his breast. I heard the men say that 
the Indians had shot him through the wrist. He had swum 
the Horn River that way, and had lost so much blood he could 
not do it again, so they had to bring him around by the ferry. 
I now could see him every day and watch Dr. Bernhisel dress 
the wound and trim the ends of the cords with a pair of scis- 
sors where they stuck out of the flesh. Father had been shot 
in the wrist of his right hand, and the bullet cut every cord 
of the thumb and fingers in the course, but broke no bones. It 
was here that Thomas Ricks was shot in the back with buck- 
shot, but not killed. 



We left the Horn River, and the next I remember was see- 
ing Fort Laramie. We were on the opposite side of the Platte 
River from the fort. We saw it for the most of two days, 
first in the west and then in the east. 

Buffalo Stampede. The next thing I remember was one 
day we had camped for noon. I was playing near the end of 
the wagon tongue. Our wagon was the first on that wing of 
the corral. Mother caught her boys, and before I knew any- 
thing more we landed in the wagon, and she followed, and just 
in time, for a stampeded herd of buffalos was coming straight 
for the camp. They divided just a little way from the camp, 
some passing the back, some the front of the corral. Some of 
them passed over the end of our wagon tongue, doing no dam- 
age, but the part that passed the back end struck and broke a 
hind wheel of the last wagon in our wing. We staid there to 
repair damages till next day. 

Prairie Dogs. I remember the first colony of prairie dogs 
we passed through. The whole earth seemed to be covered with 
little mounds, on which we could see the dogs sitting some- 
times. There was a warning given out that if anyone shot one 
of these dogs and the body fell into a hole, not to reach for it 
with the naked hand, as the rattlesnakes lived in the same holes 
as the dogs did. 

When a dog was shot, while standing on one end on top 
of a mound, it always fell into the hole, and it was dangerous 
to try to get it, other than with a stick. These dog colonies 
would cover acres, but the colonies would be miles apart. It 
seems to me now that we could see dozens of the dogs at a time 
all sitting upright and watching our train, and if a person 
started towards them there would be a general barking chorus 
and instantly every dog would disappear and not appear again 
till the intruder had left to a safe distance. 

Antelope. One day as our train was passing the open part 
of a bend in the river, I was sitting in the front end of the 
wagon, when Father, who was driving, ran to the side of the 
wagon and said, " Mother, quick, my gun," Mother was as 
quick as she could be, but before she could pass the gun out 
Father said, "too late." There had been an antelope in the 
bend and as the train reached from one point to another he 
could not pass out only by running between the river and the 
train, in doing this it brought him within five or six rods of 
us, and all the train back of us. I saw the animal and Father 
told us it was an antelope, and, if he could have got his gun 
quick enough we could have had some nice meat. Mother said 


it was a shame to kill such a pretty animal as that. We heard 
a number of shots but I did not know till suppertime that 
someone had killed it, when Mother said, "This is some of that 
pretty antelope you saw when Father wanted his gun." 

One afternoon we camped close to the river bank. There 
was a large island at this place separated from our bank of 
the river by a sloug'h or small stream of very clear and deep 
water and about three rods wide. The men wanted to see if 
the grass was better on the island. It was very poor every- 
where else, having ' been grazed off by the large herds of 
buffalo and other grass eating animals. 

The bank of the river here from the water to the top 
was higher than a man's head. I was standing on this bank 
when one of the men volunteered to swim over and see how it 
was on the island. I saw him go down to the water edge. 
There was just enough room for him to stand between the 
bank and the water. He took all his clothes off and slipped 
into the water. That was the first time I ever saw every mo- 
tion a person makes while swimming. I saw him get out on 
the other side and disappear in the timber, but remember 
no more about this affair. 

One day our wagon was the last in the train and Mother, 
who was driving the team, let me get out and walk behind 
the wagon. I took my time and gradually fell back till I 
could hardly see the wagon, when I noticed this it scared 
me so I ran at my fastest speed, but soon was out of wind 
and went very slow again to gain my breath, and took an- 
other run, but I was .getting farther behind all the time. As 
the train was nearing a rolling country, where I couldn't be 
seen, Mother got George Redding to come back and get me. 

He took hold of my hand and tried to make me run the 
whole distance to the train, but finding I was about all in 
he swung me on his back and tried to rattle my teeth out by 
running at a dog trot, stamping his feet as hard as he could 
to give me a good jolting, and something to remember him 
by, which this proves I do, for I never got very far from the 
wagon again. 

I remember of helping Mother gather "buffalo chips" for 
fire material, as there was nothing else and they made a good 
fire* When, we camped where there was plenty of them we 
would collect a couple of sacks full and carry them to the 
next camp, for sometimes they would be very scarce. 

Now this is what I heard at the time, but did not see: 
Some one in the camp had lost part of a sack of beans. Some 
one had stolen them. Part of them were found in the feed 
box of a certain man, where he had placed them for his team 


to eat, thinking it was corn. He had stolen them after dark 
and by his mistaking beans for orn was detected. I could 
mention the man's name, but think it best not to. 

Chimney Rock From the Pioneer Road. 

I recollect seeing Chimney Rock. It was on the opposite 
side of the river, but quite plainly seen from our side. Some 
of the men went across to get a close view of it. 

One day we camped a little ways from a dry Salaratus 
Lake. Mother took me along with her to get some. It was 
very hard and smooth and we had only table knives to dig it 
out, but I remember we got as much as Mother could carry 
to the wagon. It lasted for a number of years after we ar- 
rived in the valley. This place is not far east of Independence 
Rock, which I remember very well. The road passes around 
the southern end of the rock and only a couple of rods irom 
it. To me it appeared to be the shape of the Salt Lake Taber- 
nacle, only very much larger. There was hundreds of names 
of people written on it. Some in large letters and far out of 
the reach of anyone standing on the ground. The men had 
been warned about climbing on top, as there were a number 
of large cracks running crossways that were very deep and 
to fall in one of them was sure death and probably the body 
could never be found. 

Next we came to the Sweet Water, that runs through the 
Devil's Gate. Traveling up this stream, which was very 
crooked, Mother was driving when the next wagon ahead of 
ours turned over into a creek or bog hole. The driver (a man 
named Holt, I believe), did not swing out far enough to 
strike the bridge fair, so two wheels missed the bridge. There 
were tAvo children* in the wagon sitting on top of boxes and 



bales, but in a twinkling- this was reversed, children under 
and only the wagon cover to keep them from drowning. The 
man called for help and soon the men came running from 
both ways. The children had not been severely hurt and all 
was on the move again soon after. 

Devil's Gate, we could see as we climbed the bluffs to 
the west. - The very deep and narrow cut through which the 
water ran, it seemed to me, was over a hundred feet deep, 
with almost perpendicular walls " and about twenty-five to 
forty feet apart at the top. 

Fort Bridger is the next place remembered, with its low 
dirt covered houses near the bank of the river. Indians and 
white men all dressed in buckin clothes, and more dogs, half- 

Camping at Echo Canyon. 

bred wolf, than you could shake a stick at. It was here that 
Father traded for the same pistol he had held in his hand 
and dropped, when shot, in the fight at the Horn River. It 
had passed from Indian to Indian and arrived at Bridger long 
before we did. 

I remember Echo Canyon, the high perpendicular rocks on 
the off side of the road most of the way through. We could 
hear the men calling and dogs barking from one cliff to an- 
other, although the ones starting the sound was far ahead of 
us, it went bounding from cliff to cliff, repeating the sound 


"Mother has related the following many times about Echo 
Canyon : At the head or summit, before entering Echo Can- 
yon, Father was called to assist in some repairs that were 
necessary on Heber C. Kimball's wagon, which made it neces- 
sary for Mother to drive the team until he should catch up, 
which he expected would not be long. 

She had two yoke of cattle and a -yoke of cows, which 
she drove down that canyon, and she missed more stumps and 
rocks than any other driver, so it was said, crossing the stream 
twenty-seven times. Some times she would be ahead of the 
team, some times between the cattle and wagon, to pass brush, 
trees and rocks. 

Her son Erastus was in the wagon, having been run over. 
It seems he was being lifted into the wagon, but slipped in 
some way and fell under the tongue and would have escaped 
all right, only on account of a pig that was tied under the 
back of the wagon. In trying to get out of the way of the 
pig his foot got under the wheel. 

Those of the family who could walk were on ahead and 
Mother's was the lead team. Those ahead would holler out, 

"Here is another creek," and Mother would say, "D n 

the creeks!" This she used to tell many times. Howard R. 
further states: 

Then we came to Weber River and when we left the camp 
here Father said we had to climb a mountain for seven miles, 
and I thought before we did get to the top we had come seven 
hundred miles, for he had us walk up every step of it, and 
not only that, but down the other side, where it was awful 
steep, and everything loose in the wagon was liable to attempt 
to pass the team. The net day we were on the little mountain, 
where Father took us to one side of the road and pointed out 
the place where we would live in the great Salt Lake Valley. 
It was two more days when Father drove the team and landed 
the wagon near to the door of a house, near the middle of the 
south side of the north fort, where we lived for a couple of 

Before their arrival, the Fort at Salt Lake Valley con- 
tained 423 apartments and 1670 people and 875 acres had been 
sown to winter wheat. It was in June of this year that myriads 
of big crickets came down from the mountains and would have 
devoured the crops, but for the arrival of immense flocks of 
seagulls, which devoured the crickets. 




*It was in September, 1848, that the family arrived in Salt 
Lake Valley and moved into a room of the Old Fort that had 
been provided for them. This Old Fort had been commenced 
when Father was at Salt Lake on the first trip and was built 
on the square now called Pioneer Park. Howard R. goes on 
to say: 

I remember the rainy season, when the sun was not seen 
for nearly a month. The roof of our house was a shed roof, 
covered with inch lumber, plastered with clay on the outside. 
The roof had sagged so that there was quite a depression in 
the center. This had filled with water and was leaking 
through to the room below. 

Heber C. Kimball called in to see how we were all get- 
ting along. He had not sat there long when the roof settled 
more with a loud crack. Kimball jumped out of the door and 
called Mother to come out quick or the roof would fall on 
her. No she would not go out, but invited him to come back 
in out of the rain, but no, he went off in a hurry. 

When he had gone Mother placed a tub under where the 
drip was, then stood up in a chair and run a table knife up be- 
tween the boards, so letting the water come down in a stream 
faster than she could carry it in the bucket to the door. Soon 
the weight on the roof was lessened enough to allow the roof 
to spring back some, and the danger of it falling in was re- 

A few minutes after this had been done a man came run- 
ning to the door with a post to place under the sagging roof 
to hold it up. He said Brother Kimball had sent him. Moth- 
er told him she would not have a post set up in the middle of 
her parlor and for him to tell Brother Kimball that the danger 


was passed and he could now return and finish his visit if he 
so desired. 

Of late years I often think of what a hard life Mother 
had in pioneer days, but I suppose that was the lot of all 
the pioneers; digging' roots and gathering greens, catching 
fish in the Jordan River, collecting anything eatable to make 
what little flour and cornmeal we had last till another sup- 
ply could be procured, was the common lot. Wood was also 
scarce, even the bark of the fence poles was stripped off for 
fuel, for the men could not spare the time to haul wood from 
the canyons. 

Father was away most all the time working for the church 
and Mother would never ask for help if she could avoid it. 
Possibly she could have got along easier and with less trouble 
if she had not been so independent. I have heard her say that 
she would work her finger ends off before she would ask for 


After we moved out of the Fort to our new home, on the 
second lot south of the corner of First North and Main 
Street, in April, 1849, Mother had a little better time of it 
than before. We had a house built of adobes with a shingle 
roof. There was but one large room that was plastered sides 
and ceiling, and a lumber floor that Mother used to mop every 
day. She took quite a pride in her white floor. It was in 
this house, June 13, 1851, that W. M. Egan was born. Here 
we could keep a pig and some poultry, which helped along 
Very nicely, besides we were now able to keep a cow. 

Oh, we were just beginning to live fat, and we had our 
garden in. It was here that I saw the largest spider that I 
ever did in my life. Mother heard the chickens making ,a 
great fuss back of the house. She looked out of the back win- 
dow and saw the chickens standing in a ring around a large 
spider. It was standing as high as possible with one leg 
raised, and striking at the hens when they ventured too close. 
Mother got a tin box about three by six inches, and one and 
a half inches deep, laying this on the ground she drove the 
thing over the* box. Where it stood its legs reached the ground 
each side of the box without touching it. Mother gave it a tap 
with a stick and it pulled its legs in and settled down in the 
box, which it nearly filled. Mother slid the cover on the box 
and set it in the window and when she went to let a visitor 
see it, found that the sun, shining on the box, had killed the 
spider. Its body was about the size of a silver quarter. 



Mother pinned it to a board with a needle and kept it for a 
long time for people to see. 

Laying Cornerstone of Temple. It was while we lived 
here that I witnessed the first breaking of ground for the 
fovn^ption of the Temple (February 14, 1853), and a few 
months after, the laying of the cornerstone (April 6, 1853), 
when there seemed to be thousands of people there to wit- 
ness it. There was an immense mound of earth near the 
southwest corner of where the Temple was to be built. This 
earth was what had been dug out of the place for the founda- 
tion. The day was set for the laying of the cornerstone. This 
mound as well as the whole surrounding space was covered 
by a very large number of very happy people. Some had come 
many miles to witness the ceremony. With some of my boy 
friends I stood on the northeast side near the top of the 
mound, and had a good view of the southeast corner, where the 
stone was laid. And since that time I have seen the gradual 
growth of those heavy walls up to the capstone, being about 
forty years from the breaking of the ground to the capstone. 

Late View of Salt Lake Temple. 

There are a great many events that come to my mind, while 
we lived just across the street from Heber C. Kimball. I 
shoveled dirt with the rest of the boys to dig out the place for 
the foundation of the large adobe two-story house of Brother 
Kimball's. I remember when the first grading of Main street 
was being done north of Temple block, how sorry I felt to 
see a man cut down a very large oak tree that was standing 
in the middle of where they wanted the road. There was 


only one more tree as large and that stood some distance to 
the southeast, I think, in Bishop Whitney's lot. Each year 
they were loaded down with acorns. I have climbed both of 
these trees to gather them. I can't see now why such land- 
marks should not have been preserved. 


It was while we lived here that we had the grasshopper 
invasion. I remember that during the heat of the day they 
were so thick in the sky that at times you could not see the 
sun, and where they would light for the night, or when the 
wind was too strong from the direction they wanted to travel, 
they destroyed everything green. All of this mighty army of 
hoppers were traveling in a southeasterly direction and in 
two or three days had finished their work here and passed on. 
Over at the great lake they did not fare so well. There along 
the shore could be seen great windrows of their bodies that had 
been washed ashore by the north winds. Near Black Rock 
there were three such rows, so wide and high that a man could 
have filled a wagon bed with them as quick as he could have 
shoveled that much sand, and the whole shore line facing the 
north was just the same. Millions of bushels of preserved or 
pickeled grasshoppers, that would do no more harm. 

Crickets. Oh! yes, I must not forget them! Well they 
hatched out all along on top of the bench land, and as they 
grew kept working down hill, leaving nothing green behind ex- 
cept sage brush. The road north of our place ran along the 
lower level of the bench, the grain and hay fields being still 
farther down and a fence between the road and fields. When 
the crickets got near the road, war was declared and the fight 
was on ; men, women and children walking back and forth swing- 
ing brooms made of willows or bunches of grass, trying to drive 
the enemy back, but with very little success. 

This kind of warfare only made the enemy more hungry, 
and every morning would find them nearer the grain, till at last, 
was put in operation, our biggest gun, which consisted of all 
the sheep, cows and horses that could be collected. These were 
crowded together and driven back and forth the length of the 
field slaying the enemy by the legions. Thus it only required 
about a week to save part of the crop, but a little was better 
than none those days. The next year this was repeated, only 
on a smaller scale, for the enemy's ranks had been sadly de- 
pleted by the large flocks of sea gulls that used them for food. 

*This was in following years after the sea gulls had saved 
the first crop. 



When Father returned from one of his trips he got ac- 
quainted with a couple of men named Mr. Moore and W. E. 
Horner. Together they bought a city lot in the Nineteenth 
ward. On this lot had been built a very large barn intended for 
a livery stable. The man Horner was some of a horse doctor, 
and Father and Moore gave him the reins to do as he thought 
best. The lot was a corner lot and directly cata-cornered from 
the northeast corner of union square. 

The barn was built cross ways of the lot and about a third 
of its length down from the south end. There had been an 
adobie house built about sixteen feet south of the southeast 
corner of the barn, leaving a space for a shed, which was sup- 
ported at the corner of the barn by a large squared log for a 
post on which were placed the plates to hold the roof. After- 
ward it had been decided to make another room of this by lay- 
ing up three adobie walls, joining onto the first room and of 
the same width, and one roof to cover all. There was a door in 
the first room facing the south street and a window in the west 
side. The new room had a door and window on the west side, 
a door on the east side, and a window in the north end. From 
the barn south was all open ground, sometimes used by emi- 
grants for camping. From the barn north the lot was fenced 
with a strong fence, making a secure, corral to turn animals in, 
to feed. 

Mr. Moore did not stay long in the partnership and Horner 
went east to bring his wife across the plains, and all this time 
there was not much done Avith the stable. When Horner came 
back he built a house on the next lot north of the barn, and 
for a while business was flourishing, at least in the summer time, 
but taken all together. Father,, when they tried to settle up, was 
not satisfied and bought Horner out, calculating to make a 
dairy barn of it as soon as he could make the proper arrange- 

The barn had been built on large flat rocks placed at in- 
tervals along the outer side principally under the joints of the 
heavy bed timbers. The rocks had been sunk in the ground so 
there was but a small space between the sills and the ground. 
Earth had been placed all around to stop the draft. Us boys, 
and many of the neighboring boys, used to spend manv an hour 
under there crawling from one place to another. Sometimes 
digging trenches in the hard ground so we could crawl under a 
beam to get to another corner that we couldn't reach without. 



One day us boys took onr little cart and went up on the hill- 
side to get some oak brush for firewood. We were about to 
start for home when we chanced to see a small blaze at the east 
end of the barn, watching 1 this for a very few moments we saw 
the flame spread all over that end. We were about a half mile 
away. We dropped everything and ran as fast as we could for 

When we arrived there the job had been completed, nothing 
left of the barn but a huge pile of live coals. Mother was sitting 
out in the yard surrounded by her household goods that had 
been quickly removed to a safe distance. They had not been 
handled very carefully and I remember Mother saying they 
might as well have been left to burn as to have been smashed 
to pieces as some of the things were. The house was saved, but 
somewhat damaged. The large corner post I have mentioned 
was nearly burned out. The north window was burned, and the 
glass melted and run to the ground. The shingles near the north 
end were badly scorched. The whole place would have been 
swept clean if it had not been that there was a large stream of 
water at hand which was turned in the lot and the whole house 
was kept under a sheet of water. 

Now the cause of the fire was learned from Mother. But 
first let me say that there was no stoves in the house. All the 
cooking was done by an open fireplace, one such being in each 
room. The wind was blowing quite a gale from the south. This 
helped to save the house, but caused the blaze. 

The woman that lived in the south room had let her fire 
die out, and came to Mother to g*et some live coals to start a 
fire with. She got some on a shovel and went out of the back 
door, but soon returned for more, saying the others had all 
blowed away. She had just passed out the second time when 
the alarm of fire was given and people from all directions came 
running with buckets and ladders and the fight was on. For 
days the stream of water was running into that pile of coals. 
There was three horses in the stalls. They could get out. but 
two which were turned loose in the corral ran back through the 
flames, one reaching his stall, the other getting only part way, 
as shown by what was left of them after the fire had been 

We lost all of our chickens, and our pig had lost all of his 
bristles, while his pen was burning so he could escape. There 
was about thirty tons of hay in the barn, and the grain room 
was full of oats and barley. There were four sets of harness 
and some saddles in the harness room. All went up in smoke, 



besides a good many carpenter tools. The flames had spread 
so rapidly that it was imposible to save much that \vas in the 
barn. The two horses might have been saved if they had been 
tied to a post when taken out. 

Well, we slept in our house that night, a blanket being put 
up at the north window hole, but I don't think Mother slept 
much. There was plenty of help offered to replace the furni- 
ture back in the house, but Mother wanted time to consider if it 
would not be just as well to finish the smashing and breaking 
business where it was. 

Upper Main Street, Salt Lake City, 1860. Bishop Hunter's Residence, Telegraph 
Office, Etc., JuMt North of Deseret National Bank Building. 

: > 



There was a couple of small mounds on the south side of 
the lot just where the fence was to be placed. These had to be 
cut down to the level of the surrounding land, and by doing 
this there was dug up a large number of human bones, and also 
quantities of some kind of berries that were petrified. There 
was quite a number of arrow spikes made of black and white 
flint, and some few pieces of pottery of a dark brown color. This 
part of the lot was covered all over with large cobble stones, 
while all around it for some distance there were none. 


In the largest red ravine that leads down from Ensign 
Peak bench, and about half way to the bottom, was a cliff of 
rocks from side to side, and about twenty-five or thirty feet 
high. It was more than perpendicular, for the top leaned over 
to such an extent that. water coming down the gulch would fall 
clear off the face of the cliff, which was composed of a con- 
glomeration of different kinds of stones all cemented together 
with hardpan. 

On the right hand side as you go up, and some ten feet 
above the steep sloping earth at the bottom, was embedded in 
the walls a boulder about three feet in diameter, flush with the 
face of the wall. On this boulder was painted, with red, blue, 
and black material, the figure of an Indian sitting on his horse. 
He was a big, broad-shouldered man, dressed in the Indian 
fashion, large plumes of feathers on his head, a long spear in 
one hand, the other held the bridle reins. Just close back of 
him on the same rock was a small band of Indians all on horses, 
apparently some distance away, but all could be seen very 

The horses were almost as perfectly drawn as could be by 
a camera. The Indian was in the correct position for sitting a 
horseback, and must have b^en taken from life, but by whom? 
and what kind of paint used, to staind the weather so long? It 
could not be washed off and when I last saw it, it was just as 
bright as ever, only where the boys had tried to chip off a piece 


that would have some of the paint on, by throwing small boul- 
ders at it, thus marring the painting badly. 

That is another thing that should have been preserved. It 
could have been easily chiseled out and carried away. 

The Tannery. Father owned an interest in the Margetcs 
tannery, but when and how he got out of it I do not know, but 
I do know that the venture never made him a millionaire. This 
tannery was just across the street west of our home. 

*The tannery was started by Richard Margetts, Father and 
Robert Golding, the latter of whom had a tannery a block and 
a half north of our home. I think Father put in a piece of 
Main street property and finally took it out in boots and shoes 
for his Deep Creek store. 

Deep Snow. Cattle Starving. One morning in 1857 I 
awoke to find a heavy snowstorm had set in, and it continued 
all day, all night, and all next day, and until some time in the 
night. The next morning" when I was able to go out I found 
that the snow was up to my waist or about two and a half feet 
deep on a level. Some places eight feet deep in the valley. It 
was some days before the roads were broke open so travel could 
be resumed. 

Some of us boys heard that there were a good many cattle 
caught out on the range, west of Jordan, and were dead or dy- 
ing and that boys could make something by going over there 
and getting the hides off the dead ones. Three of us got our 
sleds and ropes ready and when the snow had settled and crust- 
ed so it would bear our weight we started on our exploring trip. 

When about four miles northwest of the Jordan bridge we 
found a bunch of ten or twelve cattle, every one dead, and lay- 
ing close together. By helping each other we were able to start 
for home about 3 or 4 o'clock p. m., each with a hide on his 
sled. We repeated this the next day, but the next a thaw wind 
called a halt as far as boy sleds were concerned. We sold the 
hides for $3 apiece, which we considered millionaire wages. 

*Freezing and Starving. In the winter of 1857, probably 
just before the snowstorm mentioned in the preceding para- 
graphs, Father \vent east after some cattle that he had heard 
were for sale. His business was buying cattle in winter to 
drive to California for Beef, in summer. He had a man with 
him and when in the mountains this heavy storm caught them 
and they got lost. 

While endeavoring to save his companion from freezing 
by. rubbing his feet, his own froze. He lost one of his little 
toes entirely, and I have cut the calloused parts from his heels 


and toes many a time afterward. They were three days with 
but a pinch of cracker crumbs and after that ten days without 
anything to eat. His companion often said he would lie down 
'and die, but Father would coax him and say 1 will try and 
save my life, and would go ahead and set down in a hollow 
and his companion would finally come along. 

When they got in sight of Fort Bridger the snow was 
crusted and their clothing and shoes were cut to pieces break- 
ing 1 the crust and they would leave blood in their tracks, but 
they tore up their blankets and wrapped their feet and legs 
as best they could. They finally arrived at Fort Bridger and 
were used up for many days. The skin of the calf of their 
legs could be wrapped around the bone. 

^Federal Army. Father had scarcely recovered from the 
exposures of freezing and starving when the Federal Army 
was sent to wipe out the ''Mormons" and as he was an active 
militia man with title of major he -was much concerned in the 
activities that brought about a settlement in this affair. 

In May, 1858, lather was sent with a company to escort 
Colonel Kane to Florence, having the following recommenda- 
tion, which was signed by Governor Cummings: 

Facsimile of Recommend from Governor Gumming. 


From California Father obtained ammunition for the 
Nauvoo Legion, as is shown by the following receipt: 

Facsimile of Receipt tor Ammunition for Nauvoo Legion. 

We do not have any farther details of his personal activ- 
ities in the matter and do not wish to take up space in re- 
hearsing what has many times been said respecting it. 

*The Move. While Father was east escorting Colonel 
Kane, the family moved south with the rest of the Saints, all 
of whom abandoned their homes, while the army the United 
States had sent here to clean them out. was passing through 
Salt Lake City, the preparation being made to destroy every 
home, if the army attempted to take possession. The family 
went to Prove, but soon returned as far as Mullener's Mill, 
where the Lehi Sugar Factory now stands, and lived in a dug- 
out. Mullener's Mill dam broke away three times while we 
were there. After the Federal Army had passed on to Fort 
Crittenden in Cedar Valley we returned to our home in Salt 
Lake City. 

Immigration Fund. Father at one time gave W. H. Sher- 
man $100 gold coin to help poor English converts to emigrate 
to Utah, and to assist as many, as possible. Sherman went on 
his mission to England and on his arrival there commenced 
sending back notes for the various amounts loaned to the dif- 
ferent people that did not have quite enough money to pay 
their fare, each giving their note for the amount received, with 
the promise to pav Father out of the first money earned after 
their arrival in Utah. 



About four years after the date of the last note, Father 
gave them to me to figure up the amount of the thirty notes, 
to see how close to the $100 the total would come, as he said it 
would cost something to change the money to English. We 
found that the notes amounted to exactly $100. We could not 
figure out how it had been done without the cost of exchange 
had been divided to each note as interest in advance. 

Father had intended the money to act on the perpetual 
plan, by sending it back to help more, as soon as paid. 
Father said he might be able to collect the most of it by 
calling on each person owing him, but said probably they 

Deseret .News and Tithing Office Corner in 1860, Where Hotel Utah Now Stands. 

needed the money, and so told me to take these notes and 
burn them, which I did, but it destroyed ' his perpetual as- 
sistance plan. 

*Before Mother died a note for $50, which had been given" 
for the same purpose, was found and it was given to John 
Morgan for a life scholarship in his college, which he used to 
pay a painter that had been immigrated by it. 

A short time ago a man, who said he had been secretary 
of a theatrical organization, said he remembered counting the 


door receipts and found a $10 gold piece among the silver 
coins and asked the doorkeeper how he got that, who said it 
was given by Howard Egan for his entrance fee and to help 

In 1862 he was made a deputy clerk of the United States 
Third Judicial District Court in and for Utah Territory, as at- 
tested by the following certificate: 


- i 6*wf *f &L It, J ' 

//// I /->tn t^fts+.f 4iir<nj . f),.f f/.*,tft<.r 

Facsimile of Appointment a Deputy Clerk of the U. S. Third 
Judicial Court. 

Many things of interest could be placed here, but our space 
is too limited and we are more concerned with the Pioneering 
features. If we had all of Father's papers that were kept dur- 
ing Mother's lifetime we would need several volumes to con- 
tain them, to say nothing of the many thrilling incidents of 
his life that now cannot be told. 



When I was a boy I thought if any one started for a cer- 
tain place and backed out it showed that they were cowards, 
and this opinion has caused me at different times some hard- 
ships and discomfort. So if any one makes up his mind 
to do something or go somewhere and it is not really neces- 
sary, don't act bull-headed and face all kinds of trouble just 
to say you didn't back out, for in after years, when some 
ailment gets a good hold of you, think what a fool you were, 
though you didn't at the time, know that it would get it back 
on you with ten-fold the suffering you first experienced. 

I could mention a good many times that I should have 
backed out, but will tell you of but one at this time. A num- 
ber of the boys that used to go hunting down Jordan river 
said they never killed anything but they got it. This, because 
sometimes a duck would fall on the opposite side of the river. 
Now, I had shot a big mallard duck. He fell just on the edge 
of the opposite bank. There was another hunter with me, 
who said, "Now I guess you won't get that one, for there is 
mush ice floating down the river and its three miles to the 
bridge, and before you could go around some coyote would 
get it." "I'll see about that." So, taking off all my clothes 
I rolled them in a snug little bundle with my gun in the middle 
and fastened them on my head with my- belt over the top and 
under my chin. The other hunter said, "I wouldn't go after 
that duck for half a dozen like him. He is not worth it." 
"I know that," I said, "but I always make it my business to 
get what I kill." I waded in as far as I could and had only 
about one rod to swim, but that was through the mush ice 
and was quite a plenty for me. The air was warmer than the 
water. I was soon dressed again and, picking up the duck, 
said good-bye to the hunter that had watched the whole pro- 

I started up the river for the bridge, not feeling any the 
worse for my bath, but in fact somewhat refreshed, but let me 
say right here, I would not advise any one to take that kind 
of health treatment. I was a little lucky that day, for before I 
reached the bridge a flock of geese flew over me and I brought 
down a nice big fellow and he didn't fall the other side of the 


river, and when I reached the bridge I got a chance to ride 
most of the way home, besides selling the duck to the man 
that drove the team for 50 cents, that being the amount we 
usually got for a large duck. 


There was a man by the name of Cragan that had lived 
a couple of blocks south of my home, who had been killed in 
north Mill Creek canyon while going after firewood. He was 
riding on the front hounds of his wagon when the king bolt 
broke and the front axeltree rolled over and pinned him down 
under the heels of his horses. They were frightened and ran 
away, kicking the man to death and making a complete wreck 
of the front part of the wagon and the harness, besides nearly 
killing themselves. 

The man had another team of oxen and a strong heavy 
wagon that the widow used to let out to haul wood on shares, 
so getting her fuel for winter. I got the team to haul a few 
loads one summer, from what was called Coons Canyon, 
eighteen miles west of Salt Lake City. It took two days to 
make the round trip and hard work and late hours. At that 
time of the year the team had to be turned out to feed on 
the grass, as no feed of any kind was carried for them. One 
day there was twelve or fifteen boys in the canyon cabin, 
mostly for the purpose of getting wood. A few had come to 
hunt bear for, as some of them said, the canyon seemed to 
be full of them. 

That morning a boy had seen one not far up the left hand 
fork, going up. He had been down to the spring to drink and 
his tracks were very plain in the dusty road, and it was said 
by some of the boys that, every day they would drag their 
load of maple down that road, the next morning there was the 
bear tracks where he had come down to the spring and back. 
So that evening the whole lot agreed to go after Mr. Bear and 
the boy that shot him was to be given ten rounds of ammuni- 
tion by each of the other boys. 

I and my chum, and bedfellow, talked up a scheme that 
we thought might earn us the ammunition promised, if we 
could carry it through. This is what we did. Slipping out 
unobserved we took a chunk of bacon of about two pounds, a 
Ion? twine fish line, a hatchet and our suns, and went up to 
the spring. The moon was shining brightlv and we could see 
no bear tracks in the road, and knew that bruin had not yet 
come for his drink, so we looked around for a place to suit 
us for what we wanted to do. 


We soon decided that a good sized tree close to the road 
and about two rods above the spring- would answer our pur- 
pose, so we placed my gun up in this tree, muzzle pointed 
down, tied it firmly, then one end of the twine to the trigger, 
then passed the other end up and over a limb and then down to 
the ground, where we drove a hooked stake in the ground and 
passed the string under the hook, tied the string around the 
bacon so it would lay just outside of the wheel track and 
about one foot outside of where the bullet would strike, if we 
had made correct calculations. 

When this was done we went back to camp and bed. We 
had not been missed nor had we been long at the job. The 
next morning, we were the first to get up, and went up to the 
spring and found that Mr. Bear had been there and pulled at 
the bacon and fired the gun. This we could see at the first 
glance, as the bear had wallowed in the road and left a good 
deal of his blood there and all along the road as he went back 
up the canyon. 

We took the gun down, pulled up the stake and moved all 
signs of a trap, which was not many. Then loaded the gun 
and fired it off, loaded again and followed the bloody trail to 
where the bear had left the road and taken to the thick 
brush. We now supposed he had been stunned by the bullet, 
"but by now might bo able to put up a good fight, as we thought 
he must be a grizzly, as that was the kind that had been seen 
there, but he must be getting weak losing so much blood. 

We concluded to return to camp for breakfast, and to re- 
port that we had shot and wounded a large bear, and he had 
gone into a thick brush, where it was hard to trail him and 
thought we would give him time to bleed to death. The other 
boys done considerable grumbling, and said if we had not been 
in such a hurry, and waited till they were all to.gether they 
could have filled him so full of lead that he could not pack 
it away, and now, it was chance if we ever found him, even 
if he was dead. 

Well, we all went on the hunt, but the thorn brush was so 
thick that it was very slow work to find the trail and follow 
it. In some places we found where the bear had rolled around 
quite a space, then it would take a long time to find what 
direction he had gone. This went on till after noon, when 
ive went to camp for dinner and found there was only enough 
provisions left to last two meals. There we were, up against 
it, only about half a load of wood ready and eighteen or twen- 
ty miles from home. 

Well, after holding council as to what we should do, we 
decided to get our loads and go home. We did, but not all 


of the boys. Next week I heard that some one found the bear 
dead and a hole down through his neck. They said he must 
have been shot while standing up with his back to us. We 
let them guess. 


In 1847, after the Pioneers reached the valley and began 
their fort building operations, Father was one of those that 
hauled house logs from Red Butte canyon. On one of his 
trips, going up the canyon, he saw a little up the road, what 
appeared to be a good tree, large enough to cut for saw logs 
for timber, and as the other teams were way back, he- 
thought he would climb the steep sidehill and take a near view 
of it. When he reached it he sounded it with the back of his 
axe. Immediately there arose a buzzing sound. He had stirred 
up a nest of hornets. 

Making a rapid retreat down the hill, followed the biggest 
part of the way by a string of hornets, that were trying to get 
a line on him, he made his escape without getting hit. He 
determined to say nothing to anyone about it. Some few 
days after, while going up the canyon, the man driving the 
lead team turned out of the road just below this tree. Father 
asked him what he was going to do. He said, "Get that tree, 
its dead easy. It will roll right down to the road." Father 
said, "You had better not, but wait a few days till I get out 
what I have chopped, and then I will help you. That tree will 
make two good loads." "No," he said, "I can get it alone," 
and started up the hill with his axe. 

Father and the other teamsters, driving a little further 
up, stopped where they could see the fun. The man reached 
the tree, took off his coat and swung his axe into the tree. He 
had not chopped out many chips when he was seen to jump 
to one side and grab his coat, and fairly fly down to the road. 
He was more like a large rock sliding and turning end over 
end till he reached his team, which he put on the run up the 
canyon till he thought he was safe from a further attack. 

When he came up to where Father was he said, "Darn 
you, Egan, why didn't you tell me there was hornets near that 
tree?" "You never asked me, and I told you I would help 
you get it .and so I will." "No, you won't the road is as close 
as I want to get to that tree. I have three prettv severe bay- 
onet stabs that will take a week to heal Besides, I am not per- 
fectly satisfied as to your innocence in this affair." 


A few days later Father started very early in the morn- 
ing for the canyon and on his way up gathered a large armful 
of dry grass. When opposite the hornet tree he carried the 
grass up the hill and placed it on the hive, after plugging up 
with grass the door hole. No hornets had yet came out, as it 
was quite cold that early in the morning. After placing the 
straw to suit him, placing a few dry limps on top to make 
a greater heat, he set fire to the pile and enjoyed his revenge, 
while listening to the buzzing death song of the enemy, which 
could be heard above the snapping of the fire. 

It didn't take long for the whole colony to become good 
hornets, and then Father attacked the tree, which made him 
two good loads of saw logs. One of which he got home early 
in the afternoon. The man that was stung by the hornets 
said, "Nice logs, how far up did you go after them?" "These 
are a part of the tree you would not have." "What! the hor- 
net tree?" "Yes." "How did you manage it?" "Oh, 
easy! This morning when it was cool I was afraid the poor 
things might suffer, so I gave them a little fire to warm up in. 
I think they were satisfied, for not one came out to complain." 
"Well, by jinks, you had a joke on the hornets as well as on 


(As told bj" Father, as near as I can remember.) 
We were camped at a large horseshoe bend of the Platt 
River. The points of the shoe being about one-half of a mile 
apart. The wagons were placed about half way between the 
points of the shoe and the cattle and teams were put inside 
of the shoe. This arrangement would not call for but few 
guards, as the river was not fordable at any place in the bend, 
and if the stock attempted to pass out they could be heard at 
camp. This was thought to be a very good and safe plan. 

It was a very dark night and everything was all right till 
a couple of hours before day, when Father was awakened by 
the rumbling sound of many animals running. He jumped out 
of bed and into his boots, buckled on his belt which carried 
his Colts pistol and knife, grabbed his hat and left camp on 
the run to head off the frightened animals before they could 
pass out of the bend. The night had grown still darker, as it 
most always does just before day. It was so dark that you 
could not have seen your hand a foot from your face. 

Well, when running at top speed he ran up against a 
naked Indian breast to breast. He knew it was an Indian, 



for he felt his naked skin, but no damage was done and the 
rebound had instantly separated them. How far, he did not 
know. He dropped down as low as possible, but still on his 
feet and gun in right hand and knife in left, listened for the 
slightest rustle of the grass, not wanting to fire at random for 
fear of getting an arrow in return. 

Representative Pioneers. Brigham Young: and Brothers. 
Lorenzo, 1804; Brighaiu, 1801; Phineas. 1799; Joseph, 1797; John, 1795. 

After waiting some time and hearing no sound from his 
friend, he side-stepped very carefully for about a rod, and as 
he could hear the animals still running, he placed his left hand 
on his breast holding his hunting knife point forward, made 
a dash ahead, determined that if he ran up against his friend 
again there would be something doing. He ran this way until 
he saw the glistening waters of the river, which he came near 
running into. He now knew that he had turned the animals 
back in the bend, where they could run in a circle till tired 
enough to stop. 

He did not return to camp till after daylight and did 
not see*any Indians, but plenty of their tracks in the dusty 
road where the train had turned off to make camp. A count 



proved that no animals had got away and camp moved on. 
But just try and imagine the thoughts and feelings after the 
contact with the Indian, not knowing of his actions, or when 
he! Kvould hear the twang of his bowstring and feel the point 
of his arrow. No doubt but the Indian was expecting the 
white man to shoot, when he could see by the flash of the gun 
where he was and return the fire with greater success than 
taking chances. But all's well that ends well. 

The place where this happened could be located by reading 
Father's journal giving a description of the camps and coun- 
try along the Platt River. This was a few years after the 

ll.\v Salt Lake Has Grown. 


In the early days of Grantsville, in Tooele valley, there 
was an Indian chief of a band of Go-Shutes, whose country 
was from Salt Lake valley on the east, to Granite Rock on 
the desert on the west, and from Simpson 's Springs on the 
south, to the Great Salt Lake on the north. 

This Indian was a great diplomat, and always claimed to 
be a good friend of the whites, who were trying to establish 
their homes in his country. There were frequent raids on the 
settlers' stock, when small bands of twenty or more would be 
stolen and driven off, supposedly by hostile Indians. When 
this happened a delegation of the whites would visit Tally's 
camp, which could always be found within a few miles of 

. At the request of the whites he would agree to send a 
party of his own men after the thieves and kill them, and 
bring back the stolen animals, but he must be paid for the 


job by giving him a beef, two or three sacks of flour, five or 
six blankets, a stated amount of sugar, coffee, matches, a few 
shirts, and always a stated amount of powder, lead and caps. 

After the agreement was made, the white men would go 
back home feeling sure that Taby would get their stock back 
and that the thieves would be punished. They generally did 
not have to wait over two weeks before a rumor would come 
from Taby's camp, saying the stolen animals would be brought 
in the next day, and sure they would, but most always a few 
short of the number stolen. 

Taby would come from his camp for the promised re- 
ward and at the same time would tell of the hard fight his 
men had had with the thieves, and how many they had killed 
and wounded, and how a few of his own men were slightly 
wounded, for which he ought to have more blankets, which of 
course the white men couldn't see that way, for a bargain is 
a bargain. This kind of business would happen about every 
six or eight months and wind up about the same way. 

The white men were getting more numerous and their 
herds needed more grazing land. So a party of young men 
built a few cabins in Skull Valley over the first range of 
mountains west of Grantsville and made it their business to 
herd the stock for the settlers. These young men were most, 
always in the saddle, watching their stock and exploring the 
country west of them, where they found numerous signs of 
where bands of stock at some time had been driven out on 
the desert, and some places back again, where Taby had 
brought them home. 

Well, the time came that the herd boys missed about forty 
head of horned stock, and four or five of the boys went in 
search of them. In circling around they soon found the. trail 
leading west, and they could find but three pony tracks, so 
they supposed there were only three thieves that was doing 
the stealing. 

Preparing themselves with a couple of canteens of water 
each, four of the boys determined to see if it was possible to 
save the animals. They started on the trail from Cedar Moun- 
tains, which is on the east edge of the desert. A due west 
line from there, of seventy-five or eighty miles, is a patch of 
ground of about a quarter section, and a little higher than the 
level of the desert. Near one end is a small spring of brakish 
water. The next nearest water is twenty miles further west. 

The next morning about daylight the boys were getting 
quite close to this first water place. They could see cattle 
scattered all over it. and when they got on the higher ground 



the} 7 could also see three Indians just starting from the spring 
going- west. They gave them some scare, besides wounding 
one of their ponies. The boys, after resting till the next day, 
afternoon, made their way back home with all of their ani- 
mals but one. That the Indians had killed for grub when they 
stopped at the spring. 

This put an end to old Taby's double-faced transactions. 
It was afterwards learned that he was the father of the whole 
stealing operations, but the friendly Deep Creek Indians were 
afraid of him, and did not dare to tell of his doings till the old 
man got his last call. 

Then it was found out that when he wanted a new 
blanket or two and some provisions, he would send some of 
his men to steal and drive off a band of stock, and after a 
bargain was made send a rumor out and have them brought 
back, that is, what they did not kill for food, or the hides for 
footwear, or to make ropes and lassos. There probably are 
some people now living that may remember old Taby We-Pup, 
but that never knew of his doings. 

Jebow and Squaw. 
Early Salt Lake Character. 



27. A DIARY. 

By Howard Egan, of His Trip in 1849-50, From Fort Utah 

(Provo City) to California, With the Distance, Water, 

Feed and Suitable Camp Grounds, Numbered 

From 1 to 89, Etc. Kept for a 

Future Traveling Guide. 

Sunday, November 18th, 1849. We started from Fort 
Utah in company with Brothers Granger and Hills, having 
three wagons and fifteen head of animals and forty souls, for 
California. It stormed for three days previous to our starting, 
which has made the roads very bad. After traveling seven 
and a half miles we came to a small spring branch, and we 
traveled up a little further and camped at Hobble Creek 
(*now Springyille), which is a good camp ground with feed 
and wood in plenty. 

Monday, 19th. The morning was warm and pleasant. 
Brother Orlando Hovey started in company with us this 
morning, having a wagon, four yoke of cattle and four men. 
Our company numbered fourteen men and boys. We traveled 
eight miles and came to a creek about ten feet wide (* Span- 
ish Fork), which is a good camp ground, with wood in plenty. 
We came nine miles and camped at a small spring branch 
(*near Salem), where the feed was good and plenty of willows 
for fuel. 

Tuesday, 20th. This morning we had a severe storm of 
rain and sleet, which made the roads very bad. This afternoon 
the road is much better. We passed several good camp 
grounds. No. 6 (*Pavson) is a beautiful stream, there being 
two branches with wood in plenty. All the streams and 


springs up to No. 10 were good camps. We came twenty-three 
miles and camped on No. 10, where there are plenty of wil- 
lows. There is a branch of this creek a quarter of a mile 

Wednesday, 21st. This morning Brother Badger and 
Brother Burnett came to our camp with a letter from Salt 
Lake. We traveled twelve miles over a bad road and came to 
No. 11, a spring at the right of the road, which is a good 
camp ground, with plenty of grass and sagebrush and plenty 
of wood one mile away. We came five miles to No. 12, a 
spring branch, and camped. The feed -was good and wood in 
plenty. This is the last camp in the Utah Valley. 

Thursday, 22nd. Last night it commenced snowing and 
continued until this morning. Today we crossed the dividing 
ridge betAveen the Utah and the Sevier Valleys. We traveled 
twelve miles and camped at the Sevier River, No. 13. The 
river is about four rods wide and three and one-half feet deep, 
with the south bank steep. The feed was good, and plenty of 
wood and willows for camp' use. 

Friday, 23rd. The morning was pleasant and we traveled 
twelve miles over a beautiful road to camp 14, where feed and 
water was plenty. In the dry season you will have to go two 
miles east, where there is a good spring. We traveled four- 
teen miles and camped at No. 15, a spring, with feed good and 
plenty of cedar. The road is good between the Sevier and 
this camp, with the exception of about four miles. 

' Saturday, 24th. The morning was pleasant, and we trav- 
eled three miles and came to No. 16, a good camp, with plenty 
of willows. We went on two miles further and came to No. 
-17, a creek, with plenty of wood. We traveled ten miles and 
came to No. 18, a spring, and good camp, with plenty of wil- 
lows. We then came six miles and camped at No. 19, a brack- 
ish spring and poor camp ground, with no wood and less sage, 
and feed very short. 

Sunday, 25th. This day's travel has been over a crooked, 
rough and stony road. We traveled two miles and camped at 
No. 20, a spring branch, with wood and feed in plenty. 

Monday, 26th. The weather was very cold. We traveled 
six miles and came to No. 21, a small creek, a good camp 
ground, plenty of wood and feed. We traveled fourteen miles 
and camped at No. 22; plenty of wood and feed short. We 
are now traveling in company, with six horse teams and twen- 
ty-eight men. 

Tuesday, 27th. We traveled five miles and came to a 
small creek, No. 23, a good camn ground, plentv of feed and 
willows. We came a quarter mile and crossed No. 24, a good 


camp ground; a half mile further we came to Beaver Creek, 
No. 25. It commenced snowing and we camped. This stream 
is about one rod wide; wood and feed plenty, a beautiful 
camping place. Our company is now organized. H. Egan is 
captain, and Brother Orlando Hovey has joined our company. 
Brothers Granger and Egan take his provisions. 

Wednesday, 28th. Last night we had a severe snowstorm. 
We traveled about seven miles down the Beaver and found the 
road was not passable. We then traveled seven miles east, 
close to the foot of the mountain, where we struck a road that 
bore south through the mountains. We traveled about four 
miles and found good feed and plenty of wood, no water. We 
traveled eighteen miles, but were only eight miles from where 
we camped last night. 

Thursday, 29th. The morning was pleasant, and we trav- 
eled about thirteen miles and camped at a spring, the feed be- 
ing good and plenty of sage. Ten miles of the road today was 
through a rough mountain country and very rocky. Brother 
John Hills broke his wagon tire in two places. Spring No. 
26, where we are camped, is about one mile from the road 
and about three miles from where you first enter the Little 
Salt Lake Valley. 

Friday, 30th. We traveled ten miles and came to No. 27, 
a creek with plenty of willows and feed. It is a good camp 
ground. We came six miles and camped at No. 28, a creek 
about one rod wide, with plenty of wood and feed. The road 
has been very good today. We are in sight of the Little Salt 
Lake. The weather is warm and pleasant. 

DECEMBER, 1849. 

Saturday, 1st. We traveled six and a quarter miles and 
came to creek No. 29. It is a good camp ground, with plenty 
of wood and feed. We caught up with Mr. - 's company 
at this creek. He laid up to do some blacksmithing, and 
kindly offered to have our wagon tire welded, and any other 
work we wanted. 

Sunday, 2nd. We traveled four miles and came to No. 
30, a spring and good camp ground. Then we came seven 
miles to- Muddy creek No. 31, a bad creek to cross; wood 
plenty, feed short. We traveled six miles and came to a 
spring branch, feed and wood plenty. We met four men be- 
longing to Captain Smith's company, who had lost their road 
and had been living on mule flesh for sixteen days. 

Monday, 3rd. We traveled sixteen miles and camped at 
No. 33, a spring branch; wood plenty and feed short. 


Tuesday, 4th. Last night it commenced snowing, and the 
morning was cold and stormy. We traveled thirteen miles and 
came to No. 34, a spring branch, with feed and willows plenty. 
We traveled nine miles and camped at No. 35, a spring 
branch ; feed and wood plenty. 

Wednesday, 5th. This morning was cold and stormy. We 
came eleven miles to No. 36, a spring branch. The feed Avas 
short, but wood plentv. We came about three miles and 
camped in a valley. The feed and wood was plenty, but no 
water. The storm was very severe, and the last end of the 
road very bad. 

Ihursday, 6th. Last night we experienced the hardest 
storm we have had since we started. We traveled about eight 
miles over rough roads to Santa Clara. We came about two 
miles further and camped near the Santa Clara, where feed 
was poor, but wood was plenty. It has stormed all day. 

Friday, 7th. The morning was very cold. We traveled 
three miles down the Santa Clara, where one of my wag'on 
tires broke. Brother Granger unloaded his wagon and went 
back with me to Mr. - 's camp, about thirty miles. We 
were gone three days, the weather being very cold. 

Saturday, 8th. The weather was extremely cold, being 
12 degrees below zero. 

Sunday, 9th. This morning we arrived at our camp. The 
wagons had gone ahead. The weather was still cold and feed 
very poor. 

Monday, 10th. We traveled ten miles down the Santa 
Clara, the road being very hard. We came a mile and a half 
and camped at a spring, plenty of wood but feed very poor. 

Tuesday, llth. The morning was cold, but we traveled 
about fifteen miles over a very rough road, snow being about 
one foot deep. We stopped two hours and fed. The feed is 
very good up to the right of the road in a ravine from where 
we stopped. We traveled fifteen miles further and camped 
on the Rio Virgin, plenty of wood, but feed very poor. There 
is some little bunch grass one mile up the hill. 

Wednesday, 12th. We traveled down the Virgin over a 
heavy sandy road through the most barren, desolate country I 
have ever seen. We came about eight miles and camped. 
Plenty of willows and some salt grass. The Virgin is about 
two rods wide here. 

Thursday, 13th. The weather was warm and pleasant. 
We traveled about eighteen miles down the Virgin. The road 
was sandy and we crossed the river ten times. The fords were 
good and there was plenty of willows and some little feed, 
the first we have seen since we started this morning. 


Friday, 14th. The morning was cloudy with some rain. 
We traveled about twelve miles down the Virgin River. The 
road Avas sandy and we crossed the river four or five times, 
then turned short to the right and went over a very heavy 
sandy, crooked road. We came about six miles and found 
some feed to the left of the road on the side of the mountain. 

Saturday, 15th. It was pleasant weather. Brother J. 
Bill's team gave out and he left his wagon and put his load 
in different wagons. We traveled a half mile and camped at 
the foot of a very steep mountain that we had to cross. We 
took out part of the loads and doubled teams, and with a rope 
250 feet long to the top of the mountain and twenty men to 
assist the teams we got up. We came five miles and bated, 
and then came to the Muddy. The feed was good, but wood 
scarce. Part of the road was very sandy. 

Sunday, 16th. The weather was pleasant, and we re-- 
mained in camp. We saw T a number of Indians in the evening. 

Monday, 17th. About noon today we moved camp up the 
creek about three miles and came to a river. It is called fifty- 
five miles to the next water after we leave here. The weather 
is rainy and the roads are bad. 

Tuesday, 18th. It has rained all night without any 
ceasing, which makes the roads very bad. We remained in 
camp today, and it has continued raining nearly all day. Last 
night the guards fired at what we supposed to be an Indian 
on the opposite side of the creek. It is with difficulty that we 
can get our animals to feed, it is so rainy. 

Wednesday, 19th. It was clear, pleasant weather, and we 
traveled ten miles, finding some feed, we bated. For half this 
morning we had to help the teams with ropes made fast to 
the wagons. The road then was gravel and sandy. We came 
about eight miles, the road being very bad. The animals sank 
to their knees every step. We found some water in holes and 
some bunch grass. 

Thursday, 20th. We traveled ten miles and found some 
feed on the sand bluffs. The road w y as much better, and we 
came twenty-five miles. The last three or four miles of the 
road was very bad. We arrived at the springs at 2 in the 
morning. Loot and Parks left their wagons, and Brother 
Granger left his and took Foot's wagon, it being lighter. The 
feed is scarce, it being buried over with sand. The wood also 
is scarce and the water is milk warm. There has been five 
animals and three wagons left since we started. 

Friday, 21st. This day we remained in camp. Mr. Noyle 
left his wagon and packed. We left our wagons and took his, 
it being lighter. The weather is warm and pleasant. 


Saturday, 22nd. Today we moved camp up the branch 
about three miles, the road being very bad and steep. There 
is plenty of feed. 

Sunday, 23rd. We traveled about eighteen miles, part of 
the road being- rough and stony, and camped near a beautiful 
spring branch. There was plenty of bunch grass on the 
mountain and plenty of wood. Two of our company were run 
"by some Indians, who were behind. 

Monday, 24th. About 2 o'clock this morning our animals 
were fired at by a party of Indians, which caused them to 
scatter. They ran off, but two of our men pursued them so 
close they got all but three belonging to Mr. Carr, which the 
Indian? killed and quartered. One of the three was shot four 
times. Here I left the wagons and took Mr. Carr's. We trav- 
eled four miles and came to a spring branch, a poor camp, 
Tmt we went on eight miles to a spring, where there was plen- 
ty of feed. We then came about twenty-five miles over a 
rough road and camped at a spring, the water being bad and 
a poor camp ground. 

Tuesday, 25th. We started at daylight this morning with 
the intention of stopping at a spring five miles ahead. After 
traveling about eight miles we stopped at last and found that 
the road ran about five miles east of the spring. Some of the 
company had started without eating their breakfast or taking 
in water. We came about twenty-five miles and camped at 
a spring, where the feed was nearly eat off, but the water was 
good and plenty of wood. We arrived here about half past 4 
o'clock in the evening. 

Wednesday, 26th. We remained in camp today. Mr. 
Carr's horse that was shot by the Indians was left gt this 
place, he being unable to travel. 

Thursday, 27th. The weather was pleasant. We found a 
man here with an arrow stuck in his side, and saw fresh In- 
dian tracks. One of the guard saw an Indian in the brush 
just before daylight and fired at him. We started at 3 o'clock 
this afternoon and came ten miles, part of the road being 
sandy, and part of it run over a low, wet bottom. We crossed 
a small stream several times, but the water was not good. At 
7.30 we camped at a spring, where the feed and water was 
good and wood plentiful. 

Friday, 28th. We started at 3 o'clock and came thirteen 
miles over a bad road and camped at spring No. 48, at the left 
of the road, where the water was brackish, poor feed and 
brush for fire. We arrived in camp about 9 o'clock. It rained 
about three hours this evening. 


Saturday, 29th. We started at 8 o'clock, and came twelve 
miles over a sandy road. We stopped to rest, but there Avas 
no feed. We came twelve miles more and stopped and got 
supper. We came twenty-five miles and camped at spring 
No. 49. There was no feed and the water was brackish, the 
latter part of the road being good. We arrived here at 4 
o'clock in the morning, but some of the company did not ar- 
rive until after daylight. We passed a number of cattle today 
and some wagons that were left. 

Sunday, 30th. We remained in camp today. There was 
a little coarse bunch grass one-half mile west near the road. 
We found three wagons with nearly all their loading in, left 
by some of the company ahead. 

Monday, 31st. We started this afternoon at 4 o'clock, 
came ten miles and stopped to rest, the road being sandy and 
uphill. We traveled all night and arrived at the Mohave at 
8 o'clock in the morninsr. We had come forty miles. 

Tuesday, 1st. We arrived in camp today, part of the 
company coming up about noon. There is some pretty good 
feed about a mile across the river. There is good water and 
plenty of wood. We have seen several wagons that were left 
and a number of dead cattle. One of the company found a 
mule here in pretty good order. Most of our company are 
short of provisions. We divided with them all we had to spare. 

Wednesday, 2nd. We started at 10 o'clock and came 
about fourteen miles, crossed the river and came three miles 
and camped. The first ten or twelve miles the road was sandy 
and ran a half to a mile from the river. The feed is good 
and plenty of wood. There was a company camped here last 
night. Their fires were burning when we arrived. Some of 
our packers remained in camp, among whom were Parke, 
Neagle and Fair. 

Thursday, 3rd. We started at daylight this morning and 
came about seven miles, where we found Captain Davis' com- 
pany, as they had laid up for the dav. I started for the set- 
tlement in company with Mr. Loot. We traveled about twelve 
miles over a sandy road and came to the river, traveled four 
miles further and stopped for the night. The feed was good 
and plenty of wood. 

Friday, 4th. We started at daylight and came about fif- 
teen miles and stopped to feed, then we came twenty-five 
miles to Cahoon Pass. The latter part of the road was very / 
rough. We camped at a spring where the feed was all eaten t/ 
out, but there was plenty of wood. This afternoon it com- 
menced raining and continued without any cessation all night. 


Saturday, 5th. We started this morning at 4 o'clock. 
The water was rushing through the pass about three feet deep. 
It was with great difficulty that we could get along. Some 
places the water would roll our horses over. We came fif- 
teen miles and found a wagon and camp there. We stopped 
to feed, after which we came fourteen miles and stopped at a 
ranch. It rained nearly all day. 

Sunday, 6th. We camped at William's Ranch. Here I 
found Brothers Rich and Hunt and some eighteen or twenty of 
the brethren all well. This is a beautiful valley. The hills 
look as green as they would in Salt Lake Valley in May. 

Monday, 7th. The weather was pleasant and the breth- 
ren were all preparing to start. 

Tuesday, 8th. It is still pleasant weather. Brother Rich 
is procuring wheat and getting it gTound for our company. 
Brother Stoddard came in the evening and reported the com- 
pany ten miles from here. 

Wednesday, 9th. The weather is fair. Our company ar- 
rived about noon, all well. 

Thursday, 10th. The two ox teams belonging to Brother 
Rich's company started this afternon. We spent this day in 
getting our grinding done. The distance to this settlement is 
about 769 miles from the Utah Lake. 

Friday, llth. We commenced our journey again today, 
and came ten miles and camped with the two ox teams be- 
longing to Brother Rich's company. The feed is much better 
here than it is at William's Ranch. It commenced raining this 
evening. We are camped near the stream, where there is 
plenty of wood. 

Saturday, 12th. We remained in camp today. Brothers 
Rich and Hunt came up this evening, and we organized. 
J. Hunt was chosen captain. 

Sunday, 13th. We came ten miles and camped near a 
stream, where there was feed and wood plenty. The forenoon 
was rainy, which made the roads bad, but the afternoon was 

Monday, 14th. The weather was pleasant and we came 
about seven miles arid stopped to feed at the intersection of 
St. Gubrith, which is a most beautiful location. We found 
plentv of oranges on the trees. The Mission has been partly 
deserted since the move. Some of the fields are fenced with 
pricklev pears that are planted in straight rows and grow 
from five to twenty-five feet high. We traveled three miles 
and camped near a small stream, but there was no wood. 



Prickley Pear or Cactus used for fencing. 

Tuesday, 15th. We came about four miles and camped 
near the stream about a mile and a half from the City or 
Pueblo de Los Angeles. 

Wednesday, 16th. We remained in camp today, and laid 
in our groceries. Brother Davis and some two or three others 
arrived from the Tormage Train, and reported them in dis- 
tress, and they sent in for assistance. 

Thursday, 17th. We came twelve miles and camped near 
a small stream and a deserted ranch, where there was good 

Friday, 18th. The weather was pleasant this morning, 
and we killed a heifer. Brothers Rich, Hunt and some others 
are preparing to pack and go ahead of the wagons. The 
brethren were called together, who were to remain with the 
wagons and Howard Ecran was elected captain by a unanimous 
vote of the company. We traveled twelve miles and camped 
near a spring, where there was plenty of feed and wood. 

Saturday, 19th. Wo traveled about twelve miles today 
and camped near a spring, there being plenty of wood and 
feed. The roads today have been rough and crooked. Broth- 


ers Rich and Hunt let me have $53.00 this morning for the 
use of the company. The weather is beautiful for this season 
of the year. 

Sunday, 20th. We traveled about fourteen miles and 
camped near a small stream in an oak grove, where the feed 
was good. The pack company left us today and went ahead. 
We passed several small streams that would answer for camp 



Monday, 21st. We traveled about twenty-one miles and 
camped under the St. Altave. There were four or five ranches 
in sight, but poor feed, though plenty wood. The head of the 
river is about one hundred yards wide. We came down one 
of the steepest mountains today that I ever saw a wagon run 

Tuesday, 22nd. Last night we had a heavy rain, but the 
morning was pleasant. We traveled about six miles and 
stopped to feed. We then came about three miles .and camped. 
There we inspected the Mission Buenentrance, near a stream 
within a quarter mile of the sea shore. There was plenty of 
feed and wood. The road has been good today. Our camp 
numbered 35 men, 1 woman, 20 horses and mules, 20 head of 
oxen and 5 wagons. 

Wednesday, 23rd. It was pleasant weather and we trav- 
eled about sixteen miles, most of the way down the beach. The 
roads were rough. We camped near a small stream in a grove 
where the feed was good. This is a beautiful camping place. 
About tAvo miles back there is a creek and a good camp ground. 

Thursday, 24th. Last night it commenced rainins: and 
continued without any cessation all day today, so we remained 
in camp. 

Friday, 25th. It rained all night last night, and cleared 
about 9 o'clock this morning. At 12 o'clock we proceeded on 
our journey. The roads were bad and we came about six 
miles and camped near a stream, where wood and feed was 
plentv. We passed several good camping places. 

Saturday, 26th. It was pleasant weather and Ave came 
about five miles and stopped to feed. One mile further we 
passed St. Abantres and traded one yoke of our cattle that 
were broke doAvn, paying $10.00 to boot. We came six miles 
and camped in a grove near a creek, Avhere there Avas first rate 
feed. The road has been very hard today. 

Sunday, 27th. It was fine weather and AVC came between 
nine . and ten miles, the road being very bad. We crossed 
seven creeks, all of which axe good camp grounds, there being 
plenty of Avood and feed. Our camp ground this evening is a 


beautiful place on the seashore, and the best place we have 
had since we started, and a beautiful grove to camp in. 

Monday, 28th. It was fine weather, and we traveled 
about eleven miles. The road has not been so wet today, but 
very hilly. We camped near a spring branch, where there was 
plenty of feed and wood. We are within a half mile of the 

Tuesday, 29th. We traveled about five miles and turned 
up a ravine, the road being very rough and rocky. It is about 
three miles to a ranch. We traveled about eight miles further 
and camped near a creek. 

Wednesday, 30th. Last evening we killed a beef. The fore 
part of the night was rainy. This morning five head of our 
cattle were missing. Most of our camp have been out hunting 
but could not find them. We got back to the camp about 10 
o'clock and learned the cattle were about four miles from the 

FEBRUARY, 1850. 

Friday, 1st. We moved down across the River St. Yuness, 
which is about fifty yards wide. The mission of the same name 
is about half a mile from the river. The road we passed in 
the forenoon was very good. We crossed a very steep moun- 
tain, and from there to the ranch I rode with the company. 
About a mile past the ranch there is plenty of good wood and 
water; feed not so good. We traveled about eighteen miles 

Saturday, 2nd. It was pleasant weather. We traveled 
about sixteen miles and came to a river about six rods wide, 
came about two miles further and camped near a small 
stream, where there was plenty of feed, but wood scarce. The 
last two or three miles of the road was very bad. 

Sunday, 3rd. The weather was pleasant, and we came 
about three miles to a ranch. The road was bad in many 
places. We traveled twelve miles and camped in a valley near 
a spring branch, where there was plenty of wood and feed. 

Monday, 4th. Tt was a dandy morninsr and we traveled 
about one and a half miles over a very hard road and came to 
St. Luke - , a mission and a store. We traveled up the 
stream about six and a half miles and camped. "Most of the 
road ran through a canyon. This is a beautiful can;pinr place. 
The feed is very good and plenty of wood. We have traveled 
about eighteen miles today. All of the company are well ex- 
cept Brother John Bills, who if- very sick. 

Tuesday, 5th. The weather is pleasant. We went about 
two miles up the canyon and crossed over the mountain. The 


road was pretty good and we came about four miles to the old 
mission. We have had very good weather today and have 
traveled about twenty miles. Two miles back we crossed the 

o --._ i -> T ,-i % i : . > ^, . i. O:CL-, , ,T^ -<--;/! * 4- -,-.-, >,Vj 

and store we purchased two beeves and paid $25.00 for them. 

Wednesday, 6th. Last night we camped under a white 
oak tree that measured twenty-two feet in circumference and 
the boughs measured 495 feet in circumference. The weather 
was fine and we traveled four and a half miles and came to 
the St. Miguel Mission, which is deserted. We came eight 
miles further to a large river about one hundred yards wide, 
which we crossed and camped, there being plenty of feed and 

Thursday, 7th. The morning was cloudy and we came 
four miles to a river about fifty yards wide, traveled up the 
river about eight miles and camped at a deserted ranch. We 
crossed the river and traveled four miles further up the river, 
seven miles to a ranch, Las Hoetis, and camped, making twen- 
ty-three miles today. The feed is very short here, but plenty 
of wood. We have been traveling through a very poor coun- 
try today. Two deer have been killed. 

Friday, 8th. It was fine weather and we came about 
eight miles and crossed the mountain and traveled down a 
beautiful valley. There w y as plenty of grass, but no water. 
We came ten miles to a deserted ranch, one mile further we 
came to the river Monterey and camped. We traveled about 
nineteen miles today, and the roads were first rate, with feed 
and water in plenty. 

Saturday, 9th. We came three miles to an Indian ranch, 
and nine miles further to a large river; eight miles to the Mis- 
sion Soladen. Six miles from there we crossed the River Mon- 
terey. By raising our wagon boxes we got over without any 
difficulty. We traveled about twenty-one miles today, the 
roads being good, and there was plenty of wood and feed 

Sunday, 10th. 1 The weather was fine, and we traveled a 
half mile and came to a ranch. The road leaves the river and 
runs parallel with it from three to five miles to a ranch to 
the left. Saw several ducks along the river. We came about 
twenty miles and camped in a grove, where there wa . plenty 
of feed, but water scarce. 

Monday, llth. We traveled three miles and came to a 
ranch, then came fourteen miles over a very rough road, and 
from there on to San Juan Mission. We then came one mile 
further and camped. 

Tuesday, 12th. Last evening I received a letter that Broth- 


er Rich left at the mission, dated the 10th. one day ahead of 
us. Brothers Staden, Edward and myself started about 10 
o'clock at night and found Brother Rich and company one mile 
from San Jose, about 8 o'clock this morning. The distance 
being forty-five miles. We made arrangements to get provi- 

Wednesday, 13th. We sent Franklin Edwards back to 
meet the company and stop the ox teams and send the other 
teams up after the provisions. Brothers Rich, Pratt, Hunt and 
Rollane started for San Francisco. 

Thursday, 14th. About noon the horse teams arrived, 
loaded up and started out a mile and camped. 

Friday, 15th. It was fine weather, and we traveled sev- 
enteen miles and came to the company. The brethren killed a 
heifer and several deer. 

Saturday, 16th. We started back about fourteen miles ou 
the road, where we came to Gillar's ranch. We then turned to 
the right and came four miles on the road to the Marapars 
diggins, part of the road being very wet. 

Sunday, 17th. We came six miles to Patgher's ranch. I 
rode ahead. We traveled ten miles up the Patgher's Pass and 
camped in a beautiful valley. 

Monday, 18th. The morning was cloudv. anil we traveled 
about two miles and came to the foot of the mountain. Here 
we had to double teams for about two miles. We came about 
ten miles and camped in the Jousain Valley. The roads have 
been verv hilly and hard to travel. There is plenty of feed 
and wood. 

Tuesday, 19th. Last ni<rht we had a light rain. This 
morning Brother John Bills was much worse. The company 
remained in camp and about 10 o'clock this eveninsr Brother 
Bills died. We moved camp about five miles. 

Wednesday, 20th. We traveled twenty miles and came to 
the San Jouaquin River, took our wagons apart and crossed 
them in a whale boat, for which we had to pav $87.50. 

Thursday, 21st. We traveled about eighteen miles up the 
Mercelda River nnd camped in a bend of the river, where the 
feed was good. The roads were sandy. 

Friday, 22nd. This morning six of our companv went 
ahead to explore. We traveled about wentv miles and crossed 
the Mercelda River and camped. 

Saturday, 23rd. We traveled about ten miles and stopped 

to feed. Then sent four of our companv out to explore. We 

traveled about four miles and camped near a spring branch. 

Here this journal or diary breaks off abruptlv, except 

places and distances are given, which is of no interest now. 


*At this point it may be well to review some of the facts 
in relation to the early settlement of California wherein Mor- 
mons had some hand. The ship Brooklyn sailed from New 
York with 235 Saints aboard in February, 1846. They stopped 
at Honolulu on the 26th of June and arrived at Yerba Buena 
(now San Francisco), Calif omia, July 29, and soon commenced 
agricultural work. 

The Mormon Battalion, that Father had returned from as 
they left Santa Fe, reached Pueblo de los Angles March 23, 
1847, where they were ordered to erect a fort on a hill nearby. 
They were honorably discharged July 16. A number of them 
were employed by Capt. John A. Sutter to dig- a mill race 
in September where gold was discovered in January, 1848, 
which excited the whole country and brought thousands across 
the plains. 

Upper California, which included Utah, was ceded to the 
United States by Mexico in February, 1848. In the middle of 
June, 1849, parties from the east began to arrive in Salt Lake 
on their way to California gold mines, and the people were 
much enriched trading with them. Father and others returned 
in the fall of 1850. Missionaries were sent there at different 
times and quite a number were sent to make a settlement, which 
was finallv abandoned. 

28. "TECUMSEE." 

I will now try to tell you how Father got the Indian, 
named by him, Tecumsee. But first I will say that Father was 
employed by some Salt Lake merchants to travel through the 
settlements both north and south in the winter time, buying up 
all the extra animals, cows and steers, that the people would 
sell. They were to keep these animals till spring brought the 
grass up, so he could collect them as he came along on his 
start for California. 

He had been very successful in buying, and when he had 
gone as far north as Malad river, where he camped for a few 
days, he had a bunch of about fifteen hundred head and a train 
of fifteen wagons, a hundred horses and mules, and thirty-five 
men, all to be looked after and taken care of till they arrived 
in California. 

It used to be Father ? s plan, after he had got the camp 
under way in the morning, and when the stock were well strung 
out, he would select a good position and count the whole bunch, 
and if there were any missing he would send men out to hunt 
them up and bring them in, and sometimes they were not suc- 
cessful in finding them. If the lost animals were very few, it 


would not pay to lay over to hunt them, but if there was a 
bunch lost, the train would camp at the first water until the 
stock was found or accounted for. 

They had traveled past Promontory Point and camped 
near Sage, or Indian creek, about sundown. There is a narrow, 
sharp, rocky ridge makes down from the mountains on the 
north of the road, and the camp was made just after rounding 
this rocky point. F^tVr had been, with some others, back to 
look for missing animals, and as they were nearing the camp 
he gave his horse to one of the men to lead to camp and take 
care of, as he wished to take a little foot exercise. 

He climbed the steep ridge a few hundred yards from the 
point near the road, and he knew that the camp was close to 
the opposite side of where he was climbing up, and when he 
reached the top would have a fine view of the surrounding 
country. When he reached the top he saw the camp as he ex- 
pected and the stock spreading out to feed. 

On looking down the ridge the way he expected to go to 
camp, he saw what he first thought to be the tail feathers of 
a bird, but in lookimz a little closer with his field glass he saw 
that there was an Indian under those feathers, who seemed to 
be trying to keep out of sight of anyone in the camp, and at 
the same time get close enough to some of the animals that 
were grazing near to stick an arrow in them (an Indian trick 
to get the carcass after the train had moved on). 

Father was directly above the Indian, and the Indian be- 
tween him and the camp. Father lost no time in getting within 
a few yards of the fellow, and just as the Indian was preparing 
to shoot the nearest steer, Father gave a ''Hugh!" The Indian 
turned round and faced a sixshooter, dropped his arrows and 
said "Hugh! Hugh!" Father placed his sixshooter in his scab- 
bard and motioned the Indian to pick up his arrows; then mo- 
tioned him to go down t^ camp, where Father had him sit down 
by a campfire and placed a guard over him, gave him a good 
supper, and then blankets to sleep on; and made to understand 
that he must stay there till sunrise next morning or the guard 
would shoot him. The next morning the Indian was given all 
he could eat, and some flour and bacon for his squaw Cif he had 
one) and told to go. 

Just before 12 o'clock noon, as Father was counting the 
animals as they passed along by a certain point of the road, 
he chanced to look around and saw the Indian of the night be- 
fore, witli two others, standing near watching Father. Father 
went on with his count till all the cattle had passed. After 
summing up his count he found that there were five or six ani- 
mals missing. He turned to the Indians and held up six finders, 



then pointed to the cattle, then motioned his hands over the 
country; the Indians uttered a sigh and soon disappeared. 

Father, contrary to his usual practice, did not send any men 
to find the lost animals. He made camp about 3 or .4 o 'clock. 

WashiUee. Peace Chief; near relation to Tccumsee. 


About sundown there could be seen a cloud of dust coming 
down the road. It might be a pack train, for it was coming 
pretty fast. It was only Father's Indians bringing in the lost 
animals, but instead of only five or six, they had brought in 
fifteen head. Some of them did not have the company brand, 
but were animals that had been lost by other trains or immi- 

The three Indians did not leave again until they had passed 
over the line of their country, which was along the Humboldt 
river, and Father placed no white men to herd and guard the 
stock, the Indians doing this from sundown to sunrise. Father 
had killed three head for beef, giving one to the Indians, and 
there had been two or three poisoned, and two or three drowned 
in the spring holes in Thousand Spring Valley, and at his last 
count in California he had one animal more than he left Malad 
Valley with. (So much for being kind to Indians.) 

The next year as Father was making another trip with 
stock for the California market, about the same place, the In- 
dians came again and did the same as the year before, leaving 
as usual, except Tecumsee (as Father called him). (That was 
the Indian Father held up on the rocky ridge.) He did not 
leave when the rest did, but kept as close to Father as he could 
day and night. 

In California he had to do a good deal of traveling, and 
when stopping at a hotel it was always understood that Tecum- 
see slept on the floor by his bedroom door. One night when 
thev were thus fixed. Father heard a slight sound of someone 
walking in the room. The moon made it light enough to see 
farely well. He saw the Indian come to the chair on which 
Father had placed his clothes, and proceeded to go through his 
pockets. Father said nothing about it, and next morning found 
that the Indian had only taken a few dimes, leaving all money 
larger than that. After that Father would only leave a dime 
or two, Avhich were sure to be gone in the morning. 

As lie had IK-MT seen or heard of the Indian buying any- 
thing, he wondered why lie would steal money and not spend 
it. So one day Father went to a store Avith the Indian and 
gave him to understand that lie was going to buy a hat and a 
shirt for him. After the things were fitted on, Father in pay- 
ing for them pretended he did not have money enough. The 
Indian went down in his own pockets and brought out a rag 
in which were tied up two or three dollars in dimes. He untied 
the bunch and slid it alone: the counter to Father to take out 
what was needed to fill the bill. 

One day, in Sacramento, Father wanted the Indian to wear 
shoes while in the city, so took him to ;i shop and got a pair 



fitted to him; then when they came to pay for them it took 
money from both of them. An hour after that they were walk-" 
ing down the street, the Indian trailing behind. Father chanced 
to look back; the Indian was there all right, hat in hand, shoes 
slung across his arms, eating candy and taking in all the sights 
that were to be seen from the sidewalk. 

As a general thing he tried to imitate Father's walk and 
actions, which caused many a smile among spectators and many 
a hearty laugh from Father 's acquaintances. He could not bear 
to wear shoes long at a time, when they were new, and off they 
would come, no matter where he was ; the same with his hat. 

Well, the old fellow was at one time the "war chief" of 
the "To-So-Witch Band" of the " Sho-Sho-nees Indians." He 
came with Father to Salt Lake and never went back to his tribe. 

NOTE. To Wm. M. Egan: Probably you know what be- 
came of him. I don't remember. He was sometimes at Moth- 
er's, and at other times I have seen him at different mail sta- 
tions. H. R. Egan. 

*I remember him well. He used to sleep in our back kitch- 
en, and do chores, and was quite an old man then, but I do not 
remember about his death. W. M. Egan. 

Kanosb Pavant Chief. 



When Father was returning from one of his trips to Cali- 
fornia by the southern route, ray brother Erastus was in the 
company, and from some of them I got this: We were in the 
desert and had made camp near a small spring. We had noth- 
ing to make a fire with but scrub greasewood. We had our fire 
made and were getting our supper about ready, when there ap- 
peared a couple of the Desert Indians, clad in their Sunday at- 
tire, which consisted of a grass string around their loins. A 
kind of fringe about eight or ten inches long hung from the 
string clear around them. This was all of their covering except 
a mass of coal black hair on their heads about the size of a 
bushel basket. 

They came up close to the fire and stood like posts, but 
watching every move of the whites. One of them had a live 
rattlesnake which he held by the tail, letting the snake hang 
down very close to his leg, but paying no attention to the 
squirming reptile whatever. This put the spectators on their 
nerves. They said nothing, but expected to see the snake at 
any moment bury his fangs in the Indian's leg. After the 
whites had removed their cooked supper from the fire, the In- 
dian that held the snake kicked, with his bare feet, the embers 
together, and then laid the snake on the coals. It crawled off. 
He picked it up and put it on again. This was repeated several 
times before the snake died; and when it was roasted enough 
to satisfy the Indian, he took it off the fire and pinched its 
head off with his fingers and threw it away; then broke off a 
section of the body and commenced eating it like a boy would 
a carrot. The two made short work of the snake and licked 
their fingers as if they liked it, and I suppose they did. 

At another camp, while they were cooking a meal, three 
or four of the same kind of Indians came up and stood watch- 
ing the cooking arrangements. Father told Erastus not to no- 
tice them or they might take too much liberty. When the meal 
was all ready and spread on the blanket, all but the frying pan 
of gravy, Erastus was told to get it off the fire and bring it 
to the table. He lifted it off the fire. The handle was hot and 
burned his fingers, so he laid it down to get a better hold. As 
he did so he looked at one of the Indians and grinned. That 


was enough. They all jumped at once around the pan, and 
bending their forefingers like a fishhook, dived into that gravy, 
and as hot as it was they soon cleaned it all up, and the white 
people had no sop that meal just on account of the grin on the 
boy 's face. 


On Father's quick trip to California, straight across the 
great American desert, his rule was to stop but four hours out 
of every twenty-four, which soon made men and mules suffer 
for the want of sleep as well as rest. 

One day, after crossing about a thirty-mile desert, they 
came to the bench or foothills of the next range of mountains, 
that appeared to be very dry. Father told his partner to ride 
a little ways off in that .direction and he would go the oppo- 
site, *and if either found any water to shoot his pistol off, that 
the other might come to him, and if neither of them found any 
water they must return and climb the mountain and search the 
other side. 

After going as far as he thought advisable, Father took 
the back track, and when he got to the place where they had 
parted, not meeting his man, he followed his tracks as fast as 
he could. After going about one-half of a mile, and just over 
a small ridge, he saw the man and mule both standing up. The 
man had his hands on the horn of the saddle as if about to 
mount. The mule's head was down close to the bunch grass, 
but both man and beast were fast asleep. 

The mule was the first to awake, but merely raised his 
head a little. The man slept till Father had dismounted and 
gave him a shaking up, and asked him why he had not fired 
the shot to let him know that he had found water. He said 
he was going to ride back to the top of the little ridge arid do 
so, as the shot could be heard farther, but had lost himself just' 
as- he was about to mount. There was plenty of water there, 
so they rested for four full hours. 

At another time on this trip they w r ere suffering very se- 
verely for water, but fortunately came to a small stream of 
clear mountain water. Father's partner jumped off his mule 
and threAv himself flat down with his lips to the water, suck- 
ing in huge mouthfuls. Father grabbed him by the legs and 
pushed him heels over head into the creek. Of course, when 
he scrambled out, he was ready to fight, but when Father said, 
"Now you can drink without killing yourself, and I hope you 
have learned a good lesson about drinking when thirsty. 


Father said, at one time on his fast trip across the coun- 
try, as he was traveling through a narrow, steep side canyon, 
it appeared to him that he was going through the street of a 
very large city. The buildings on each side appeared to be of 
many shapes, and some of many stories high, and occasionally 
a bridge would span the street, and so low down that he would 
duck his head to ride under them. Some of the houses seemed 
to be lighted up. He could see the lights in many windows, 
but there was no sound. 

Then he knew that he was suffering for the want of sleep. 
That made the transformation. He had often when on the 
desert seen the mirage take the form of buildings, bridges, 
forests and lakes (the writer has seen the same things), but 
he knew this was not a mirage, but lack of sleep. 

Father was of the opinion that man can go longer without 
sleep than the animals he rode, but he felt sure that the ani- 
mals often slept while traveling slow. I don't know as to that,, 
but I do know that I have ridden horseback for five or six 
miles while I was fast asleep, and only awakened by the pony 
changing his gait. 

This was at the place where the two riders passed each 
other and reported that they had not met. Both had been fast 
asleep and the ponies had not changed their pace in passing, 
so the boys slept on till they did, which would be at some in- 
cline or decline, as if to receive further orders, which they gen- 
erally got by a gentle touch of the spurs or a lifting of the 
bridle reins. 

Suffering for Sleep. When Father arrived in Sacramento, 
at the end of his ten-day mule trip, his first duty was to take 
a bath and then a rood sleep, both of which lie stood very much 
in need of. So, after engaging his room at the hotel, he turned 
the water on and did not wait for the tub to fill, but got in 
and sat down and leaned back and Well, the first he knew 
the bellboy was in the room trying to wake him up. and the 
water still runninu 1 at full force. The first thing- the bellboy 
knew was a' battery of boots directed at him, which caused his 
hasty retreat. But lie had broken the first real comfortable 
sleep Father had enjoyed for over ten days. As there were 
only two of them on the last trip, and as they only rested four 
out of every twenty-four hours, and as both could not sleep at 
the same time, on account of the danger of boini: attacked by 
man or beast, then? wero only two hours out of each twenty- 
four for each to -le<-;>. Too little to be much enjoyed, for the 
awakening was the hardest part of the job, for sleep came 
quickly but awakening came with a irnidi*e and a surprise at 
the shortness <,f the length of two h" 



In early days, when Father Avas at home for a brief time, 
they used to have a sociable evening at home with friends, at 
one home or another. As Father put in most all his time in 
going or coming, or in California, the good folks, especially the 
women folks, were always urging him to tell them some of his 
thrilling experiences, as they knew he must have had many of 
them. So, on one evening after much persuasion, he told this 
to the very attentive listeners: 

"I was selling beef to the placer miners and had to do a 
great deal of horseback riding to visit the different camps to 
get their orders for beef. On going to one camp I found the 
trail so steep that I thought I would walk the balance of the 
way, about one-fourth of a mile. So I tied my horse close to 
the trail and footed it on up to the camp. On the way up I 
noticed a good many prospect holes that had been abandoned. 
Some of them with large dumps and some with their windlasses 
still over them. I remember of thinking how dangerous it was 
to leave such places uncovered, as men or animals that might 
fall in one of them, if not killed, could not be heard by anyone, 
and so die of starvation or thirst. 

But to go on, I arrived in the camp early in the afternoon 
and was much pleased, as I had made contracts for a good 
amount of beef for each week for a couple of months, which 
meant ten or twelve head of beef sold. Well, they were a jolly 
crew of miners, and more so on account of their success. All 
of which meant money for me. 

By the time I had made the round of the camp and fin- 
ished up my business it was dark. Some of the miners wanted 
me to stay with them all night, but I would not, for I had left 
my horse tied so he could not feed, and I also thought I could 
find my way back down the gulch, although it had grown ex- 
tremely dark. 

"I followed a well-beaten trail and was making very good 
time, when all at once I felt that I was falling. Throwing out 
my hands I struck what I supposed w T as a windlass frame, and 
clung to it for dear life. But the thing was so rotten that it 
broke almost in two, and the least move I made it would crack, 
and was already pinching m v hands. Now, if you can just im- 
agine the horrible thoughts that ran riot through my head. How 
T should lie mangled at the bottom, or if dead, how long be- 
fore I would be found. What would my wife and friends say 
as to the cause of my disappearance. Great beads of sweat 



came out all over me. All my life's doing:, good, bad and in- 
different, rushed through my mind at lightning speed, and the 
terror and agony of it all! My strength was going away, and 
I knew that the last moment had come, so commended my soul 
to the powers above, I closed my eyes and let go my hold and 
dropped (Oh, my! Dreadful! Horrible! And so on, from the 
ladies) about six inches. Needless to say, after resting a few 
moments I soon found my horse and rode home." 


*To show some of Father's activities selling beef in Cali- 
fornia we here insert some of his Diary of 1855, as follows: 
January 1 At the ranch on the San Joaquin; cloudy. 12th 
Left the ranch with O. R. Stibbins and the Indian. " 13th At 
Stockton; stopped at the Slough House. 14th Stopped at 
Sacramento, loth Stopped at Putah. 16th Started with 
forty-four head of cattle. 17th Stopped at the Slough House; 
commenced boarding at #9 per week. 20th Found an ox on 
the east side of Cosmines river branded L K. 21st Mexican 
Joseph came from San Joaquin. 25th Sold ten head of cattle. 
26th Went to Sacramento and returned. 28th J. H. Kinkead 
arrived this evening. 29th Mr. Kinkead left this morning. 
Februarv 2 Sold five head of cattle to Mr. Tudsburv. 4th 

First Salt Lake City Store, LiviiitfMtoii V Kinkead; 
after Livingston Hell A to. 

Mr. Livingston pajd us a visit. 7th Sold fifteen head of cat- 
tle to Bill Williams of Diamond Springs, llth Received let- 


ter from home. 12th C. Stibbins. started north. 14th Sold 
seven head of cattle to Mr. Spensir. Received a package of - 
letters from Captain Hunt. (*This was another message from 
the Mormon Battalion.) 22nd Sold twelve head of cattle. 
Started for Sacramento. 23rd At Sacramento. 24th Went 
out to Putah and got fifty-one head of cattle. 25th Arrived 
at the Cosmines. March 1 Sold ten head of cattle to Mr. 
Crocker. 6th Started to Sacramento. 8th Went to Putah 
after cattle. Got .fifty-one head. 9th Arrived at the Slough 
House. 14th Sold twelve head of cattle. 15th Subscribed 
$5 for the Mormon Herald to P. P. Pratt. 19th Sold fifteen 
head of cattle to Windall. 20th Mr. Charles Warner got 
killed. 21st Went to Sacramento; sent $2000 to Livingston 
& Kinkead. 22nd Returned to the Slough House. 29th Sold 
three head of cattle. April 1 Sold twenty-five head of cattle 
to Mr. Tudsbury. 2nd At Sacramento; went to Five Mile 
house with a friend. 3rd Went to Putah and got fifty-two 
head of cattle and stopped at Washington. 4th Crossed the 
cattle and arrived at the Slough House. 6th Started to Sac- 
ramento. 9th E. C. Blodgett brought fifty cows from the 
San Joaquin. 10th Sold a cow. 20th Sold seven steers to 
Zimmerman. 22nd Sold four steers and one cow to Donnely 
& Moffett. 26th Sold four cows and four steers to Oliver 
Joyet. May 2 Went to Sacramento 'and sold thirty-eight head 
of cattle to Frank Tudsbury. ' 4th Went to Putah and got 
fifty head of cattle. 8th A man by the name of Bohler w r as 
murdered one mile from Dayton's ranch. Sold two cows to B. 
Hamenell. 14th A man was executed at Dayton's ranch. 
(*Perhaps the murderer lynched.) 19th Sold twenty-five 
head of cattle to Mines & Co. 21st Sold twenty-five steers 
and seven cows. 27th Sold fifty-seven head of cows and 
steers to Soseen. 28th Started to Auburn and crossed the 
American river. Lost a cow and calf. 30th Took stage for 
Sacramento. 31st Went to Putah creek and drove thirty-one 
head of cows and steers to Sacramento. June 5th Started W. 
Nash with fourteen head of cattle to Auburn. . 6th Sold nine- 
teen head 'of cattle to King & Co. of Grass Valley, llth 
Started for Georgetown. Sold Frank Hereford fifteen cows. 
18th Stopper five miles from Rough and Ready. 20th At 
Jordan Spring House. Sold to Mr. Morgan fifty-four head of 
steers. 28th Received of H. Mucly & Warner '$2500 for Mr. 
Brown. 30th E. C. Blodgett arrived with the mules. July 1 
Started the boys for Salt Lake. 

Fci <crliiiat: : cr cl E ieij see page 196, which was so placed to shcjw search oi Mail Line. 




From Salt Lake City, Utah, to Sacramento, Cal., in Ten Days 

on Mule Back, Through a Trackless and Desert Country. 

A Time Never Equaled Before or Since by Such 

a Mode of Traveling. 

Wednesday, September 19, 1855. We started from Salt 
Lake City to go to Sacramento, Cal., early this morning:, and 
stopped at Tooele to breakfast. Then went on and stopped in 
Lone Rock Valley about 1 o'clock p. m. We started on again 
at 3 o'clock and stopped at a brackish spring to get supper, 
about two hours, and then went on again. 

Thursday, 20th. We stopped at the eastern edge of the 
desert about 2 o'clock in the morning and started at 5 o'clock, 
stopping to breakfast at the Granite mountain, where there are 
fine springs and Lrood feed for a small company. We started 
from there at 11 a. m. and crossed the desert, stopping on the 
west side of the desert at Willow Springs at 7 p. m. We started 
again and at 9 o'clock the same evening we passed Peter Haws 
and company, who were camped about ten miles frdm the 

Friday, 21st. We camped about 4 a. m. and started on at 
5 o'clock, stopping to breakfast at o'clock. We started again 
at 10 a. m. and stopped to bate about 3 p. m. for an hour, and 
started on again at 5 o'clock. Mr. J. Redding, who accom- 
panied us as far as Redding 's Springs, returned home. 

Saturday, 22nd. We stopped at 3 o'clock in the morning 
for two hours, and started on again at 5 o'clock, traveled two 
miles and stopped for breakfast. The morning was cold and 
cloudy. We started at 8 a. m. and stopped to feed at 2 p. m., 
starting on at 3 o'clock. We saw a larue Indian camp in the 
valley. It commenced raining about dark. We went up a Can- 
yon and camped for the night. 

Sunday, 23rd. We started at o'clock in the morning and 
met the Indians coming up the canyon on our trail. We stopped 
in the Humboldt valley at 2 p. m. to feed for an hour, and then 
started at 3 o'clock and traveled until 4 o'clock the next morn- 
ing without water. 


Monday, 24th. We started at 6 a. m. and found a spring 
of water about 10 o'clock on the top of a mountain, and stopped 
to feed. We- started again at 12 o'clock and stopped at 1 p. m. 
for an hour and left at 2 p. m., traveling- all the evening. 

Tuesday, 25th. We stopped about 1 hour and 30 minutes 
to feed, and started at 3 :30 p. m. 

Wednesday, 26th. We camped at 2 o'clock this morning 
and started at 6:30 a. m. and arrived at the Humboldt river, 
ninety miles from the sink. 

Thursday, 27th. We arrived at the Trading Post, at the 
Sink, about 11 p. m., and started at 2 o'clock to cross the Big 
Desert, arriving at Rag Town at 11:30 p. m. 

Friday, 28th. We started at 2:30 a. m. from Rag Town 
and stopped at Gold Canyon at 11:30 a. m. We started from 
there at 2 p. m. and arrived at Jack Valley at 7 o'clock; 
changed mules and started at 9 o'clock and went on. 

Saturday, 29th. We traveled all night and stopped at 
Slippery Ford to breakfast. We changed mules at Silver Creek 
and traveled all night, arriving at Placerville at 5 o'clock in 
the morning and at Sacramento at 6 p. m., making the trip in 
ten davs. 


Original Trails. Many original trails were blazed through 
the western country by early travelers. The trappers, as early 
as 1810, one year after the birth of America's immortal Lin- 
coln, in whose memory this and subsequent trails were forged 
into this ocean-to-ocean highway, and if we include the pres- 
ent California (it was all California at that time, as far north 
as the north line of that state now and east to the Rocky 
mountains) much earlier than that. Peter Skeene was on the 
Weber river, near Great Salt Lake, in 1825, and W. M. Ashley 
on the shores of Utah Lake in 1826. In 1842 General John C. 
Fremont visited Great Salt Lake, and the trail to Oregon 
through the South Pass and down the Columbia river began 
to be traveled yearly. Mr. Sutter went down the coast, lo- 
cated in California, and then some travelers went by way of 
Fort Hall, Idaho, and up the Humboldt, through what is now 
Truckee pass, through the Sierra Nevada mountains. 

In 1844 Hastings followed the Indian trail through the 
Rocky mountains and blazed a cutoff trail south of Great Salt 
Lake, which is the present link of the Lincoln Highway which 
during the last year has caused the most apprehension of any 


point on the route between New York and the Pacific coast, 
intersecting- the north trail on the Humboldt. Walker, with 
ten men, followed this trail into Salt Lake Valley, and the 
Donner party in 1846 followed the Hastings cutoff, most of 
the company perishing- in the Sierra Nevada mountains from 
cold and hung-er on account of the impassable snow. In 1847 
the "Mormon" pioneers followed this same trail to the Great 
Salt Lake Valley and beg-an to make their home there. This 
trail and the Oregon trail they followed to South Pass, in Wyo- 
ming is part of the Lincoln Highway. There still were many 
trails to be blazed throughout the intermountain country. 

Egan Trail. Quoting from Bancroft's History of iJtah, 
pages 751-2: "Between Utah and California there were three 
principal lines of travel the northern, the central and south- 
ern. The first skirted the northern edge of Great Salt Lake 
and thence after crossing an intervening stretch of desert, fol- 
lowed the valley of the Humboldt and Carson rivers, being, in 
fact, almost identical with Fremont's route of 1845. Not- 
withstanding its length, it was still preferred by travelers, as 
grass and water were fairly plentiful, with only two small 
tracts of desert land to contend with. (The southern route 
has been fully given in Father's Diary of 1849-50, in preced- 
ing article No. 27.) 

"The central route, better known to the settlers of Utah 
by the name of Egan's Trail, and to California-bound emi- 
grants as the Simpson route, though the two were by no means 
coincident, varied but a few miles from 40 degrees north lati- 
tude, until renching Hastings pass in the Humboldt mountains 
where it branched off in a southwesterly direction toward 
Carson lake and river, and from Carson City south to Genoa. 
The South route was by way of the Sevicr, Santa Clara, Vir- 
gin, Las Vegas, Indian rivers to San Bernardino. 

"In 1859 J. H. Simpson, of the topographical engineers, 
received instructions from Gen. Johnson to explore the great 
basin, with a view to find a desert route from Camp Floyd to 
Genoa, in Carson valley. An account of the expedition will be 
found in his 'Exploring Great Basin.' For about 300 miles 
his route was identical with Kgan's, except for a few unim- 
portant deviations, but soon after reaching Ruby Valley it 
tended more toward the south. Kuan's line was preferred, 
however, as on the one taken by Simpson grass and water were 

"Howard Egan, a Ma.jor in tin- NMUVOO Legion and a well- 
known guide and mountaineer, was for some years engaged in 
driving stock to California in the service of Livingston & Kin- 


kead and afterward became a mail agent." Burton's City of 
the Saints, page 550. 

In 1855 he was engaged in this business and in his diary, 
w*hich I now have in my possession, he writes the following 
about his searching out the Egan Trail: 

"July 4th Started in the stage to Placerville on the way 
to Salt Lake; stopped at South Fork of American river. July 
5th, stopped at Lake Valley, ate supper at Gold Canyon, traveled 
all night and stopped at Savin's to breakfast. July 6, crossed 
the twenty-six-mile desert, stopped near Rag Town and started 
over the forty-mile desert at 7:30. July 7th, traveled over the 
desert. July 8th, arrived at the sink of the Humboldt. Started 
at 11 a. m. and came thirty-five miles and stopped for supper. 
Started at 10 p. m. and traveled all night. July 9th, about 

4 a. m., stopped to feed. Started at 8 a. m. and arrived at 
the trading 1 post about 11 a. m. Left the Indian Tecunisee at 
this point. Camped at 9 p. m. July 10th, started about 4 a. m. 
and spent the day in hunting the Beckwith trail. This evening 
three of the mules ran off. Spent the night hunting them. 
July llth This morning I found the mules and started at 7 :30 
a. m., stopped to bait at 4:30 p. m. Started about 8 p. m. and 
camped about 12 :30 a. m. and started at 3 a. m. July 12th, 
stopped to bait about 7 a. m. and started about 9 :30 a. m. We 
had the pleasure of having some Indians to breakfast with us. 
Stopped about 5 p. m. July 13th, started at 3 this morning. 
Stopped to breakfast at 5:30 a. m. and camped at 4 p. m. 
Started to hunt a pass through the Humboldt range and got lost. 
Got to camp next morning, July 14th. Spent this day by all 
to find a pass through the mountains. July 15th, started at 

5 a. m. and stopped at Peter Haw's and took dinner. Started 
at 2:30 p. m. ,and camped at 8 p. m. July 16th, started at 
3 a. m., came fifteen miles and stopped at C. Munvey's to bait. 
Started a south course through a pass in the Humboldt moun- 
tains, traveled through a beautiful valley and stopped at 3 p. m. 
Traveled ten miles and camped. July 17th, started at 4 this 
morning and, traveling a south course, about 7 a. m. inter- 
secte4 Hastings trail, bearing east. Stopped to feed at 11 a. m. 
at Sulphur Springs. John R. Addams. traveling in company 
with horses, camped about 8 p. m. : no water. July 18th, 
started at 3:30 a. m., bearing north. Traveled about five miles 
and came to a large slough and stopped to feed. Started at 
8 o'clock and stopped about 4 p. m., where there is a host of 
springs (no doubt Thousand Spring valley) ; feed good. Started 
at 7 p. m. and stopped on the desert about 12 :30 a. m. ; no. 
grass nor water. July 19th, started at 3 o'clock this 'morning, 
traveled over a rough, barren country and stopped at a spring 


on the right of the road about 3 p. in. Started at 6 o'clock 
and stopped at 11:30 p. ra. July 20th, started this morning 
about 4 o'clock and stopped to feed about 11 o'clock." 

From this on his diary contains little or nothing until 
after he arrived in Salt Lake City and had made a wager that 
he could ride to Sacramento in ten days a mule-back. He then 
'gives an account of the trip commencing September 19th, 1855, 
and arrived at Sacramento at 6 p. m., September 29th, making 
the trip in ten days, as given in Article 32. 

In the back of his diary for this year (1855) he makes 
the following memorandum: "Commencement of trail," which, 
he says, "was ninety miles to the right (or south) of the sink 
of Humboldt. Across a valley twelve miles little water in 
canyon over a mountain five miles; little water to the right in 
the creek across a valley one mile from the road at foot of 
mountain, good grass and water. Thirty miles to summit of 
mountain. Ten miles to left, one mile over small mountain 
creek. Fifteen miles to Ruby Valley. Twenty miles down to 
valley; forty miles in same valley, creek fifteen miles (perhaps 
Shell Creek) on the side of a small mountain is a large spring. 
Twenty miles over mountain five or six springs (Spring Val- 
ley). Twelve miles to summit of a little mountain; twenty-five 
miles to Deep Creek: thirty miles to desert: twenty miles over 
summit of 'mountain: forty-five miles to Salt Spring. To 
creek sixteen miles." 

These were his notes in laying out the trail, and he also 
had a map, but as it is only a rude drawing, with no names 
of places, no one but him could make much out of it. He had 
also a list of figures, perhaps distances. 

On the Egan Trail or Overland Mail Line as Finally Selected. 

Names of Stations. Names of Stations. 

Miles Miles 

Salt Lake City. 12 Black Rock. 

9 Traveler's Rest. 11 Fish Springs. 

11 Rockwell's. 10 Boyd's. 

9 Dug Out. 10 Willow Springs. 

10 Fort Crittenden. 15 Canyon Station. 

10 Pass. ' 12 Deep Creek. 

10 Rush Valley. 8 Prairie Gate or Eight Mile. 

11 Point Lookout. 18 Antelope Springs. 
15 Simpson's Springs. 13 Spring Valley. 

8 River Bed. 12 Sehell 'Creek. 

10 Diiff Wav. 12 Egan Canvon. 


15 Butte. 15 Fair View. 

11 Mountain Springs. 13 Mountain Well. 
9 Ruby Valley. 15 Still Water. 

12 Jacob's Wells. 14 Old River. 
12 Diamond Springs. 14 Bisby's. 

12 Sulphur Springs. 11 Nevada. 

13 Robert's Creek. 12 Desert Wells. 

13 Camp Station. 13 Dayton. 
15 Dry Creek. 13 Carson. 

10 Cape Horn. 14 Genoa. 

11 Simpson's Park. 11 Friday's. 
15 Reese River. 10 Yonk's. 

12 Mount Airey. 12 Strawberry. 

14 Castle Rock. 12 Webster's! 
12 Edward's Creek. 12 Moss. 

11 Cold "Spring. 12 Sportsman's Hall. 

10 Middle Gate. 12 Placerville. 

Total 658 miles. 

Overland Mail Line. No doubt he was hunting this line 
out with the object of a mail line, for soon after he was in 
partnership, or more or less associated with W. G. Chorpening 
in carrying the mail. In "The Overland Stage to California," 
we read that W. G. Chorpening, in the 50 's was proprietor of 
the mail line from Sacramento east to the Utah capital, there 
connecting with the route from St. Joseph, Mo. In the spring 
of 1858 Chorpening purchased ten stage coaches, with all the 
necessary supplies for the route, and the vehicles were re- 
ceived at Atchison, Kansas, in August, 1858, shipped by Mis- 
souri river steamboat." Page 40. 

This was not a daily mail service, but was made daily in 
July, 1861, and was succeeded by Holladay Overland Mail and 
Express Co., and later Wells Fargo and Co. 


The first "Pony Express" from the west arrived at Salt 
Lake City, April 7tli, 1860, having left Sacramento, California, 
on the evening of April 3rd, I860, and on the 9th it arrived 
from the east, having left St. Joseph, Mo., on the same evening 
April 3rd. 1860." Brother Howard writes: 

"Father's First Express Ride. When all was supposed to 
be readv and the time figured out when the first Express should 
arrive in Salt Lake City from the east, they thought that, on 
account of the level country to run over, that they would be 



able to make better time on the eastern division than on the 
western from Salt Lake to California. Therefore, the two 
riders that were to run between Salt Lake and Rush Valley 
were kept at the city. 

Father alone of all the officers of the line thought his 
boys would make as good a record as the best and, if they did, 

Pony Express; Indians after rider. 
Pioneer of the telegraph line in the west. 

there would be no rider at Rush Valley to carry the Express 
on to the city. So to be on the safe side Father went himself 
to Rush Valley. And sure enough his boys delivered the 
goods as he expected, and he started on his first ride. It was 
a stormy afternoon, but all went well with him till on the 
"home stretch." 

The pony on this run was a very swift, fiery and frac- 
tious animal. The night was so dark that it was impossible 
to see the road, and there was a strong wind blowing from the 
north, carrying a sleet that cut the face while trying to look 
ahead. But as long as he could hear the pony's feet pounding 
the road, he sent him ahead at full speed. 

All went well, but when he got to Mill Creek, that was 


covered by a plank bridge, he heard the pony's feet strike the 
bridge and the next instant pony and rider landed in the 
creek, which Avet Father above the knees, but the next instant, 
with one spring, the little brute was out and pounding the 
road again and very soon put the surprise on the knowing ones. 
And here let me say, it was a very long time before the regu- 
lar riders came up to the time made on this first trip, if they 
ever did." 

. This Pony Express continued in operation until the Over- 
land Telegraph line was completed, October 18, 1861, from the 
east to Salt Lake, and October 24th from the west. All the 
fast messages, of course, went by telegraph, and there was no 
more need for the Pony Express, as there was at that time a 
daily mail coach, the Overland Mail, running regularly and 
continued for many years. 

^Indian Raids. The Indians attacked the mail station at 

.Deep Creek, stole a band of horses, and shot a man May 28, 

1860. They made a raid on Egan Canyon station August 12th, 

and the following day on Schell Creek. A company of soldiers 

came to the rescue and killed seventeen Indians. 

The Overland Mail coach, with four passengers, was 
attacked by Indians at Eight Mile Station, near Deep Creek. 
The station men were killed, also Henry Harper, the driver, 
and one passenger wounded. Judge Mott, delegate to Con- 
gress from Nevada, climbed out of the stage, got the lines and 
made their escape to Deep Creek. (See details of this in later 
article, Indian Outbreak.) 1 1 This was on March 22nd, 1863. 
Near Canyon Station, May 19th, the driver, W. R. 'Simson was 
shot while Father was riding by his side, who pulled him into 
the boot, got the reins, stopped the coach and ordered out the 
soldiers to return the fire, one of whom was shot between the 
toes. JjOn the 8th of July, 1863, the Indians attacked Canyon 
Station near Deep Creek, killing four soldiers and Bill Riley, 
the water wagon driver, the latter of whom was thrown on 
the wood pile bv the Indians and burned. One of the soldiers, 
being bald and having a heavy beard, the beard was cut off by 
the Indians instead of the scalp. This happened the day after 
we arrived at Deep Creek with our freight train, at the sta- 
tion Ave had passed, and I saw the dead soldiers who were 
brought down therefor burial, and noted the bald soldier with 
his chin whiskers cut off. 

The writer was then a boy of twelve and was traveling 
with Brother Erastus, who had charge of three six-mule teams. 
I and another boy were night herders and we were on our 
way with grain, freighting from Salt Lake for the mail sta- 
tions and continued on to Carson, where we bought goods to 


stock Father's stores at Ruby Valley and Deep Creek. At tbis 
same time my brother Howard had charge of about ten big 
government wagons with four yoke of oxen to each wagon with 
freight for the stations, and he went as far as Dimond Springs 
with it. The mule and ox trains were owned by Father. Be- 
fore we left Deep Creek with -these trains, Eight Mile Station, 
next one west, was burned by Indians. 


Before the Deep Creek ranch was purchased by Father the 
old trail ran south from Willow Springs around Deep Creek 
(now called by its Indian name of I-ba-pah), but after that 
ranch was bought, it was made a station on the Overland -Mail 

Deep Creek ranch and mail station. Left to right, H. R. Egan's residence, 
driver** sleeping: rooms, the station with rest roouun and eating? rooms, 

Line and our principal home. Deep Creek w y as headquarters 
for many years, where Father and his sons were quite success- 
ful in raising hay and grain for the mail stations and in 
ranching. The home station eating house was also kept and 
the stations along the road supplied with beef and mutton. 
About twenty cows were kept for milking, which chore fell to 
the lot of the writer and brother Hyrum, as well as the cowboy 
job of riding the range for beef cattle, hunting horses and 
herding sheep, as well as helping on the farm, plowing, plant- 
ing and irrigating, hauling hay, etc. 

Father was superintendent on the Overland Mail Line and 
all these activities were carried on successfully until May 10th, 
1869, when the railroad was completed on the northern route, 
north of Salt Lake, leaving Deep Creek almost entirely out of 
the general line of traffic, until of recent years the Lincoln 
Highway has been established and this old route now again 
becomes re-established, especially for auto travel, it being well 
selected for this purpose as it is the shortest and best route 
to the Pacific coast. We are proud to say that Father spent 
many a hard day and many a hard trip in searching it out 



The articles and stories of thrilling experiences, to the 
end of the book, were written by Brother H. R. Egan and 
speak for themselves. 

When Father was very busy trying to get thing's in shape 
to put a line of mail coaches on the Western Route across the 
desert to California, on one occasion I was his driver of a little 
spring wagon or ambulance. The pack trail at that time ran 
through Pleasant Valley, which is about thirty miles south of 
Deep Creek the present through route. 

We were going west from the Pleasant Valley camp and 
had made about ten miles when we saw an Indian trotting along 
back of the wagon. When he noticed that we had seen him 
he ran alongside of the front wheel. Father stood this as long 
as his nerves could stand it, for he expected to see the man 
get tangled in the wheel at any moment, for he had to keep 
dodging around the sage brush and was doing this on the run, 
all the time looking at Father. So to get rid of him, Father 
asked me if I had any loose powder with me, a flask of which 
I always carried for pistol loading. 

He held out his hand and I gave him a few loads; the 
Indian saw this and was all grinning with pleasure. The team 
at this time was trotting on a down grade, and in handing 
the powder out to the Buck's outstretched hand Father pre- 
tended to be jolted so, by the swaying of the wagon, that he 
missed the Indian's hand, and the powder fell to the ground 
in a scattered condition in dust and sage leaves. The Indian 
dropped like he had been shot, to his knees, and as far as 
we could see him, was working to pick up the powder. 

Father said, "Well, I thought of that plan to get rid of 
him and I guess that will hold him back till w r e have time to 
bait the animals and get our supper in Spring Valley" (about 
eight miles further on). We lost no time, and arrived at our 
camp just before sundown, staked the team on good grass, 
and got our grub nearly ready to eat when Mr. Indian walked 
np to our fire. Father looked up to me as much as to say 
1 'fooled." 

After a while Father said, "I should like to know how 


much of that powder he saved." I said, "Every srrain, o r he 
would have been there yet." "Ask him," said Father. I did, 
and the Indian showed us that he had tied it up in one corner 
of his shirt tail, which was all the clothing he had on. The 
bunch looked to be about the bulk of clean powder that had 
been dropped for him. Father said he would like to see it. I 
told the Indian to untie it and let us see it; he did, and to our 
surprise we could not detect a particle of dirt. It was as 
<?lean as that in my flask. How did he do it? 

I learned afterwards that he had taken off his shirt, 
spread it down near the powder, and was very careful to :-coop 
up all the powder tog-ether with dirt dust and leaves, putting 
it all on the shirt. When this had been done he removed to 
another corner of the shirt all the coarse dirt and leaves which 
were there, searched and then cast it off. Then the process 
was simply to shake and blow out the dust and pick out gravel 
or lumps of dirt that would not crumble. We had traveled 
at about eight miles an hour. The Indian had appeared at 
our camp in less than one hour after we had stopped to feed. 
He must have done the job pretty quick and then run like a 
race horse every step of the way from where the powder was 
dropped to camp, yet he did not seem to be the least bit tired, 
not even sweating. Well, he earned his supper, and got it. 


Bolly and two others of the mail boys were building the 
first log cabin at Dry Creek, and had the logs laid up and 
the roof on, but the spaces between the logs had not yet been 
chinked or plastered. The road ran in front of the door, and 
just across it they had placed the covered top wagon-bed to 
serve as store room until the house was ready to use. The 
cooking stove had been put in place and the cook this morning 
had just started to make a fire to get breakfast. 

Bolly had just brawled out of bed and gone back of the 
wagon, and was only partly dressed, but having his belt that 
carried his pistol, in his hand. The other man was still in 'he 
wagon ready to come out, when there was a gun shot, and the 
cook came running out of the house crying. "Indians! I am 
shot. Boys, run for your life! They are back of the house 
trying to shoot at us through the cracks." 

The boys by this time were close together and soon saw 
that they must get farther from the wagon or be killed, with- 
out returning; the compliment. So they ran down the road 
about one hundred yards, where they stopped to council as to 


their next move. Should they try to hunt up the team, or en- 
deavor to stand the Indians off? 

Each of the boys had his pistol and a pouch of ammuni- 
tion On iiiS LMTIL. JiinBy uiu. iiut ^ci/ liinCji tiiliti to Cju.jiv.or, J.Or 

fche Indians showed up in a larger band than was expected and 
were trying to surround the boys to prevent any from escap- 
ing. Seeing this move, the boys agreed that their only chance 
for life was to run for the next station east, 'twenty-five or 
thirty miles away, and at once, as the Indians were almost 
abreast of them and had to be kept back by pointing revolvers 
at them. 

The boys started on the run, when the cook told them to 
take his pistol and leave him and save themselves, as he could 
not run any more, and was dying anyhow. The boys would not 
consent to that, but one on each side took hold of him to help 
him along, but very soon he said, "If you won't leave me, slve 
me my pistol so I can help to fight them." 

They gave him the gun and as the Indians had to keep 
their heads out of sight while they were running down a 
crooked ravine, the boys could walk a few steps once in a while, 
and still keep ahead. They were doing this when the cook, 
who had fallen back two or three steps, shot his own brains 
out and fell in the middle of the road. 

"We cannot help him now," said Bolly and, taking the 
pistol and belt off the man, the two went off on the run to 
keep out of the trap the Indians were trying to get them in. 
After going some three or four miles, the country was getting 
so smooth and level there was no chance for the Indians to 
spring a surprise on them, and the Indians were afraid to 
attack them on open ground. 

So after thev got well down in the valley to a place where 
they had a good view of the country for a few miles in all 
directions, they made a halt to rest and to deliberate as to \vnat 
to do to get out of their scrape. The station they were going 
to had probably been treated the same as the one they had left, 
and no knowing how many more. How far would they have to 
travel before they could get a square meal? 

They at last agreed to save their strength by traveling 
slowly so as to reach the station after dark, and from some other 
direction than the road and, if there were Indians there, to 
try a surprise on them, if there was any chance of success 
whatever. They approached the station at the time and, as 
agreed, pistols in hand. They tip-toed around the house to the 
door and listened for some signs of life before kicking at the 
door. Just then some one inside said, "I heard something out- 
side, did you?" "Yes," yelled Bolly, "there is something 


out here and darn hungry, too. Open the door for the chil- 
dren," which was clone at once, and when the boys had eaten 
their breakfast, dinner and supper and told their story, it 
was decided to hold the fort. As they expected the pack train 
with the mail at any old time, and then they would be strong 1 
enough to be the attacking- party. They prepared for emer- 
gencies, and sure enough the next evening the mail arrived 
with three carriers, which made their force seven well armed 
men, who had no scare in their -make-up and all ready for any 
skirmish that might turn up. 

Their animals had to have a rest and feed, so it was de- 
cided to stay there till 10 or 12 o'clock that night before 
starting west, which they did, and arrived to where the dead 
man lay in the road, about 10 a. m. The Indians had stripped 
him of all clothing and then left him. He had been shot right 
through the body, and it is a wonder that he lived and traveled 
so far after being shot that way. They buried him just to 
one side of the road. 

There had been left two men at the station, so there were 
five to go with the mail. They found that the Indians had 
burned up the wagon bed and tried to burn the house, but it 
was built of green logs and would not burn. The team that 
was left there was never recovered or even heard of. There 
had not been any other station on the line attacked at this- 
time and Bolly was soon back on his old stamping ground. 


It was while we w y ere bringing back from Ruby Valley four 
mules we were to leave at Deep Creek. The ''we" was my 
companion (Lafayette Ball, Bolly, as he was called for short) 
and myself. We had reached a point near the south end of 
Spring Valley, eight or ten miles east of Shell Creek, when 
there came up a violent rain storm, wetting our clothes 
through. So we concluded to camp for the night in a bunch 
of cedars that was close to the trail we were traveling. We 
staked two of the mules on good feed and let the two we had 
ridden all dav run loose, thinking they would not ramble very 
far away. We made a good big fire, and stripping, dried our 
clothes and blankets, and went to bed. 

Just as day was breaking, Bolly awoke and said, "You 
make a fire while I get the mules. " The two not picketed 
were not in sight. He was gone till nearly sunrise no mules. 
He said he had circled their tracks and found they were goingf 
in a southwest direction for Shell Creek mountains, and one 
going directly behind the other. He said, "They are stolen. 


What shall we do?" "You say first." "Well, I say, mules or 
hair." "Good, the same here." We were not long 1 in 
saddling' up and getting" to the place where Boily had found 
the trail. 

From this place to where the trail would reach the moun- 
tains, if it ran straight, would be about five or six miles. 
Where the trail was plain we would ride side by side as fast 
as possible, the trail between us. But when it was not plain 
and hard to locate, we would one of us keep to the crail 
going as fast as he could pick out the tracks, the other would 
rush ahead for half a mile or so in the direction the tracks 
were leading, and as soon as he saw the tracks would motion 
back to the other, who would then drop the trail and run as 
fast as possible up ahead of the other to find the trail. 

So we were making- pretty fast time and were not long 
in reaching the mountains, and here our really hard work was 
found, for the tracks led along the side of the mountain, over 
and across ledges of rock, where only a little iron mark was 
made by the mules ' shoes. We were also careful not to fall 
into an ambush. But by one riding ahead as far as he could, 
yet keeping in sight of the other, we were still making pretty 
good time. 

Bolly, in crossing one of these ledges could not find the 
trail, and therefore was circling back towards me, but below 
the rocks. He motioned that he was right; I was soon at his 
side. Here the trail was very plain, going in a southeast direc- 
tion as if to cross the valley diagonally. When we got out 
of the timber line there was nothing to do but keep a watch 
ahead and follow the trail as fast as we could go. 

After doing this for about three miles we came to within 
a hundred yards of a large, rocky knoll or mound covering 
about one acre, and about twenty-five feet high near the center. 
Bolly (who was ahead at this point) said "Keep a watch on 
that hill, for the mules have been turned loose and the thieves 
may take a shot at us." We could tell by the way the tracks 
criss-crossed back and forth that the mules were left to ramble 
as they wished. Bolly said, "Shall we get them, or the mules 
first?" I said, "We were hunting mules and I think we had 
better find them first, and then if we come across the thieves 
we can have a deal with them." 

Before we started on the trail again we circled that mound, 
keeping off at what we thought a safe distance, and far enough 
apart that one or the other could see the opposite side of the 
mound, but no Indian showed up. Still we were sure they 
were there yet, and if we half wanted them we would have 
found a way to get them. 


The mules had turned west, going towards the foothills, 
which we soon reached, and when we sighted the mules, they 
were feeding along as they went up a ravine, probably hunting 
water. When we caught them we noticed that one of the 
mules had not been ridden, the other had carried both Indians. 
The one they had led still had the rope dragging from his 
neck. Bolly said that mule would not be ridden bare-back. All 
this compelled the Indians to travel more slowly. 

As we started back on a straight line for where we had 
camped, we passed about half way between the timber line and 
the mound where the mules had been turned loose. " Shall we 
investigate?" said I. "No use," said Bolly, "for look there," 
pointing towards the timber. And sure enough, there they were, 
running at their best speed for taller ground. We let them go. 

A couple of years later I got the names of the two young 
bucks who did the stealing. Their excuse was that they thought 
us immigrants who had two animals apiece while they had none. 
But they began to be afraid they had made a mistake whon 
they saw how they were being trailed, and when we were cir- 
cling the mound, oh which they were, one said, "If I get a 
chance I will take a shot at one." The other said, "Don't 
you shoot, for if yon do we will both be killed, for don't you 
know who it is that wears that antelope skin shirt ? He rever 
misses. Lay down and maybe they won't bother us, for they 
surely know we are here." 

We ot to our camp about dark, this time picketing the 
four mules, and they were all right next morning, but we were 
one dav late at our destination. 


In the times of Indian trouble we were very careful whore 
we located our camp at night, but sometimes there was not 
much room to choose from. It so happened to a party of three. 
They had a choice of a camp up the flat a few rods, or down 
about the same distance, but stopped about the middle, 
picketed their horses on the best feed in sight, got their supper 
and made their bed down while yet light. One of the men 
noticed that across the hollow and about thirty yards distant 
was a ledge of rocks that made this a poor camping place for 

There was nothing doing till it sot quite dark, then the 
animals were moved back down the hollow, and the eamp 
moved down, and the bed remade, but no fire kindled. The 
first fire had been left burning. In the morning all was found 
to be all right and they started on their way up the hollow, 


and, as they were passing the place of their first camp fire, 
one of them saw an arrow sticking in the ground close to 
where their bed had first been laid down, and looking, found 
two or three more, and no two pointed alike, proving that 
there were three or four of the Indians that fired them from 
the ledge. 

One of the boys said, "A happy move; a miss is as good 
as a mile." An Indian generally has his own arrows all 
marked one way and all .the same. This is done by small rings 
v or stripes of different colors around the feathered end of the 
x :arrow, no dispute as to whose arrow killed the game, the ar- 
row would show that. 

Marked Arrows. 


It came about in this way. Ben Holladay, who had a 
large interest in the Overland Mail Line, was to make a quick 
trip across the continent, and Father, who was the boss of the 
road from Salt Lake to Carson City, made all preparations Jxrf 
a fast rim. The time was set when Holladay should start from 
New York, and figured out by the road agents, as we called 
them, when he would arrive on their division. 

Father, as I suppose as did all the other agents sent re- 
lays or stage teams back east of their station, half way to the 
next station, thus giving each driver a fresh team half way 
between stations, which would enable him to greatly increase 
his speed. This was carried out all along the line, but Father 
liad merely said in his note: "Send a relay back to such a 
point, and at such a time, and wait for me till I come. ' ' 


I was stationed at Butte and, on the date set, with L. Ball 
and the four mules, went back some eighteen or twenty miles 
to Egan Canyon, where we arrived about noon and had just 
got settled down to prepare our dinner when two of the Shell 
Creek boys came in and said they had lost the relay mules and 
had come this way in search of them. They were fourteen 
miles from their home station and as many more from thei* 
relay camp. They had started to get the mules at daylight 
and without any breakfast, had ridden a good many miles. The} 
were hungry as wolves. 

We had brought enough grub with us for three meals, din- 
ner, supper and breakfast, if we needed it, for the stage was 
to come anywhere between sundown and midnight. So we all 
turned loose on the "grub pile," and it was but a few minutes 
before all the eatables had vanished, also the mule hunters. 

Bolly (as we called my chum) and I had no supper that 
night and, in fact, nothing till we reached our home station 
three days later. Well, the time dragged along slowly. The 
second day brought up the hunger to such a pitch that we held 
a joint debate as to whether we go back home or not, for we 
did not dare to separate and one go back for grub, as a band 
of strange Indians had come and made their camp less than a 
half mile from us. We decided .to stay at our post at least 
another twenty-four hours. 

That evening one of the Indians, a very big fellow, came 
to our fire. When I asked him what he wanted, he replied by 
asking if we were hungry. I told him no, and after looking all 
around to see how we were fixed, he pulled out from under his 
blanket a piece of fresh antelope meat about the size of your 
two hands, and said he wanted to trade that for powder and 
bullets. I asked him, "How much?" He said, "Twenty 
charges powder, twenty bullets, twenty caps." I said to 
Bolly, "What do you think about that?"' "Well," said Bolly, 
"if he gets that much from me I would not give much for his 
hide. It would be so full of holes as to be quite unsaleable. * ' 

The Indian, after hearing my refusal to trade, and a gentle 
nod towards his camp, turned and went to his friends, who, 
we could see, were all watching what was going on at our camp. 
Just as dark set in we moved our saddles and traps to another 
place, but 'close to the road, changed the mules to another place 
on the opposite side of our camp from the Indians, and thus, 
by sleeping one at a time, we passed the night, and still no 

In the morning we found that the Indians had moved 
about a fourth of a mile further away. For what purpose we 
did not know or care much. About noon Bolly came to me, 


where I was on guard, and asked me for some smoking paper, 
as he had used up all the paper he had brought with him but 
had quite a bunch of tobacco. Well, I had used up the last 
slip of paper I could rake up about two hours before, intending 
to get some from Bolly. There we were, two smokers up 
against it, plenty of tobacco with no pipe or paper. 

Bolly tried a cigarette made of tobacco and a piece of cot- 
ton shirt tail, but it was no good. We must find something 
better, but how and where? Bolly said if he could find some 
clay he could make a pipe and bake it in the fire, and started 
off to find the clay along the creek, and in the meantime I was 
hard at work splitting a small willow, cutting out the center 
and wrapping the two halves together to make a stem for the 
pipe. After he had made the pipe and cooked it a while, he 
removed it from the fire, when it broke and crumbled to fine 
dirt. " Good-bye," says Bolly, "for, like the 'Fox and the 
Grapes,' I don't want to smoke anyhow," so went back to his 
perch on the point of the rocks, close to the road and to the 
mules, and where he could view the Indian camp, also the road 
a short distance down the canyon in the direction the stage was 
to come from. While there he saw a half dozen Indian hunters 
return to their camp with two or three dead antelope they had 
run down and shot that forenoon. 

After Bolly had made a mess of the pipe business I. merely 
to pass off the time some way, hunted along the creek for a 
willow large enough to be whittled into a pipe form. Not find- 
ing one, I returned to camp and sat down on the wire grass 
sod to await events. Seeing my crude pipe stem, I picked it 
up and had a new thought at the same time. I cut the grass 
off a small piece of ground and, after pounding it down to 
make it solid, I proceeded to cut dawn in it the shape of a 
pipe bowl, then a long slanting trench from the bottom of the 
bowl to the surface of the ground, about a foot from the 
bowl. Then I placed my pipe stem in this trench, tamping 
the dirt down over it, and when I had got through, I found 
I could blow through it, so I filled it with tobacco, put a coal 
of fire on, and had a very cool and pleasant smoke. I called 
to Bolly to come, and that I had made a pipe, but it was Lot 
portable. "Nothing doing," said Bolly, till I drew a long 
whiff of smoke from the pipe, then stood up and blew the 
smoke up in the air. That brought him on the run, and look- 
ing at the thing, he said, "By Heck! and how simple." I 
imagine I can see him now, laying down on his side, and one 
elbow on the ground (in a comfortable position) to reach the 
pipe stem, which stuck up about six inches. Well, no more 
trouble about smoking while there. 


On the third day of our stay there, we had just put the 
mules on fresh grass, just as day was breaking in the east 
and while standing there at the side of the road, we heard the 
welcome rumble of the coach, and by the time we brought our 
saddles to the road, the stage, with Father and Holladay drew 
up, and immediately the team was unharnessed, and our fresh 
team put on. As the harness was taken off the wheelers, 
Father said, "You boys put your saddles on these, as they are 
not the least tired, and be ready to start as soon as the team 
is hitched up, and you keep close behind us, understand." We 
said, "Yes." 

When he had got on the stage beside the driver, lie reached 
under the seat and brought out some bread that had been 
baked in a skillet and was dry "and very haro. Breaking the 
cake in two, he gave one part to Bolly and the other to me. 
Bolly looked towards the creek. Father saw him and said, 
"No, there is not time for that. Come and we'll start for the 
station." The boys that had lost their mules had reported 
to Father that they had eaten all of our grnb, and that we 
must have gone back to our station, therefore he would not get 
the change of animals he had planned for. 

"Who were the boys that were there?" said he. On be- 
ing told that they were Bolly and Howard, he said, "Give me 
a loaf of bread for the, for I will find them at their post if 
alive." Well, when we got within sight of the station, about 
one-half mile from it, we got down to a walk, and when we 
arrived Father had already gone on his way, but had left direc- 
tions to the cook how and what to prepare for us to eat, being 
afraid we might overfeed ourselves if we had our own :vay 
about it. He also knew that we could not eat much of the 
bread he had given us without water, which we did not have, 
and in fact did not get down more than a couple of bites on 
the whole sixteen miles to the station. 

Here let me say at the very place and spot where I had 
invented the importable pipe, were, a few years later, built by 
Judge Dougherty, a forty-stamp quartz mill, which was in 
operation the last time I visited the canyon. 


Father was George Chorpening's agent, or partner, when 
he had the contract to carry the mail from Salt Lake to Cali- 
fornia. I don't know whether he had the contract to the east 
or not, but I know Father's division was from Salt Lake to 
Placerville, California, and, as the time came that money failed 



to come to pay off the men or other expenses, Father was 
forced to dig up and use every resource to keep the Mail going, 
expecting v,,ery ^y *-9 receive the n^uney thai/ he had Leen 
told by letter from the~boss had been sent by a trusty agent 
b wa of California. 


j&*4i4>^*i^ t?**"*-*i~~ 

Facsimile of Appointment as Mail Agent, Salt Lake to Carson, 

Mall stage coach on Overland line. T*romfnent in Pioneering: and the develop- 
ment of the great west. 


* About the year 1856, after Father had selected the route 
for the mail line to California, Howard R. Egan, then sixteen 
years of age, drove the first mail coach from Salt Lake City 
to California. As the stations were not then stocked, it is 
probable that the same team and coach went clear through, 
camping on the way. 

Father afterwards learned that this trusty agent was a. 
connection of the boss, and when he arrived in San Francisco 
he was either robbed of the whole amount or had gambled it 
away. Tt was supposed it melted by the latter process. Chor- 
pening had written that he would soon have another payment 
from the government and for Father to keep the mails run- 
ning as long as possible, but after a few months there came a 
change of the contractors. 

Ben Holliday and associates re-stocked the line with men, 
teams and coaches. I was at Willow Springs at the time and, 
not wishing to work as hostler, went to Kuby Vallev, where 
Father and his partner, W. H. Sherman, had a good-sized sup- 
ply store. Besides, they owned the station and were doing a 
good business, especially in the season when emigrants were 
traveling through. I had not received a dollar for thirteen 
months, and when I next saw Father he offered to give mo an 
outfit and furnish the necessary supplies if I would go down 
the valley and pick out a good place and start a farm, and he 
would wait till I raised the grain to pay him back. That 
sounded good enough to me, so I went down about twenty 
miles and took up the first farm in Ruby 

It was a fine location, a mountain stream coming out of a 
heavy timbered canyon ran through the land down to the lake 
in the valley below, with an immense strip of meadow land all 
around it. T built a log house and did some plowing, trying 
to get ready for fall planting, when I received word from 
Father to pull up stakes and come to Deep Creek and to start 
at once, not to wait another day, as he had learned through 
Dimmick Huntington that the Indians were going to make a 
raid on that country. I did not believe it, but then, Father 
must be obeyed. So as soon as the ox teams could travel there 
I arrived at Deep Creek. 

It was understood I was to be a partner with Father and 
brother Erastus. but after some time something at Ruby Sta- 
tion did not suit Father so he had Erastus move out there and 
take charsre of the business, with the understanding, as I take 
it, of being a partner witli Father in that concern. 

But after somo time there seems to have been a different 
plan mapped out. For one day I received a list of animals, 



wagons, chains, plows, harrow teeth, milk pans, twelve cows, 
and in fact about everything that would be useful on a farm. 
The cat was out of the bag. My brother was going to farming 
the place I had started to. I don't remember how long he 
worked the farm before he received a notice* that he was called 
on a mission to England. I know that he immediately stopped 
the plowing, made arrangements to lease or sell the farm, 
started for Bountiful, where he left his wife in the care of 
her people, and went on his mission. 

Although we are not giving a biography of each member 
of the family, it is considered advisable to add here to what 
Howard R. has said above: that Erastus, or R. E. Egan, be-^ 
came President of the Birmingham, Conference in England dur- 
ing his mission, and after he returned he went again to the 
Ruby Farm for a short time, but sold out and moved to 

Richard Erastns 
I'ony !' v press Rider, 
Bishoii of South Bountiful. 
Address, Byron, Wyo. 


Bountiful, where he was Bishop of South Bountiful for very 
many years. He was among the first Pony Express riders, 
riding from Salt Lake to Rush Valley. He took a special mis- 
sion to hunt up the genealogy of the family. He went to the 
old home in Ttilernore, Kings county, Ireland, which was Duilt 
by our Great Grandfather Bernard Egan some time in the 
eighteenth century, for Grandfather Howard Egan was born in 
it in 1782 and Father, Major Howard Egan was born in it in 
1815. (See page 10.) He obtained all he could of the 
genealogy of relatives there, finding that Bernard had two 
sons, Howard and William, and that all that was left of Will- 
iam's descendants was Edward, a bachelor living in the old 
home, as shown in the picture, as he stood in the doorway. 

After returning from there he went to Montreal, Canada, 
where Grandfaher removed the family to, after the death of 
Grandmother Ann Meade Egan. There he found a considerable 
number of the family which he has faithfully recorded, but 
which we do not have access to at the present time. He also 
visited Massachusetts and New Hampshire and obtained a con- 
siderable genealogy of Mother's relations, the Parsleys and 
Caverlys, and has done what temple work could be done at that 
time for them. A few years ago he moved from Bountiful to 
Byron, Wyo., in the Big Horn Basin, where he now lives. His 
posterity is given in the Appendix. The family organization 
may some day give his biography more fully, as well as some 
other members of the family. 

To show that Father was agent for the eastern division of 
the Overland Mail Line, in answer to Howard's inquiry in a 
preceding paragraph and to show the nature of some of his 
business we submit a couple of letters, as follows : 

Superintendent's Office, Indian Affairs, Utah. 

Great Salt Lake City, June 17, 1859. 

Howard Egan, Esq., General Jkfail Agent, 

Sir: Please inform me in writing, as soon as convenient, 
of Indian depredations committed on the United States mail 
property under your charge, as communicated to me verbally 
this day. I remain. 

Very respectfully your obt. servant, 

(Signed) J. FOURNEY. Supt. Iml. Affairs. U. T. 

Salt Lake City, March 14, 1861. 
Col. Benj'n. Davis, Supt. Indian Affairs. V. T. 

Dear Sir: Mr. W. H. Shearman informed me that during 
an interview with you yesterday, you stated that you had in- 


formation of foul play having been used towards an Indian 
who was missing at Willow Springs, on the C. & S. L. M. 
Line, by one or more of the employees of said line. As I have 
no knowledge whatever of any person or persons, in my em- 
pi oy, having been engaged in any such nefarious transaction, 
you will confer a favor upon me by referring me to your 

My position, sir, entitles me to demand this information, 
or else that the subject be never again mentioned either in 
private or public connection with my name. 

You will oblige me by replying at your earliest conven- 
ience. Very respectfully, 

(Signed) HOWARD EGAN, 

Agent Eastern Division, C. & S. L. Mail Line. 


While Father was out west on the mail line one hot spring- 
like day before the snow had melted, he had his eyes burned 
so bad that he was completely blinded and could not stand the 
least bit of light, and although he kept them bandaged with 
dead tea leaves, they did not seem to get any better. 

After a couple of days of misery, two Indians came to 
the station where he was. One of them asked one of the men, 
"Egan sick?" The man said, ''Yes, eye sick. No see. Snow 
no good." "Me see Egan." 

The man told Father that there was an Indian there that 
wanted to see him. "Well, let him come in." He did so. 
The Buck came up close to Father and said, "Big sick?" 
Father said, pointing to his eyes, "Eyes big sick; you savey 
fix them." He had hardly got the words out of his mouth 
when the Indian jumped and caught Father's head in both 
hands, and at the same time pushing the bandage out of the 
way, placed his mouth over orue eye and set to sucking with 
all his strength. 

Father said he thought the buck would suck his eye out, 
if not his brains too. He tried his best to push the Indian 
off, but he only staved and sucked the faster. But just be- 
fore Father had made up his mind to choke him off, the 
Indian stepped back a little and spit up as much or more than 
a tablespoonful of blood. After a little rest he said, "Fix 
more?" Father said, "Fix little, eye big sick." "Alright, 
little fix." But when he got fastened to the other eye he 
worked just as hard as before, with the same result, Father 
trying to push him off, but no go, he was after the blood and 
he would not let go till he got it. 


After about one hour the buck said, "A little more fix 
eye?" Father said as his eyes felt to be considerable better, 
he thought he could stand a small dose of the same medicine, 
and told the fellow, "Fix little bit." Well, he did, but with 
just about the same force. When he got through he said, "Big 
Chief see all right two days," which proved true. In two days 
after the operation Father joined the pack train and went to 
Salt Lake, his eyes perfectly cured of snow blindness. He says 
he would sooner stand the Indian treatment than to suffer 
any length of time without it. There was no pain after the 
dose, hut plenty and very severe before. 


In the fall of 1862, Father wanted to send fifty or sixty 
head of beef cattle from Salt Lake to Ruby Valley, and as I 
was at home on a furlough, he did not ask me if I would drive 
them out, but said. "I want you to take these animals out to 
Ruby, and you must start tomorroAv, for they need them there 
now. Everything is ready, a wagon loaded with about a ton 
of supplies, three yoke of broken oxen, two ponies for the 
two Indian night herders, and an ox driver or teamster." My- 
self and riding pony made up the whole outfit. I was told to 
make as good time as I could, but get the beef through in 
the best shape possible, and keep a good watch on the ani- 
mals, as there was a good deal of stealing going on about that 

All went well, although there was a sleet storm when we 
started from a ranch just south of the city, where the cattle 
had been pastured while the outfit was got ready. The sec- 
ond day out we had, by noon, crossed the Jordan and made 
our dinner camp on the west side of the divide that separates 
Utah and Cedar valleys. While we were eating dinner, Lot 
Huntington rode into camp, ate dinner with us, and during 
the conversation I learned that he was going out west and 
might join us later on. and travel with us as far as Ruby 
Vallev. That was the last I ever saw of Lot. 

The next night we camped in Rush Vallev; about ten or 
twelve miles east of thp Faust Mail Station. We were camped 
close to the road and in the night heard a stage, going west, 
pass by. I thought it strange, for it was not a mail day. as 
they were only running tri-weekly at that time. And I was 
more puzzled when, next morning, as we were about to move 
camp, another stage came from the west and stopped opposite 
our camp fire and Porter Rockwell, the sheriff, or deputy, 


sang out: " Hello kids, all right?" "Yes, all right so far." 
"Good! Your Father told me to tell you whose ox is that?" 
(pointing to an animal standing a couple of rods away). "You 
had better ask Father when you see him. These cattle at pres- 
ent are every one of them mine. What did Father say?" 
"Oh, all right. He said for you to be very careful and keep a 
good watch on the cattle and guard them well." 

I noticed that those on the coach, I could see. were all 
heavily armed. I supposed there had been a rabbit hunt, as 
there were on frequent occasions in the fall. When we reached 
Faust Station we found there had been a hunt, not a rabbit 
hunt, but a man hunt, and the men that were hunted were in 
that stage coach with the sheriff. One, Lot Huntington, being 
dead, and the other a prisoner. The latter was killed while 
trying to escape after arriving in Salt Lake City. 

I could give more details of the affair as I heard it at 
the station but. as I did not see it, will only say that it was 
afterwards reported that a certain gang had planned to cap- 
ture my herd of beef before I could get them to Ruby, drive 
them south to the Simpson's, and trail them west to California, 
where they would sell for a hundred dollars a head. Quite a 
tempting bate for the speculating trio of saloon bums. Well, 
they could have taken the whole outfit very easily by coming 
and joining us and taking their choice of time and place for 
the coup, as I was well acquainted with them and supposed 
they were good friends, although I never had any deal with 
them, or played with them as boys. Though some were neigh- 
bors, they were a class older than my chums or I. If there 
was a plot laid for me, old Porter burst the bubble and I got 
through safe. 

When we arrived at Simpson Springs the pony rider told 
us we could not cross the river bed (seven miles west) until 
the road was repaired, as there had been a big flood that had 
torn the whole bottom out, road and all. The rider on the 
previous trip, going west, as he started down the bank, heard 
a sound like a very heavy wind among trees. He stopped to 
listen; the sound was coming from the east and increasing 
rapidly. He put spurs to the pony and, just as he made the 
opposite side of the bed, he could see a wall of water, brush 
and other debris, twelve or fifteen feet high, spread from 
bank to bank, rolling down the bed at race horse speed. If he 
had been one-fourth of the distance back across the bed, when 
he first saw the flood, he could not have escaped with his 


When we arrived there, by a little exploring and zig-zag- 
ing, we made across with not much loss of time. But what a 
wreck of country! The whole bottom of the old river bed 
had been covered with a thick growth of very large sagebrush; 
all had been torn out root and branch, and the level bottom 
that had been, was now gulled and gouged in a terrible fashion. 
There had been no storm at this place, but there had been seen, 
that morning, a heavy storm on the mountains about seven or 
eight miles to the east, and there was perhaps a cloudburst, for 
a common rain over a sandy country could not have done the 

That river bed was no place for a station, but they built 
one there and dug a well that furnished very good, but a little 
brackish, water, which they hauled to the Dugway Station, 
where there were three men and a change of horses for the 
mail coach. One man tended the horses and acted as cook. The 
other two were digging a well for water. I was let down that 
well when they had reached a depth of one hundred and thir- 
teen feet. I have never seen anything like that before or since. 
The surface soil at this place is a white clay that is very sticky 
when wet. The walls of this well are of the same material 
from top to bottom and about the same dampness from three 
feet down to the bottom, where I cut my name in the side 
about two feet above. The wall was very smooth and plumb, 
no need of curbing and no danger of ever caving in. Some 
time after men were put to work boring with a well auger in 
the bottom. They bored some forty feet and found no 
change. Then the job of trying more to find water there was 
given up and it made a nice place to dump the stable cleanings. 

When I reached the desert just east of Fish Springs, the 
road was very bad, mud hub deep, and my work oxen gave out 
when I was about four or five miles from the Springs and 
could not budge the wagon another foot. I had the driver 
unhitch from the wagon, take some grub for himself and the 
Indians, who had jrone ahead with the cattle, and also take 
my pony and drive the team to water and feed, and come back 
uext morning with one of the Indians to help get the wagon 
over to hard ground. 

When they came back next day we moved the wagon 
about one-half a mile, where the road was still worse than 
before. There were three empty coaches stuck in the mud 
within a half mile of us. Well, I simply had to get out of 
there some way. There was a part of the load I must not leave 
alone. So this is the way I managed it: We had a double 
cover on the wagon. We took them off and spread them out 


on the mud alongside the wagon and loaded the most of the 
valuables on it and folded the sides and ends tight over all, 
hitched the oxen to the end and away we went as easy as 
pulling a sleigh over a good snow road. 

It was easy after that. All was over but the wagon by 
night. Next day I sent the driver and one Indian back to get 
the wagon if they had to take it all apart and haul it on the 
wagon cover, which did not appear to be damaged at all after 
about ten miles' drag with a load over the creamy alkali, sand- 
less but sticky mud. The inside of the wagon wheels had the 
appearance of an old-fashioned wooden butter bowl, in this case 
turned by contact with the bolster of the wagon. On the out- 
side there would be no hub or spoke in sight, and mud, would 
pile on till of its own weight a portion would fall off, but at 
next turn of the wheel would be on the job again. 

Well, we made it across all right and had no more trouble 
lill we passed Butte Station about a mile, where there is a 
very steep pull going west and, as the snow had drifted very 
ieavily over the crest, our team gave out just about a couple 
of rods below the summit and, as there was not expected a 
mail stage for at least ten or twelve hours, we left the wagon 
right in the center of the road where there, was no passing 
around it with a wagon or sleigh. So when the stage that night 
came up to that point, the driver unhitched his leaders, hooked 
on the back of our wagon and dragged it back down the hill 
to near the bottom. This we did not know till next morning, 
when the driver and one of the Indians went back after the 
wagon, as we were camped some distance off the road and 
had not heard the' Mail pass. My driver made some bad talk, 
so the Indian said, when he found the wagon down at the 
bottom, but he hooked on and did not have the least bit of 
trouble getting over, and when he came to camp was in good 
spirits and seemed to think it had ail worked out for the 

I haven't the time or space to tell of how we lassoed and 
snubbed up aijd yoked up a couple of the beef steers just 
before we got to Mountain Springs, the last station between us 
and Ruby. The road through this little valley was all staked 
out as the snow was very deep and only traveled by sleighs, 
but thanks to our extra team and with frequent digging out, 
we got through, the beef helping to break the road. Ruby, at 
last, but beef not as fat as when we started, but all there. 


I was at Rush. Valley Station (H. J. Faust, station 
keeper). This was the end of the first express ride from Salt 


Lake City. The next ride was from here to Willow Springs 
across the desert. The stations at this time were only half 
as many as they were later, being some twenty-five or thirty 
miles apart and at some places more than that. Well, the ex- 
press came in from the east, the next rider was not well and 
was afraid he could not stand the ride. I volunteered to go in 
his place, and arrived at Simpson Springs at the edge of the 
desert all right. 

From here the road runs in a southwesterly direction 
isteven miles, to River Bed, then keeping the same direction to 
the Dug-way, then over the mountain, taking many turns to the 
salt wells, then west around the point of mountain where the 
road ran nearly west across the worst part of the desert. Noth- 
ing but mud grows there and that seems to get taller the 
more you sink in it, and the harder it is to get out. It .then 
goes north, past Fish Springs, around the point of the moun- 
tain and back to the south, about opposite of Fish Springs to 
where Boyd Station was afterwards built. From here the 
road ran in a westerly straight line to the Willow Spring Sta- 
tion, thus making a large semi-circle, the points of which were 
many miles closer together straight across than by the road. 

After leaving Simpson's about three miles I thought (as 
I had many times thought before), it was a shame we had to 
go so many miles around to get a little ways to the west. At 
any rate, boy fashion, I left the road and took a straight line 
for Willow Springs. The first half of the distance I was able 
to make very good time, then the desert began to get softer as 
I went till finally about one inch of water was standing all 
over the surface as far as I could see in any direction. The 
pony sank to his fetlocks in the mud, that made it slow 

After about five miles of this kind I came to a little 
higher ground where I could make better time. In looking 
back I could see the little knobs of mud sticking up above 
the water. It seemed to me I could see them for miles. Well, 
I made W T illow Springs all right and had saved a good nianv 
hours' time. I expected to get considerable praise for this 
exploit, but nix. 

This is what I got: The next time I saw Father it was 
for only a few moments; he asked me what kind of traveling 
I found it to be across the way I took with that express. 
After telling him. he said, "Well, don't ever do anything 1 like 
that asrain without orders." That was all, and plentv. T 
never did, for that was a cold bath for me. I would like to 
cross that route again and measure it. 



When Father and his partner (Mr. Severe) had got some 
land cleared, plowed and seeded to wheat on their new loca- 
tion at Deep Creek, Mr. Severe running the place while 
Father tended to his mail business, Father, in passing that 
way, stopped over long 1 enough to ride over the place with 
the boss to see what had b.een done and lay plans for the 

In going along a small field of grain Father said, "This 
looks fine, but don't it need irrigating!" "Yes," said the 
boss, "I sent a couple of hands early this morning with their 
dinners to turn the creek and water it. I wonder where they 
are." This was about the middle of the afternoon. 

In going around a clump of willows they found the two 
men lying on their backs, on the west side of the willows, 
both sound asleep, paying no heed to the sting of flies or 
mosquitos. After they had been awakened Father said, 
"Boys, if you had wanted to take a little rest why didn't you 
get in the shade?" "Why," said one, "it was shady here 
when we laid down." They must have been very tired, for 
they had lain there at least six or eight hours. 

Live Irrigating Machine. It was this same field, a few 
years later, I sent a couple of green hands to work putting a 
dam in a creek to turn the water and irrigate. They were 
gone about half a day, came back and said "there could not 
be a dam made there without lumber." "I'll see about that 
and prove different." 

Calling my Indian (Ned) I told him what I wanted done 
and sent one of the men with him to help him put in the dam 
and irrigate that field. Just before sundown the white man 
came back and said the Indian had motioned for him to 
leave. He didn't know what for. I told him I would know 
when the Indian came in. The Indian said, "Keep that white 
man out of the wheat or he will dig it all up," so I let Ned 
have his way about it. 

Next day I was going to take a ride down the valley, and 
told Mr. Muncey, the operator, if he wanted to go there was 
a horse in the stable that he could ride. Much pleased, he 
accepted the invitation, and enjoyed a long ride. In return- 
ing, I thought I would see how Ned was getting along with the 
irrigating, so we came up through the fields that way. We 
came to where Ned was at work. He had stuck his shovel 
where he could see it, and with pants and shoes off was 
stooping over and with his fingers spread out, was going 


backwards, making little drills for the water to reach the dry 
places. When Muncey saw that, he said, "Well, I'll be d d 
if that ain't the first live irrigating machine I ever saw," and 
it did look comical. 

Coyote in Chicken House. At Deep Creek we had a large 
chicken house built of logs, the door of which faced the 
kitchen door, and about forty feet from it, and on the west side 
of the yard that was formed, which was about sixty feet 
square. The stables were on the south side, the bunk-house 
on the east, the row of buildings (double row), the whole length 
of the north line. The west room was the telegraph office, 
and in which the operator slept. About sixteen feet west of 
the office was the northeast corner of a field, and in this 
corner was our garden fenced off along the road, and from 
the corner down back of the hen house. 

It was just at dusk as Father came out of the stable, he 
saw a coyote enter the hen house, the door of which had not 
yet been closed for the night. He ran as fast as he could and 
pulled the door shut; he then ran to the telegraph office for 
the shotgun that most always could be found there. "Ed (the 
operator's name), hand me the shotgun, quick!" "What is 
it?" "Oh, only a coyote in the hen house." 

In place of handing out the gun he came out with it, and 
excited, ran for the hen house, but seeing the door shut, he 
said, "Where is the coyote?" "Inside," said Father; "give 
me the gun and I will get him." "No, let me shoot him. 
Open the door." The door was opened, but it was so dark 
inside that they could not see very plain. But finally Ed said, 
"I see him" and he fired. There was a .terrible commotion 
in that hen house, for there were about one hundred chickens 
and a coyote very badly scared. 

The coyote was trying to escape by way of the roosts, 
knocking the chickens to the floor, but it was not chicken he 
wanted just then. Father said, "No use to shoot again till 
we get a lantern so we can see the thief. Stay in the door 
till I get a light." "Alright, hurry up." When a light was 
finally turned into that house, there squatted the coyote in 
one corner watching for a chance to spring out of the door, 
and the chickens fairly climbing all over him. 

After getting the light in the best position to show up 
the coyote, Ed fired again, causing another outburst of 
squacks and cacklings. When the smoke cleared away, Father 
dragged the coyote outside and then picked up five or six 
large chickens that Ed had shot. He said, "See here, young 
man, what you have done, and on purpose, too, I believe." 


The next morning Father was up early. He took the 
coyote that had fro/en stiff during the night and set it up 
about thirty yards from the house in the garden and propped 
it up with some sticks to appear as if alive. Then going to 
the office, he called Ed to hand out the gun. "What for?" 
"A coyote in the garden the gun quick before he goes." 
The gim comes and Ed with it. "Where is he?" and turn- 
ing around the corner of the house, said, "I see him; that's 
my hide," and he fired. The coyote seemed to squat a little. 
Father said, "You missed him." Ed fired again. This time 
the coyote fell down. 

"I got him this time," he said, and stood the gun up 
against the house while he climbed over the fence to get the 
coyote to place beside the one he killed last night. When he 
took hold of it he found that it was frozen stiff. He then 
knew that he had been"" sold, and turning around to accuse 
Father, he found that there was no Father to be seen, for 
he was in the messroom telling the boys how Ed had killed 
a dead coyote, and when breakfast was called, every one Ed 
met had a grin on his face. 

At dinner when all were seated around the table, the 
cook brought in the final dish, which w r as the cooked chickens. 
Placing it on the table he looked at Ed and nodded. Ed said, 
"Is this the chickens the coyote killed?" "I guess so, for 
they were plumb full of shot." Then the "Ha! Ha! Ha!" 
all around. 

While we are talking of coyotes, and just to prove that 
there were a few out there, let me tell you that one night one 
of the men that slept in the bunk-house went outside and left 
the door open, and the blacksmith, whose bunk faced the door, 
saw a coyote come into the room. He kept still till the men 
came back, then he said, "Close the door quick! There is a 
coyote in here." 

The man was frightened and feared the covote would bite 
liis bare legs, and attempted to go out again, when the black- 
smith said, "Stand ^till a minute while I lisrht the candle. 
Then we can 'set"' htm.*' The man obeyed, and when the light 
was n v ade, there in one corner, and under the bnnks crouched 
the covote, which was soon made ready for skinning. 

Another dark evening one of the men was passing along 
by the hoar pen with a lantern. He heard the old sow making 
a terrible fuss. He went to the side of the pen and swung the 
lantern over into the pen. then he could see the oH sow 
backed ur> in a corner with her six or eight youns" rnsrs behind 
her, her bristles sticking straight up and her mouth open. Tn 



the opposite corner crouched the cause of all that commotion, 
a large coyote, who was either after a young pig or a supper 
out of the hotr trough. Well, his hide was worth one dollar. 






To a Small Band of Indians, and This Is How It Came About. 

The express rider at Shell Creek was too sick to under- 
take the ride, and I volunteered to take his place. The ride 
at that time was from Shell to Butte, there being no station 
at Egan Canyon at that time. Therefore the one pony had to 
go about thirty-two miles, fourteen of them being to Egan. 
I started just at dark and made pretty good time, but being 
careful to not overdo the pony, but give him frequent breath- 
ing spells, at which times I would let him go on the walk, and 
was doing so when I was about in the middle of Egan Canyon 
and, just before turning a sharp point ahead of me, I could 
see the next turn of that, and on the side of the hill towards 
me the light of a fire was shining. These two turns were 
about seventy-five or a hundred yards apart, but the curve 
the creek took between the points made it some further. As 
it did not run close to the side left quite a large flat, which 
was smooth and level. 

In going very carefully along and keeping a sharp lookout 
for a sentinel, I reached the point where I could see the camp. 
They were on both sides of the road and about in the center 
of the bend. Well, I had to make up my mind very quickly 
as to what I should do. Should I turn back and go north to 
another canyon about six or eight miles, where there might be 
another party of Indians, if they had planned to catch the 
express rider? I could not wait long, as their dogs might scent 
me and give the alarm. 

Well, I soon decided to go straight, so, taking my pistol 
in my hand, I rode on as close as I dared, then striking in the 
spurs and giving an awful yell, a few jumps of the pony brought 
me to about the middle of the camp, when my gun began to 


talk, though pointed up in the air, and my yells accompanied 
each shot. I got a glimpse of several Indians who were doing 
their best to make themselves scarce, not knowing but there 
might be a large party of whites after them. 

When. I made the next turn, I was out in the little valley 
at the head of Egan Canyon and had two trails that I could 
take to finish. I chose the shortest but the roughest and got 
home all right. Three days later I came back through the can- 
yon with a companion. We saw where they had had their 
camp-fires, and where they had fastened a lariat across the 
road, but I did not see one that night and don't know how 
I passed it. 

Later I got it from some friendly Indians that there had 
been a trap set to catch an express rider for the purpose of 
seeing what he carried to make him travel so fast. They had 
placed a party in each of the canyons used, when suspicious of 
the other. They had planned it pretty good, but it did not 
work and they never tried it again there, but if I had turned 
back and tried the other canyon, probably there would have 
been one " Express" lost. 


It was while I was building the new Butte station that I 
took a jaunt to the north along the range of mountains, in 
hopes of locating a log big enough and long enough to make 
a ridge pole for the rock house. It needed to be thirty feet 
long. After going ten or twelve miles and not finding one, I 
was just swinging around to go back on another route when I 
came to a family camp of Indians. Most of them I knew, and 
the father was a good friend of mine. 

After joining the circle that was sitting around a small 
fire, we had our peace smoke and I told them what I was 
hunting. The old man said he thought I could find what I 
wanted across the valley east in the next range and pointed 
out the canyon, where afterwards I found what I wanted. I 
had been dragging my rawhide lasso. We do this to keep them 
more pliable. When I was ready to start back, I thought I 
would coil the rope up and tie it to the saddle in the usual 
way, but, boy fashion, I must have some fun. So getting on 
my pony I made a large loop, and before they knew what was 
coming, I threw it over four or five of them, which caused 
much laughter. And the old man said, "That would be a good 
way to catch a Squaw. " 

I said, "Yes, I will try it on your girl." So I tried. She 
was very good at dodging, but at the third throw I caught her 
tight, which seemed to plague her considerably, for she said I 
could not catch her again so easily. 


When about to start home, I swung the rope in the usual 
way, and looking at the girl, said "Run!" She was off in an 
instant, but instead of running around the camp she dodged 
among the trees. After some chasing I was about to throw 
the loop when she ran around a large tree. My pony being a 
good lasso animal gave a quick jump aside to head her off and 
ran under a low limb of a tree which caught under the rim 
of my saddle, breaking the cinch, and I was on the ground. 

The old man was the first to reach me and, finding that 
I had not been hurt, said, "Shall we try to catch your horse?" 
I said there was no use unless they had something that could 
run faster than he could, but I would give any of them five 
cups of flour that would carrj^ my saddle to the station and 
I would walk back. "Alright," said the old man, and, point- 
ing to the saddle, said, "You take it" (to the girl). She got 
the things together and started off. Going about fifty yards 
she stopped until I got through talking to the old man and 
got started, when she turned and went ahead. 

That was as close to her as I could get; the faster I would 
go the faster she would. When I reached the station she was 
standing beside the door, saddle still on her back. I asked her 
if she was tired and wanted to stay all night. ' ' No, flour. ' ' I 
said, "Soon dark; aren't you afraid to go now?" "No afraid 
to go; afraid to stay here." So I gave her the flour and a 
chunk of cold bread. She asked for a drink of water and after 
getting it she started down the hill on the run for their camp. 

About a year after, she came to the station with a band 
of Indians and camped near. She was married. When I went 
to their camp I saw that she nad a fire, by which she and her 
man sat. I said, l ' I see that a man did catch you. " " Yes, but 
he did not have a horse and saddle," and seemed to think 
the joke was on me. I guess it was, but I don't like to own it. 


When I lived at Deep Creek I had occasion to send some 
men and teams south to what we called "Fifteen Mile Canyon" 
to get some saw logs down to the loading place. They were 
to stay there till Saturday, then come home with a couple of 
loads. When they had been gone a couple of days I thought 
I would go up and see how they were getting along. I got 
there just before dinner time, while the rest were piling the 
logs that had been brought out of the canyon. 

There were five or six Squaws sitting around, and \vhen 
I unsaddled my pony I noticed that there was a great many 
very large ant-hills all around the place. I had heard that the 
Indians often eat them, so I thought I would see for myself. 


So, pointing to a large hill, I asked one of the Squaws if 
Indians eat them. She said, "Yes." "Are they good?" 
"Yes." "Well, I am very hungry. Hurry up and get some 
and cook them just the same as Indians like them. Hurry up." 
She gave her Papoose to another Squaw and, taking a large 
flat basket arrangement, pushed the top of the hill to one side 
and then scooped up about a peck of ants, gravel, dirt and all. 
Taking it to one side she spread on the ground a piece of flour 
sack, then taking the pan or basket in her hands, gave it an 
up and down motion at the side opposite from her. You ought 
to see those ants roll over the side and fall on the cloth ! But 
not a bit of gravel or speck of dirt went with them. I have 
often seen the Squaws cleaning grass seed or wheat the same 
way, only the wheat or seed was left on the pan, and the chaff 
and dirt went over the edge. 

After she had gone to the hill two or three times, she had 
collected about a quart of ants and eggs, and as I acted like 
I was very hungry, she asked for a kettle to cook them in. I 
asked the boys for the loan of their wash bucket. She took 
the bucket and went to the creek, got what water she wanted, 
piled the ants in and put it on the fire. 

Then she asked me for some salt. I said, "Indians don't 
use salt." She said, "No, but they like it but don't have it." 
I gave her a handful of salt, as I did not care how she seasoned 
the mess. She would put in a little, stir it up well with a stick, 
then taste, put in a little more, then taste, and so on till she 
was satisfied that the right amount was used, then she brought 
the balance of the salt to me. I told her to keep it, pleasing 
her very much. 

Then she asked me for a little flour. I asked her if 
Indians used flour when they cooked ants. She smiled and 
said they would if they had it, but she was cooking for a "Boss 
White Man" and wanted it to taste good. She got about one- 
half pint of flour. After that was all stirred in, she asked me 
for some of that black stuff the white men shake on tneir food. 
That was pepper, of course. I gave her a small amount, and 
when that was added she gave it a final stir, set it off the fire 
and said, "Now you can eat." 

I got a tin plate and tablespoon and told her to put some 
on that. She did so. "Now, let me see you eat it," I said. 
She laughed, so did the rest of them. Just then the cook said 
dinner. I told the woman that they might eat it all, as my 
dinner was ready. Well, they soon cleaned up the whole mess, 
besides some bread and potatoes we had to spare. 



I was on a three days' horseback trip in the wilderness, 
and had for a companion the Indian called "Egan Jack," a 
trusty, intelligent buck of about thirty years of age. We were 
on a prospecting or exploring trip to the northwest of Deep 
Creek, or Ibapah as the Indians called it. At one place, as we 
came out of a canyon onto the bench land, we saw quite a num- 
ber of Indians that were quite busy, some digging 1 trenches and 
some gathering arms full of the tall wheat grass that grew on 
the flat in the bottom of the canyon. I asked Jack what they 
were doing. He said, ''Catching crickets for bread." "Well, 
we will go and see how they do it." We went, and'saw that 
they had dug quite a number of trenches about a foot wide and 
a foot deep and about thirty or forty feet long, and around 
like a new moon with the horns uphill. 

They had been a number of days at the work, but were now 
ready for their cricket drive, having five or six of the trenches 
strung across the bench, the end of each trench joined, or was 
very close to the end of another. They covered these with a 
thin layer of stiff wheat grass straw, for what purpose I did 
not know then, but I thought they were making a mistake, 
for the crickets could crawl over the ditch on it, but I must 
wait and see. 

As it was getting the hottest time of the day, and there- 
fore the best time for the drive, they were soon ready, and 
probably hurried their best to show, their visitors how they 
done it, and at the same time get a little help. Well, there was 
a few crickets scattered all around, but were more of them 
above the trenches and near the foothills. But I thought they 
were going to a great deal of trouble for a few crickets, why 
not catch them by hand, we will see. 

These trenches ran in a north and south direction, the land 
sloping to the west. The Indians, men, women and children, 
divided into two parties, one going to the north end and the 
other to "the south end, all carrying a bunch of grass in each 
hand. They went single file towards the foothills, and mak- 
ing the distance between the parties wider than the length of 
the trenches. When they had gone what they thought far 
enough, as judged by the scarcity of grass left by the black 
insects, the party closed in and, walking back and forth swing- 
ing their grass bunches they gradually worked down toward 
the trenches. 

We followed them on horseback and I noticed that there 
were but very few crickets left behind. As they went down, 


the line of crickets -ivu thicker and thicker till the ground 
ahead of the drivers was as black as coal with the excited, 
tumbling mass of crickets. 

A cricket when disturbed can jump about one foot down 
hill at a jump and but half that distance up hill, but will never 
jump up hill if it has any show to avoid it. Well, as we neared 
the trenches I noticed the Indians were going down slower. 
Jack said this was to give the crickets time to crawl through 
the grass into the trenches. 

When all had been driven in the Indians set fire to the 
grass they had in their hands and scattered it along on top 
of that they had over the trenches, causing a big blaze and 
smoke, which soon left the crickets powerless to crawl out, 
if any were left alive when the grass had all burned up, which 
did not take many minutes. I rode along the line and in some 
places the trenches were over half full of the dead and legless 
crickets. I went down below the trenches and I venture to say 
there were not one out of a thousand crickets that passed th9se 

They are a scary and excitable, but a clumsy insect, that 
hardly ever when excited land on their feet, but roll over, 
then turn their head down hill and jump again. If not mo- 
lested they seldom ever jump, but travel by crawling. Now the 
bucks and children had done their part and were sitting around 
in groups. The squaws were busy gathering up the game. 

They had large conical shaped baskets; some of them 
would hold over two bushels. These the women carry on their 
backs, held in place by a flat band either over their foreheads 
or about the shoulders. Now here is what I saw a squaw do- 
ing that had a small baby strapped to a board or a willow 
frame, which she carried on her back with a strap over her 
forehead : 

When at work she would stand or lay the frame and kid 
where she could see it at any time. She soon had a large 
basket as full as she could crowd with crickets. Laying it 
down near the kid, she took a smaller basket and filled it. I 
should judge she had over four bushels of the catch. But 
wait, the Indians were leaving for their camp about three or 
four miles away. This squaw sat down beside the larger 
basket, put the band over her shoulders, got on her feet with 
it, then took the strapped kid and placed him on top, face up, 
picked up the other basket and followed her lord and master, 
who tramped ahead with nothing to carry except his own lazy 
carcass. There were bushels of crickets left in the trenches, 
which I suppose they would gather later in the day. 


Having- seen enough there we rode on across a narrow val- 
ley, and in the foothills came to a large camp of Indians, the 
chief of whom I was well acquainted with, and we decided to 
stay all night with them, as we did not know and they could 
not inform us as to the exact location of the band we wanted 
to visit. We were also getting hungry. We had no provisions 
of our own left, except a couple of rabbits I had killed on the 

They treated us fine and we had a good time telling arid 
hearing the news. Jack took one of the rabbits and put it to 
roast on the fire, the other he gave to the chief. When the 
rabbit was done to his liking, Jack asked the chief if he had 
any bread ; he nodded and called in a low voice the name of 
his squaw, who came into the tent at once. When told to 
bring some bread she went out, but returned immediately with 
a cake of black bread about two inches thick and ten inches 
in diameter, which she handed to me. I thought it looked 
too black for pine nut bread, for the latter has a yellow cast 
and this was decidedly black. Holding the bread in one hand 
and pointing to it with the other, I asked her if there was pine 
nut? in it. "Yes," she said unconcernedly, "is there crikets 
in it?" "'Yes, yes," smilingly, "sure." Well, I handed the 
cake to Jack to divide and told the squaw that I would like 
some pine nuts. She soon brought in some that were all 
mashed up. These T refused and asked for the "whole" pine 
nuts. These were soon brought in and I commenced my supper. 

The chief noticed that I was slow at shelling the nuts, 
so he called a young squaw that came in with a basin of water, 
setting it down near the door, washed her hands in the basin 
and brought in a flat stone about one foot in diameter and 
one-half inch thick and another about eight inches long and a 
couple of inches in diameter. Seating herself between Jack 
and me, she proceeded to put the mill in motion. She placed a 
couple of hands full of nuts on the flat stone and taking the 
other in both hands, gave it a rolling motion over the nuts 
which cracked the shells so they fell off the kernels, which 
she rolled off on a piece of sack as clean and plump as I could 
shell them one at a time. ' She simply shelled them much faster 
than both of us could eat them. Well, we had a good supper 
and breakfast, but Jack ate my share of the bread. 

When the crickets are dried the squaws grind them, feath- 
ers and all, on the same mil] they grind the pine nuts or gTass 
seed, making a fine flour that will keep a long time, if kept dry. 
Jack says the crickets make the br^ad good, the same as sugar 


used by the white woman in her cakes. Well, I am willing 
to take his word for it, as otherwise I might s<|iiirm a little. 


We were on our way for Carson City with a train of 
four wagons with three yoke of oxen each and teams of six 
mules and wagons loaded with produce to sell on the way and 
bring back a threshing machine and other farm machinery, also 
dry goods, etc., to supply our little store at Deep Creek. Our 
first camp was at Antelope Springs, where we arrived just be- 
fore dark. After watering and taking care of the animals, 
the next job was to get supper. We had quite a variety of 
foodstuff along and we soon had the meal ready, consisting 
of fried bacon, boiled potatoes, pancakes, mollasses, coffee, 
plenty of sugar, a few pounds of fresh butter, but no milk or 
cream for the coffee. 

One of the boys said that butter was a good substitute for 
cream to put in the coffee, and proceeded to stir some in his 
cup of coffee. One of the other boys cut a good size lump and 
stirred it in the large coffee pot, so we all had to take our 
coffee that way or go without it. Well, no one went with- 
out hk coffee, but after that, when the butter was all gone 
we missed it much. Well, after supper was over the plates, 
cups, knives and forks and spoons were all pushed back of 
each boy. thus making a circle around the fire, as we had 
sat that way to eat our supper. The frying pans, coffee pots 
and skillets were left close to the fire, where they had been 
used. Not a thing was washed or taken care of and you can 
safely bet that every single piece of the cooking and eating 
utensils were as greasy as grease could make them. 

After supper we sat around the fire talking chaff till late, 
and as each became sleepy went to bed; but first, during the 
evening, we appointed one of the boys to tend to the cooking 
for one week. This one was the first to crawl out and very 
soon found out that the whole lot of cooking and eating uten- 
sils had taken wings or hud been stolen by the Indians. He 
called the boys and at the same time was looking for tracks 
of the thief. He soon found a tin plate, then a spoon, or cup, 
then we were all on the hunt in a circle from the fire, when 
one of the boys that had gone about one hundred yards from 
camp yelled out that he had found one of the thieves. We all 
ran to where he was and this is what we saw: A coyote with 
his head in our largest coffee pot and the bail over his head 
back of his oars, fast enough, but still trying to get away. He 



was bumping against the brush at every step. He could make 
no progress. 

Well to make a long story short, as they say, we had lots 
of fun with that coyote and the next day his hide was tacked 
on one of the wagon beds. When we had finished our search, 
back from the fire about one hundred and fifty yards, we 
took count of the recovered articles and found that we were 
out a couple of forks and a spoon. That was a cheap tariff 
for leaving dirty dishes where the coyotes could get to them 
and a lesson I venture none of us will ever forget. 

Pioneer cottage. Several families working together. 



One afternoon, while visiting 1 the Indians, I heard them 
talking of rabbits and, asking them what it was all about, the 
chief said a rabbit hunt. I said I would like to go along to 
see how they done it. He seemed pleased at me taking so 
much interest and said, "Good! Come tomorrow before noon, 
as we want to start the drive about noon and it is quite a dis- 
tance to the place. You had better come on horseback.'' 

About the middle of the forenoon next day I was at their 
camp. Most of the hunters had already started. Going about 
three or four miles, we. came to the place selected for the 
drive a piece of sage and rabbit brush land about a mile in 
diameter. The party I was with stopped, when we saw a fire 
about a half mile to our right and soon another about the same 
distance to the left, and then we could see the smoke rising a 
mile ahead of us. My party soon had their torches at work and 
the drive was on. 

Working all around the circle and towards the center was 
a continuous ring of fire and smoke, which was gradually clos- 
inir iii and the rabbits were being crowded together thicker and 
thicker. Each Indian, squaw and pappose had a stick about 
four feet long, the only weapon they carried. A small boy or 
gill was just as good as a man, and oh, the fun of it all 
laughinsr and hollering and making as much noise as possible. 
The rabbits got so dazed by the fire, smoke and tumult that 
they simplv could not run. They would jump a few jump? and 
sit up trying to see a way out. I saw dozens of them stop 
within reach of the sticks and many of them were picked up 
that had not been hit. When a rabbit was seen to pass out 
of the human ring, someone would follow him in the smoke 
and put his body in one of the piles of rabbits they had made 
as they proceeded towards, the center, for they could not carry 
much of the game and do their work at the same time. 

When the drive was over the field was a black, fire-swept, 
but still smoking patch of ground. Talk about rabbits, I am 
sure there were more caught on that drive than could he 
packed in a large wagon bed. It seems that the black-tailed 
rabbits gather in herds or colonies and these places are noted 
by the Indians. I learned afterwards that they had intended 


to attack a smaller colony, but the chief wanted his white 
friends to see a good, big- drive, and he did, and I was well 
pleaded LO be (-.icoviiu, uul iljou.^lit it was taking 1 loo much the 
advantage of poor Mr. Rabbit, who had no chance to save his 

The Indians do not like to use fire for a drive, as it takes 
years for the brush to grow up again. I have seen a drive 
where no fire was used, but grass nets about two and one-half 
feet high and two inches or even smaller mesh. A sharp 
pointed stick a few inches longer than the width of the net 
was fastened across six or eight feet apart, to act as fence 
posts, when the sharp end was pressed into the earth. One 
buck could easily carry a role of one hundred fifty to two 
hundred yards of the small twisted grass twine nets. Each 
large family usually have such a role and at times, when living 
apart from other families, can use them either as traps or to 
drive; but then, these are only small catches. 

The drive I Avitnessed was when there was six or eight 
of these nets together. When the}' had decided just where to 
run the nets, two of the Indians put the end sticks of their 
nets together and commenced to unroll their nets, going in 
opposite directions, sticking each cross stick firmly in the 
ground as they unrolled, making a rabbit-proof fence. When 
the first two had placed their nets, two more Indians com- 
menced Avhere they ended and continued the line in the de- 
sired direction. 

I noticed that when they were through stringing their nets 
in a kind of semicircle form, there was part of a roll of nets 
not unrolled at each end. These ends, when they were ready to 
drive, were strung out, but not in a circle, but flaring straight 
out from the opening, making a long V-shaped mouth to the 
field. When the Indians swung across this mouth they began 
coming in slowly. But every rabbit that was started went into 
the pen and kept running back and forth to find, a place to get 
through. Vain search, for they were trapped. When the men 
had reached the opening of the circle the two ends of the net 
was brought in and strung across the opening, this making 
a complete enclosure. Then the fun began. All the Indians were 
inside with sticks, or bows and arrows, picking up the game. 
Sometimes I could see at one glance five or six rnbbits that 
were entangled in the netting. If the Indians were engaged 
at on place getting the ones caught, the others were getting 
into trouble at another place. 

It seemed a little strange to me that when a rabbit run- 
ning nlon<r the fence would see a man ahead of him he would 


turn and run across the circle tiH he came to the fence, then 
run along it till he saw someone ahead, then either make a 
dive at the fence and get tangled, or take another r^n across 
lots, but never stopping- or trying to hide in the brush in the 
center, but seemed to know they were trapped. 

It took the Indians over a half day to get as many as 
they v-anl'Ml. There were many left when they took up the 
nets and ucre none the worse off by their little scare. 

1 have seen the black-tailed rabbits in bands so thick they 
could not ?11 get in the shade of the sagebrush and I have seen 
<-o\otes where there seemed to be dozens and dozens of them 
in the middle of the day. standing and sitting or laying down, 
and when approached too close, moving off just fast enough 
to keep at a safe distance, all of them with full bellies and 
acted very sleepy. I asked Jack what they were about, he 
said, "Them coyotes had a rabbit drive last night and n<-w 
they are resting up and sleeping." I said. "Jack, do you want 
to see them run?"' (Taking my pistol.) "They won't run far,'* 
said !K-. At tlie crack of the gun one tumbled down, the others 
that were near jumped to their feet, some trotted off a little 
distance, others merely glanced around and walked off a little 
wav ai:l souat down airain. 


On one of my days out I came across an old Indian going 
home with his day's catch of rats. He had a large sheet iron 
c-amp kettle nearly filled with them. They had all been caught 
the night before by dead falls, as we call them, which con- 
sists o r tu<> -ticks about three and a half or four inches long 
fastened together at their centers bv a string tr-at will allow 
them to spread apart about four or five inches in the shape of 
the letter "H." One of these, with any convenient flat rock 
heavy enough to smash and kill a rat, is one dead fall. This 
Indian had over a hundred of the triggers that he hadn't used, 
but said he had set the most of them. 

His plan was to go up one side of the canyon, setting the 
traps wherever he saw the sign of rats, and the same down the 
other side. The next day* taking the same route, gathering 
the catch and resetting the traps. The rats the Indian had were 
six to eic-ht inches long, two and a half inches wide an 1 luuf 
an inch thick. They were packed as close as lie *-ould pack 
them in the kettle and were quite heavy for the old man to 
pack to camp, so I carried them for him. At his camp was 
where I first saw the squaws making rabbit skin robes. This 
is how it was done: 


They had a lot of twihe, that had been made of soma 
fiberous bark or grass, and a pile of rabbit skins that had been 
dried and then rubbed pliable. But it must have been done 
with care, for a rabbit skin is very tender. These squaws were 
not making 1 a new robe, but patching up and making an -old 
one larger. The robes are of length to reach from the neck 
to about the middle of the thighs, say about three or four feet 
long, and wide enough to reach around the body at the shoul- 

One of the squaws was twisting the strips of skin around 
a twine that was stretched to two stakes, placed a little past 
the length of the robe, and as she proceeded the other was fol- 
lowing her up and tying that fir rope thus made and laid along- 
side the previous one close together at about every four inches. 
They worked back and forth in this fashion till the skins were 
all used up. There was a strip about two feet wide of new 
robe attached to the old one. I examined it and found that 
the tie strings were placed in a straight line across the robe, 
with the ends of the ties left to attach more robe or to be used 
to tio the robe together as wanted. 

When hung around the neck the person so clothed can 
stand in a hard rain or snow storm and not one drop of wet will 
pass tl rough the robe. They are wind and rain proof and 
almost cold proof. There is no right or wrong side, as both 
sides are just the same one solid piece of fir that will stand 
the wear of years, used as a mattress or bed covering or wind 
brake. In fact, they never completely wear out. 

When the fur at any place gets worn off it is replaced with 
a few strands of new. This makes an old robe look striped 
and of different colors. The squaws while at work seemed as 
happy as a party of white women at a quilting and were talk- 
ing and laughing just as fast. After spending some time chat- 
ting and smoking with the old man, he gave me the location 
of another family. T gave him a little tobacco and left them 
much rjleased with mv visit. 


I had sent word to the old chief (White Horse) that I 
would make him a visit in a few days, and to make it interest- 
ing to me he planned an antelope -catch. For a few days be- 
fore I came the squaws and bucks were busy repairing and ex- 
tending the flanking arms of the old corral, or trap pen, which 
was located near the north end of antelope valley and about 
twenty miles northwest of Deep Creek. It was pretty cold 


weather, but no snow on the ground. The Indians thought 
it a good time and expected a good catch. 

After they had all come in from their work a great deal 
of talking and planning was on and each knew just what part 
and place he or she was to take. By daylight all were ready 
for the start and. in fact, a number of the young men had left 
early in the evening before to go to the extreme south end 
of the ground to be covered and about twenty miles from the 
pen. They were to spread apart across the valley, travel in open 
order back to the north, being careful that not one of the ante- 
lope jumped would run, except in a northerly direction. 

This valley has a good many hills or knolls along the 
base of the mountains and a few of them scattered more to 
the center of the level ground in the middle of the valley. An 
antelope, when started up, will always run directly for one of 
these, that lay opposite from where he gets his scare from, and 
they run from hill to hill. They see no one ahead of them 
but the party behind being constantly increased, and if they 
undertake to pass around the drivers a buck or squaw is sure 
to raise to his feet, and that sends them off to the center 

Thus it goes till they come to the line between the outer 
ends of the arms, which, there, are about four miles apart, 
but gradually closing in as they get nearer the pen. The arms 
or leads aie started at the extreme ends by simply prying or 
pulling up a large sagebrush and standing it roots up on the 
top of another brush, thus making a tall, black object visible 
for miles. The standing of these brush were at first some ten 
to twenty feet apart, but were placed more and more near to- 
gether the nearer towards the pen, and when the two lines came 
to about one hundred yards apart they were built so the buts 
of the bru^h were as close as the tops would allow them to be 
joined and by this time both wings had swung to the east side 
of the valley, where there were many ravines to cross and 
plenty of cedar and pine to use 'for fencing. 

There were many turns to the lane thus formed, but was 
getting narrower arid stronger till finally, around a sharp turn 
through a large, thick bunch of cedars, the game were in the 
corral, which was about two hundred feet in diameter and built 
strong and high enough to withstand the charges of a herd of 
buffalo. The pine and cedar trees had not been removed from 
the inside of the pen, and not many from the runway, for a 
mil" back. 

Well, White Horse and myself rode the only two horses in 
the drive and we went to about half the distance to the ends 


of the arms and were soon back as fast as possible on the 
outside to take advantage of the bends and turns and to try 
and keep abreast of the drivers, who were all on a fast run, 
yelling like a pack of coyotes. The drive came to an end with 
a rush and everyone working desperately closing ap the en- 
trance, a few small children appearing- on the wall at differ- 
ent points around the pen. By the time we had tied our horses 
and climbed to the top of the wall the entrance had been closed. 
Then began the killing of as many as were wanted that 
day, the killing was done with arrow and seldom missed pierc- 
ing the heart. The catch was about twenty-five, mostly all 
bucks or does, there being only five or six yearlings in the 
bunch. There were five or six bucks killed that day and one of 
which had tried to jump the fence, but got entangled in the 
fenco and was killed by having his throat cut with a knife. 
The reason they were not all killed in one day was to give 
tho squaws time to cut up in thin strips the flesh and dry it on 
a rack built over a small fire, thus curing it so it would keep 
for a long time if kept dry. 

The next morning I went to the pen with some of the In- 
dians and found that there had been left three cr four young 
men to guard the place and see that none of the animals broke 
through. Tho antelope had run themselves down and Avere hud- 
dled in the center of the enclosure, most all laying down. The 
Indians soon picked out five or six of the largest, which were 
killed and soon on the way to camp to be made into jerked 
meat, as it was called. The brains are seldom eaten, but care- 
fully preserved to tan the hide with,, by spreading them all 
over the flesh side of the skin, after the hair has been removed, 
rolling them up and leaving them this way for a few davs, 
when the skins may be washed clean and rung as dry as pos- 
sible, then stretched and pulled and rubbed till dry, when they 
are soft, white and pliable. Then they are ready for trade 

or use. 

The Indians told me that the last drive, before this one 
at this place, was nearly twelve years ago and the old men 
never expected to see another at this place, for it would take 
many vears for the animals to increase in sufficient numbers to 
make it pay to drive. These drives are mostly in the desert 
valleys, where the poor horseless natives live. 

I have been with n number of hunting parties where most 
of the hunters had horses. The last one was a few miles south 
of where the drive I have just told about. There were ten on 
horses ?md five or six foot men. When they arrived at the 
edge of the hunting ground they divided into parties, one 


going to the right and the other to the left and occasionally 
leaving a man. and so spacing them apart that when the two 
ends of the line swung around they formed a very large circle. 

Wi could see where the antelope were running and the 
plan was to keep them in the circle and on the run all the time 
and not allow them to rest. When any of them attempted to 
pass out they were headed off and turned back or around the 
circle. We could not see an antelope halfway across the cir- 
cle, but could see the dust they raised and the direction they 
were traveling. 

When, after they had been kept running back and forth 
till they were very tired, a man would chase one on a fast run 
and as he neared another man would stop to rest his horse 
and watch for another run. The second man could run his 
horse alongside the antelope easily, which I did, and wished I 
had brought my lariat, as I could have caught him easily, but 
I shot him when at a distance of about eight or ten feet. There 
were only three killed and Jack was in high glee, for he said 
to the other Indians. "You see, it takes a chief to get the ante- 
lope." One was killed by him, one by "Antelope Jake," as 
he was called, a young chief, and one by myself. 


Jack and I were taking a scouting trip high up in the Shell 
Crock range of mountains, when we came across an Indian who, 
with his sQuaxv and children, were busily engaged gathering 
pine-nuts. JPhe man had a long pole with a strong hook fastened 
to one end. He would reach up in the tree to the pine cones, 
hook the crook around the branch on which they hung and 
pull branch and all down, the squaw and children carrying 
them to a place and piling them up in a heap. When they 
had collected as many as they wanted that day, the buck had 
finished his part of the work and could pass the rest of the 
time sleeping or hunting squirrels just as he pleased. 

The squaws and children gathered a little dry brush, which 
vjsf thrown loosely over the pile of cones and set fire to. The 
cones are thickly covered all over with pitch, for this reason 
they make a hot fire, the squaw watching and stirring it up a 
needed to keep the nuts from burning, as all she wants is to 
burn the pitch off. When this is done she rakes them back 
from +he fire as a man would do when drawing charcoal. 

When the pitch was all burned off the burs, or cones, the 
squaw spreads a blanket down close to the pile, then taking 
up one cone at a time, would press them end ways between 


her hands, which opens the leaves, under which there were two 
ruts to every leaf. Then shaking; the cone over the blanket the 
nuts would all fall out as clean as you please. 

We stayed with them to see the finish, which was not so 
\ery long. When the nuts had all been cleaned from the cones 
they were put in a large basket that would hold over two 
bushels and was nearly full, the squaw carrying that on her 
back to a place where they were to be cached and left till 
wanted. These caches were placed all through the pine-nut 
grove to save carrying them too far and save time, for the 
harvest does not last long, for a heavy frost will cause the 
cones to open and the nuts drop to the ground, where the squir- 
rels and coyotes feast on them. 

A pine-nut cone looks like a green pineapple, but some 
smaller and covered with pitch, that protects them from in- 
sects and squirrels. The Indians put them in caches holding 
about ten bushels or less. f 

Once on a time when Jack and I were passing along a 
range where there were a good many pine-nut trees, and as 
we were getting hungry I asked him if he thought there was 
any nuts cached there. He said he didn't think they were all 
cleaned out and would look around. He was not long in lo- 
cating one, and pushing the large stick of wood aside that 
was placed on top of the small raise in which the nuts were 
to be found, he moved off about six inches of dirt and found 
a tight layer of cedar bark about two inches thick. He dug a 
hole through this big enough to pass his arm through, which! 
he did, and pulled out a handful of very fine nuts, as fresh 
a=: when first put in. 

Well, we took about two gallons, covered and left the 
cache as we found it, minus the few nuts taken. 


In traveling through Go-Shute Valley (later called Flower 
Lake Valley), we were getting very thirsty, having been trav- 
eling five or six hours from the last water hole and it being 
a dry hot and sultry day 1 and the horses needed water. 
The nearest I knew of was about twelve miles distance and 
that not in the direction of our travel, and our one canteen 
being empty, I thought we would have to change our course 
to get water. I asked Jack, "How far to water this way,'* 
].<inting the way I Avanted to go. He said, "I do not know, 
maybe no water. Well, are you thirsty?" "Yes." "Well 
then, think fast and locate water or Indian no better than 
white man." 


V-'e were about the middle of the valley, facing south- 
easterly, and were among the sand-dunes, which spread a few 
nulos in width and many miles in length through the valley. We 
had not ;>one far after this talk when Jack said, "Wait," 
and pointing to some rat or gopher holes in the side of the 
sand-dunes, said, "They must have water, I see." Dismount- 
ing, he picked a place between the dunes and with his hands 
scraped off the loose sand to a depth of about six or eight 
inches to water. He then made the hole nearly a foot deeper 
and a foot wide, which quickly filled to the water level. Wait- 
ing for it to settle, we then tasted it and found it to be a little 
brackish, but still nice and cool and quite drinkable. Having 
drank what we wanted, filling 1 the canteen, we let the horses 
have their turn. They got some, but soon caved the sand in 
and made the water so riley they would drink no more. 

Jack filled the hole up and leveled the sand over it as it 
was before and said if he did not do it there could not be 
any more water ever found anywhere near there (Superstition;, 
and I think he actually believed what he said. 

Towards evening we were traveling along the foothills, go- 
ing in the direction of where we knew there was a water hole 
five or six miles distance. Where we were the limestone forma- 
tion lay very flat and in some places was washed clean of ail 
soil for large areas and but few cracks or breaks all along the 
lower edge of these limestone beds. 

I noticed that the grass and brush was thicker and stronger 
than farther down. I asked Jack if he thought we could get 
water near the edge by digging. "No," lie said, "too deep; 
but wait, see the coyote tracks. They get water somewhere 
close to here." So hunting around a while I got off my 
horse and sat on a little raise watching Jack. He zig-zagged 
around till he had worked off about one hundred yards from 
me. I went to where he was standing and said, "Did you 
find water?" he said, smiling; "Come and see," leading the 
way to the bottom of a large saucer shaped swag, and what I 
saw was an oblong hole about four feet across the narrowest 
way and about twelve feet deep. There was eight or nine feet 
of water in it and so clear that we could see the bottom and 
sides very plainly and all the walls w-ere solid limestone. 

The water was cold and not a bit brackish, so I proposed 
to camp there that night. Jack said, "Yes," for he was very 
tired; but said, "Wo must go a little wav off so the wild ani- 
mal? can come and drink." How weiv we to water the horses 
here? They could not reach it and if one fell in, it would be 
good-by. as we could never get him out. except in pieces. Well, 


we. watered the horses and gave them all they Avanted by using 
my hat for a bucket. 

I noticed that all around the hole the surface was slant- 
ing towards it, except at one point where, when the hole was 
full and more rain or snow water came to it, it could flow 
on down to the sand valley below. 

The next clay we, having crossed the summit of the desert 
range of mountains, about noon, as we were riding along the 
base of the mountain or about half a mile above the white 
alkali desert (the most desolate and dreary country I ever saw) 
seeing a poor, pretty near hairless coyote, I asked Jack what 
he was doing so far from water. "Maybe not far," he said. "We 
will try and find his drinking hole." So in riding along he 
pointed up the mountain a little way and farther along our 
way to where the limestone ledges dipped at a very steep angle 
into the mountains, he said, "We will go along that way." 

We came to a place where a thick ledge about thirty feet 
high hung over a thinner one that was about eight or ten feet 
high and from two to six feet from the higher one, that hung 
completely over it. Jack went to one end of the ledge, or to 
where he could get on top of the smaller ledge, gave a whoop 
and said, "Plenty of water." I was soon at his side and saw 
a pool of clear water (no scum or dirt) that extended from 
ledge to ledge and some thirty feet long. At the ends the bot- 
tom sloped toward the center, at which place there was no 
way to judge the depth, as the bottom could be seen only a 
few feet from the ends, but there was thousands of gallons of 
water held there, as good, too, as any you ever tasted. But 
let me tell you, a person might ride or walk within six feet 
of it and still think it was miles, and hot ones, to the nearest 
water. A tenderfoot would die of thirst leaning his back 
against the four-foot wall that separated him from enough 
water to supply . an army. One could not see the least sign 
of water, every spot all around being sunburned and browned. 

We, of course, camped a little way beyond after watering 
the horses the same as before (in my hat). I would depend 
on finding water at this place any time of the year, as there 
was now plenty, and it was in the fall that we were there 
and there could not be much lost by evaporation, and it 
was replenished by every rainstorm, the water draining in at 
the ends. The hole or crevasse would contan a good many 
thousands of gallons more before running over, so I think it 
safe to say that there was alwavs plenty of water there. 

When we were traveling in the direction of the sink of Deep 
Creek that was about fifteen miles awav I knew of no 


water nearer in that direction, but knew of a small spring off 
to the right some five or six miles out of our way. Jack asked 
me for a drink out of the canteen. "There is only about half 
a pint in it," I said, shaking it, "we had better wait as long 
as we can before drinking it all." He said he had waited a 
long time and thought the water was better now than it would 
be when it got warmer, so it soon vanished. 

After going a few miles farther and still thirsty I asked 
Jack if he was afoot and very thirsty which way he would go 
for water, trying to have him judge which way lay the closest. 
He stopped, and looking around, said his mother, when he was 
a little boy, had camped somewhere near where we were and 
when she went for water it was to one of the mounds that we 
could see scattered in the edge of the desert. So selecting a 
rather large one, about half a mile to one side, we rode to it. 
Jack got off his horse and made a complete circuit of it and 
said, "No water, but plenty coyote signs." I said, "You did 
not go over the top of the hill?'"' "No," he said, "wait, I go." 
He had not reached the top when he gave a yell and I knew 
he had found a water hole. 

On going up I found it to be about two by six and about 
eight or nine feet deep, with about three feet of clear water 
in it, but hard to get at without a rope and bucket, but we 
managed to sink the canteen in it by tying a small stone to 
one side. We had a good drink and with a refilled canteen went 
on our journey. 


The ground squirrel, or large white bellied mole or gopher, 
are very numerous in some places on the bench lands along the 
mountains. One day, while taking a little exercise with Mr. 
Muncey, the telegraph operator, we rode along the foothills. 
When we came to the edge of fifteen-mile Creek Hollow and 
were going down to the creek we came to a ditch about eighteen 
inches wide and six or seven inches of water running, with 
a good ripple, to our right, the mountains being to the left. 
Muiicey said. "Who in h 1 done this. This water is running 
up hill." And so it appeared to be. "Well, let us follow 
it and see where it goes to." 

We followed along the ditch until it came out onto the 
flat, where there was a division, making two streams. A little 
lower they were again divided. Then we could see about 
eight or ten squaws very busy, each with a stout stick, digging 
a trench and leading the water to a gopher hole. The gopher 


would soon make his appearance in a half-drowned state, get 
a rap on the head, then put in the sack at the back of the 
squaw, who would then turn the water into the next nearest 
hole, with the same result. 

All of the squaws were hard at work the same way, mak- 
ing a very clean job of it, and very few would be left for a 
future drowning out. Muncey said he was going to time that 
young squaw. We saw her divide her part of the water in 
two streams, thus running it in two holes at the same time. 
Sometimes she would have three or four streams and then 
again but one, and according to Muncey 's time she had caught 
between twenty-five and thirty in the half hour. 

When we left them some of the squaws had over a half 
bushel in their sacks and quite a large field to go over yet. 
It would take a number of days to finish the job. 

These rodents are skinned, gutter, then dried the same as 
beef, only the}' are dried whole, no bones being removed. Of 
course, they are also eaten fresh and stewed with Indian pota- 
tos and segos. I most fancy I could stomach to eat one. It's 
all in the way we were brought up. But I don't think I would 
starve to death if I could find a place where there was water 
and plenty of gophers, or any other animal I could drowned out, 
even a pole eat would save a man's life for a week or more. 
But I don't want to be caught wanting to try either. 

Making Fire With a Stick. On one of my trip& with a 
comrade we camped for the night just before sundown and soon 
found out that we had no matches that were dry enough to 
light a fire with. That did not put us out much and we did 
not worry a bit, for we could soon make fire with our pistols, 
but just before Ave were ready to do it an Indian came up 
and squat down close to the little pile of wood we Kad col- 

Then the thought struck me that I would see if an Indian 
was always prepared to make a fire, so I said to him, "Make 
a good fire and I will give you something to eat." He jumped 
up and said, "Give me white fire stick." (Matches.) I told 
him, "No. they are all wet and no account, and Indian no good 
either if he could not make fire." He gave a grunt and pro- 
ceeded to get busy. 

He took a stick about eighteen inches long nnd the thick- 
ness of an arrow out of the quiver he carried his arrows in 
and another flat stick about six inches long, one-half inch 
thick and three-quarters to one inch wide, there being four or 
five counter-sunk holes in the flat piece about one-fourth inch 
deep. After rubbing some dry cedar bark with his hands till 



it was very fine, he placed the flat stick on the ground and 
one end of the long stick, which was at one end a little smaller, 
and putting- the largest end in one of the counter-sunk holes, 
placed his hands together around the top of the stick, which he 
made to turn around back and forth very fast. As he worked 
his hands this way, at the same time pressing down all he 
could, it caused his hands to work down on the stick and he 
had to place them at the top very often. In about twelve 
or fifteen minutes he had a few tiny sparks of fire he had 
made with the sticks, burning the fine ground bark. 

After that it was easy, but when the fire was lighted Mr. 
Indian was in a very sweaty condition. We did not begrudge 
him his supper, as we thought he had earned it and he seemed 
pleased to get it that way. I have seen an Indian make fire by 
simply rubbing two sticks together. This plan takes longer a'id 
harder work. 



This was told me by one of the Pony Express riders whose 
ride was from Salt Lake City to Rush Valley. He passed the 
point of the mountain eighteen or twenty miles south of Salt 
Lake City, but as there was a heavy snowstorm raging he could 
not tell which way he was traveling. He knew that he had 
gone far enough to bring him to the river, if he had kept the 
right road. He went on till himself and pony were both about 
give out, then seeing no signs of a break in the storm, got 
off the pony to give both of them a little rest. The snow was 
quite deep and drifting. 

Curling up beside a sagebrush he soon was sound asleep. 
He did not know .just how long he had slept, but he did know 
that some animal had jumped across his face, that instantly 
brought him to his senses, and scrambling to his feet saw the 
rabbit that had awakened him. 

He found that he was very numb and cold and had a 
time in getting blood circulation through arms and legs. His 
pony was standing with his head down and back to the storm, 
shivering like a man with the ague. He finally started again 
and after some time found a light. Going up to it he found 
that it shown out of the window of a farmhouse, the owner 
of which had just got up and started the morning fire. 

Calling the man to the door, he inquired the way he should 
go to get on the right trail again. The man said, "Straight 
ahead." "Well, if I should go straight ahead I would ride 
through your door and as I have been riding all night I am 
very cold and would like to get warm by your fire and have 
a cup of coffee.'* 

Well, after getting both and feed for the pony he went 
on and got through all right. The place where he found him- 
self to be was close in the northeast corner of Utah Valley 
and if it had not been for the rabbit he was satisfied he would 
have gone to his last sleep. 


Another pony express rider on the Salt Lake* ride to Rush 
Valley made Cedar Fort (Fort Crittenden), in Cedar Vallev. 


It was snowing to beat the band. He got his next pony and 
started up the long slope toward Rusk Valley, his home sta- 
tion. It was still snowing and blowing and it was impossible 
to see the road or any object to get his location, but finally 
it seemed that he was going down hill. He thought he had 
passed the summit and was now in Rush Valley, so hurried 
up the pony a little faster, but after a couple of hours of this 
he could not discover any familiar ground, so then he came to 
the conclusion that he was lost, not even knowing in which 
valley he was. 

It was too cold to stop; he must keep moving. Which 
way? Why go straight ahead for sure? It would take him 
somewhere, so he kept going supposedly in a straight line. 
Just about daylight he discovered a light. Going towards it 
he soon saw plenty of lights and then some buildings that 
he recognized as belonging to Cedar Fort, the place he had 
left the evening before. He had made a complete circle around 
the valley. After eating a lunch and taking a fresh pony he 
made it through all right, for the storm had passed. 


I left Ruby Valley station after breakfast. I was travel- 
ing west and with no companion except my pony. All went 
well and I arrived at Diamond Springs about 4 p. m., where I 
rested. Just after sundown I thought I would go to the next 
station, about twenty-five miles distance, from which I could 
next day finish my west trip and get back to Diamond Springs. 

I had not traveled more than a couple of miles before it 
began to snow, and so fast that I could not see twenty-five 
yards in any direction, and soon the snow was so deep and 
it was so dark that every 7 direction from where I was seemed 
to be up hill. After going far enough to take me across the 
valley I came to the conclusion that I was off the right trail 
and no need to go further till I could see some landmark to go by. 

It had turned very cold and I was quite wet, there was 
nothing to make a fire of. I was sjomewhere in Moon Shine 
Valley, as it is called, on account of its white soil and very short 
shad-scale greece wood brush, which makes it appear as if 
the moon or sun was shining upon it when there is no moon 
or snn visible. 

I needed rest, so did the pony, but how could I get rest 
and not freeze. I got off the pony, made a loop in the end 
of my riding rope, put this around the stoutest bush I could 
find, took hold of the pony's tail, driving him round and round. 



When I would get a little warmer by this exercise I would squat 
down a few minutes, but the cold would soon set the pony to 
shivering (me, too), and then round and round again. Oh! 
What a night and would it ever end? I had hard work to 
keep from laying down and going to sleep. Well, if I had 
but I didn't. 

Just about daylight I saw a little blue sky right up in the 
center of my circle and after a little while a number of clear 
places. I was now on the pony riding around the bush, but 
watching at all points for a view of the mountains. Finally, 
just before sunrise I located east by the light and of course I 
then knew which way to look for the mountains. 

Very soon after this the clouds broke away and I had a 
full view of the range on the west side and found that I was 
some five miles to the south of the trail and two or three 
from the west side of the valley. The first thing to do was 
to get to the trail, which I did by a straight line to the foot 
of the mountains. I could not see the road here, but that did 
not worry me, I knew the mountains. 

A few years after that I was crossing this same valley 
with a few others, when one of them said, "See that lone young 
mountain way out there in the middle of the valley, I would 
like to go on top of it to see what it is made of." And he said, 
"Did you ever visit it?" I said, "I may have rode around it, 
but I certainly did not go to the top." "Well, if you rode 
around it you certainly know if it is a limestone or granite 
knob." "No." I told him of my night around a bush. That 
explained why I did not know. 



There is a little spring of very brackish and warm water 
about a mile north of Fish Spring station and a few rods below 
the road. Between this spring and the road the Indians had 
selected as the place to leave a very old man to die. He 
v. r as totally blind and very poor, hardly any flesh on his bones. 
HP was clad with only a very old and small strip of rabbit 
skin robe hung about his neck. 

The Indians had gathered some sagebrush and made a small 
semi-circle about two feet high. He was led to the spring and 
back to the circle and left to die of starvation. Father heard 
of this from one of the stage drivers and the first time he 
passed that way was prepared to supply the old man with 
food and blankets. He told the driver to drive out of the 
road to the old man's camp. 

When they arrived there the old man was down to the 
spring with his bands down in the water, which was liter- 
ally alive with fish that were about two inches in length. When 
he could feel one of them touch the inside of his hands he would 
grab them and immediately eat them. That was the only way 
of keeping himself alive. 

Father raised him from the spring and tried to make him 
understand that he would give him something, to eat and a 
blanket to keep him warm. But he soon found that the old 
man was very deaf and did not seem to understand a word. 
Father got him back to his camp, gave him enough food to 
last several days, also a gallon can of water, placed a good 
new blanket around him and left the old man eating very 
sparingly of the food, as if to make it last as long as possible. 

Father went on his way west, but left word with the 
stage driver to bring food for him after that every time he 
passed that way. On his return trip, when he met the driver 
he asked him about the old man. He said, "He is still alive, 
but the blanket, water can and grub was gone the first time 
I passed there. I have left him food every trip. He seems 
to be some stronger than when we first saw him. 

1'athor li'ot another blanket, more food and a water can, 
ami when he arrived at that place found the old man sound 


asleep, curled up about as a dog would for a nap, and getting him 
awake and placing the bread in one hand and the other 
on the can of water with the blanket around him left him 
to himself again. 

Father was planning to have the old man moved near the 
station, where he could be fed at regular times and provided 
with more shelter and clothing and with means of having a 
fire when necessary, as the weather was getting quite cold. 
Too late, for on his next trip out he learned that the old 
Indian had been taken away and everything that had been 
given him arid even the small semi-circle wind-brake had been 

Father's generosity had not been appreciated by the old 
man's relatives, or the band of Indians that he belonged to, 
so they made it impossible for him to prolong the life of the 
old man, who ought to die, and would very soon if let alone. 


It was Willow Spring Bill, as he was called, as he had 
been working here for some time as chore boy. The band of 
Indians he belonged to lived in the country around Fish Springs. 
He was very saving of what little money or clothing he got and 
finally traded for a small bore Kentucky rifle, that had the 
tube or nipple broken off, therefore useless to the Indian he 
got it from. 

He brought it to me, knowing that I usually had a few 
extra tubes on hand. He asked me if I would put on one for 
one antelope skin. That was the usual price.) "Let me see 
the skin." "No. I can't get it till you fix my gun so I can 
shoot antelope." Well, I fixed the gun without taking his note. 

About two weeks after I got the skin and traded for a 
couple move that he had, giving him a few rounds of am- 
numiticn, a shirt and a red handkerchief, which lie said he 
wante^ 1 to catch a squaw with. He had quit the station. He 
was now past chore boy. He was a man. 

I did not see him again for two or three months, when 
I chanced to be at Willow Springs. Bill came to the station, 
a young and good looking squaw at his heels. "Hello, Bill, 
you catch squaw?" "Yes." "Where you catch him?' ' "Me 
catch squaw over to Shell Creek." "When you catch him?" 
"Two sleeps me catch him. Me go home. Fish Spring." 

The young squaw seemed to be verv bashful. I asked her 
if she loved Bill. "Yes," she said, "him very good man, very 
much like him." And she acted as if she did and I have no 


doubts but she did. But, oh! the difference between white 
and red people! 

I afterwards learned from other Indians just how Bill 
proceeded to get his wife. She lived in the Shell Creek coun- 
try with her father, there being no more of the family or rel- 
atives left. The father had lost one eye. He was getting 
old and feeble, so the young girl had a hard time of it gath- 
ering- enough food for both. There had been many a young 
buck that wanted her for a wife; but the old man had al- 
ways driven them off. Well, one day the young Indian Bill his appearance at the old man's camp and commenced 
to lay siege to the girl's heart. He made that camp his home 
and helped out the food supply with game. This went on a 
month or more. The old man still said no one should take 
the girl from him. But Bill soon solved the problem. There 
is no way of finding out just what agreement was made be- 
txveen the boy and girl, but this is what happened: 

One afternoon, after coming in from hunting, Bill took his 
gun all apart and cleaned and oiled it up in fine shape. Then 
he loaded it ready for work. The girl was busy shelling nuts, 
the old man sound asleep on the sunny side of the camp, with 
his face towards Bill, who aimed his gun at the old man's good 
eye and fired. The ball passed through the eye and the brain, 
too, killing the old man instantly. 

The marriage ceremony was completely over. Bill coolly 
reloaded his gun. turned to the girl and said, "Come," and 
the girl picked up her blanket and followed her lord and 
master and was willing- to do so as long as life lasted. 

It was t\vo (lavs later that I had seen them at Willow 
Spring? on their wedding tour, apparently as happy as a couple 
of love-sick millionaires could be and live. All they owned 
on earth they had on, or carried in their hands. Not much to 
start married life with, but then they were Indians, whose wants 
are few. 



Our pack train, of half a dozen mules and three men, camp- 
ed for the night near a small spring that was in the west side of 
the valley. We had got the mules all picketed on the best grass 
we could find about there and that was not very good. I was just 
starting a fire when there appeared three Indians coming to- 
wards us at a lively walk. "See boys," said I, "we are going to 
have visitors and they seem to be in a hurry to arrive before 
supper time." 

They came along in single file, the leader, the biggest buck of 
the three, coming to within about eight feet of me before stopping 
or saying a word, or making a sign. They were well armed with 
hows and arrows, which they seemed to want us to see and 
probably fear when we saw them, but the fear rlidn't come from 
our side. Then straightening up high as possible and with a 
very important pose, pointed with one hand to a blanket that 
was thrown over a saddle, then slapped his own breast. 

I knew what he wanted, but I asked him (in Indian) what he 
wanted He took a good look at me as if suprised at my Indian 
talk, but said, "I want a blanket, and shirt, and flour, and (look- 
ing around) meat, and coffee, and sugar, and matches, and pow- 
der, and bullets." 

I let him get through with his wants and as he had not men- 
tioned saddles or mules I asked him if he did not want them, too. 
After taking another good look at me, he said, "No white man 
wants them." I said, "Why do you want all this you have spo- 
ken about?" "White man steal Indian water, burn Indian wood, 
steal Indian grass (swinging his hand around), all mine. Hurry 
give me blanket." "Wait, who gave you that water, that grass?" 
He answered, "I always had it." 

I said, "Now you lie, for that grass grows every year." "I 
don't lie, for all this land with the game and water is mine and 
I don't lie." "Well, what little water and grass we get would 
not do you any good, for the water would run away and the 
grass all dry up." "It ain't that way now, give me blan " 

"Stop your talk and if you want more than bullets sit right 
down there and wait a little while." Sigh. "White man mad." 
"No, but why did you ask for so much for nothing?" "Indian 
hungry." "Why didn't you say so the first thing." "I didn't know 
you would understand." 

"Well, I don't know if you will understand me when I say to 
you that you cannot scare any of these white men and you had 
better sit down and wait till they have a mind to give you some- 
thing to eat." He gave a grunt and sat down with the others 
where I had pointed. 

I told the boys that if they would get supper that I would 
take care of the natives, as we wanted no trouble if it could be 
avoided. After they had seated themselves so they could watch 
every move in the camp,, I heard one of them say, "These 


men are mad." I said, "Yes you talk to much snake." (Meaning 
forked tongue or lieing). 

After awhile I filled and lighted my pipe then handed it to 
the nearest Indian, who passed it to the one next, who drawed 
three or four whiffs of smoke, then passed it back to me. I took 
my share and the pipe passed back to the other end of the line 
and came as before and was repeated till the tobacco was all 
burned, when one of the Indians cleaned all the ashes out and 
passed the pipe back to me and said, "Good." 

After we had eaten our supper there was enough left (in- 
tentionally) to give the bucks a good fill. After the pipe had done 
its work again, as it was getting late, I told the boys I would go 
and change my mules to better feed and when I came back they 
could tend to their animals. 

Making the change, I started back and up jumped a rabbit 
not over twenty feet from me. He sat up quite straight, his 
side toward me, a good mark. I could not resist the tempta- 
tion of a try at the bright eye. I fired and as luck would have 
it (I was noted for being lucky), almost centered that eye, and 
as the other eye was almost directly opposite it was not my fault 
that it went in the same direction. I took the rabbit to camp 
and threw it down by the Indians. "There, I will give you my 
rabbit. You may take it to your camp and eat it in the morn- 

I then reloaded my pistol, the Indians watching every move, 
They took the rabbit up and held it side ways to see how it must 
have stood to get both eyes knocked out at the same time. One 
of them said, "Good shoot, and he could shoot more with his little 
gun without loading again." 

When the Indians were ready to go home I gave them a little 
piece of tobacco, a dozen matches and a cup of flour apiece, and 
said, "This is for friends and not to pay Indians for water or grass 
that belong to anyone that can use it, understand?" "Yes, chief 
talk heap good. Me big friend, good chief. Me come back (point- 
ing to where the sun would be at about 7 o'clock next morning). 
Have more big talk." 

Well, we moved early next morning and I did not see the 
Indian again for over a year, but when I did see him was when all 
the Indians had collected to get their annuities the Indian agent 
was expected to give them. When all were ready for the pow- 
wow, or big talk, I sat on a pile of logs with a number of Indians 
that I was well acquainted with, when a large buck came up to 
me, held out his hand and said "Good friend." "Yes," I said, 
"but I don't remember you, for I don't see you much." Then one 
of my friends said, "This is the man that tried to scare you to 
give him blankets." "How do you know?" "All Indians know." 
"He told it himself." "What did he say?" "He said he did not 
know you was Big Chief's son, but soon found out that you would 
not scare and made him much afraid, but as soon as he could 
understand that you could talk some Indian he remembered that 


lie had heard of you, and when you shot that rabbit through the 
eyes he was sure you was a chief and the Indian's big friend." 


This was, as I afterwards learned from the Indians that were 
left alive when peace was declared. General Conner had given 
a band of Sho-sho-nee Indians a good example of bravery by 
attacking a large party of them that were fortified at Battle 
Creek, southern Idaho. 

He came near getting the whole bunch, but there was some 
eighteen or twenty that made their escape and, of course, wanted 

Howard Ransom Egan, 

as he appeared shortly after these 


revenge. They got the idea of attacking the enemy by a flank 
movement, which they proceeded to carry out by traveling around 
the north end of Great Salt Lake to the Go-Shute country and 
scaring them by bragging of the large number of their tribe that 
would come out there and clean them all out, as well as the 

I did not hear of this till all was over. I was out two or three 
days with Egan Jack, an Indian friend of mine, on a prospecting 
trip. He was not much of a rider, having never owned a horse, 
and I used to jibe him about his horsemanship. And at one time, 
while we were crossing a nice, level piece of ground, I let him see 


how a rope that was being dragged by a running horse could 
be picked up by a man on another horse without stopping or 
dismounting. Also how some Indians that were used to horses 
could ride on the horses' side so that only one hand or foot could 
be seen from the other side. 

These demonstrations so pleased Jack that at every level 
piece of ground he wanted to see it again, but did not attempt it 
himself. When we arrived at the Indian camp about sundown 
and about one mile from our destination I learned during the 
evening that there were some Sho-sho-nee Indians that had their 
camp adjoining the Go-Shute camp. All were in a thick grove of 
pine timber. 

After the squaws had watered and hobbled our horses on 
good feed, in plain sight of us, and we had eaten our supper and 
with a few of the leading men were sitting around the camp 
fire smoking and talking, I said, "Why don't your Sho-sho-nee 
friends come and talk and smoke?" "Maybe my friends won't 
come." Well I said, "Tell them I want to talk to them." 

They sent a boy to tell them that the white man wanted to 
talk with them. The boy returned and said, "They said, 'if white 
man wanted to talk, to talk to their dogs.' " I told the boy to 
go to them again and tell them, "I was no Sho-sho-nee, and did 
not talk dog talk, but would see them in the morning." The 
boy went, but soon came back with the news that the Sho-sho-nee 
said that they would steal our horses that night. 

Jack asked me what I was going to do about it, for he said 
he thought they would try to get the horses. "What would you 
do, Jack?" said I. "Go home tonight," he said. "Are you afraid 
of them?" "No, they would not hurt me, but no friends of 
white men." "Well, call the boy once more." Now, boy, go tell 
them Indians just what I say, that there is my horses (pointing 
to them) and if they want to steal them to go ahead, but they 
must take them through the air, so as to leave no tracks, or I 
would get my horses and them, too." 

After the boy had gone I asked Jack if he would stick by me. 
He said, "Yes, my friend, talk good." I soon noticed a couple of 
young bucks sitting on the hillside quite close to our horses. I 
asked Jack what they were there for. He said to shoot Indian if 
he came to steal horses. "They won't come," I said. "I don't 
know," he said. "I do," said I, "for that kind of talk with a 
split tongue is no good and they are cowards, you will see." 
And sure enough when morning came we found that they had left 
during the night. 

After visiting the prospect we went home. I heard nothing 
more of the Sho-sho-nee for about two weeks, when one evening 
our chore boy, Dan, said that there was nine or ten Indians at 
the Indian Camp, which was about one thousand yards south- 
east of the station, Deep Creek, and he wanted to go and hear 
what they had to say. He asked me if he might take the wagon 
cover he usually used for a bed in one corner of the kitchen. 
I told him no, but he could go and hear and then come back and 


sleep in the kitchen, for he must have a very early breakfast as 
we were going to have a cattle drive tomorrow and must start 
early. "Me bring cover back early," said Dan. I looked at him 
sternly and said, "Dan, I don't like anyone to lie to me and I do 
not like your actions a little bit. He went and that was the last 
time I ever saw Dan. 

Well, as the Indian riders that I had engaged to help in the 
drive did not come for their supper that was promised them I 
felt very suspicious that something was brewing at the Indian 
Camp and I immediately made the round of the station to size 
up the situation. I found the telegraph operator sitting by the 
instrument facing the window, his lamp shining on him so as to 
make him a good mark to shoot at a hundred yards distance. I 
guess he was some scared when I told him this and I also asked 
him if he had any shooting irons and if they were loaded. "Good 
Lord, no. I forgot to load up after cleaning my gun. Why, 
what is the matter?" "Maybe nothing, but I don't like the way 
the Indians are acting. You had better hang a blanket up at 
that window or work in the dark. And you might as well tell 
other stations that the Indians here are having a pow-wow with 
some strange Indians that are not friendly to the whites." 

Then I went back to the house. There was two six-light win- 
dows on either side of the kitchen door. In looking through 
there the cook or anyone else in the kitchen could be seen plain- 
ly by anyone on the outside. No blinds at the windows and two 
large lamps burning inside, making the whole interior show up 
plainer than by daylight. 

After seeing that every thing was understood and set right 
here I went to the bunkhouse. Here I found it some better for 
there was a curtain up at the window, as there was most always 
a driver slept there in the day time. There were three guns 
none of them loaded, but plenty of ammunition for them. They 
were soon ready for use and placed in a handy position. The 
next plaoe was the blacksmith shop, about fifty yards east of the 
station, where the smith usually slept when the weather was 
warm. He was soon on his way to the sitting room or our 
parlor, that was between my room and the dining room. I had 
blinds up at every window. 

1 set a guard to watch the Indian camp, for I knew that if 
they meant any mischief they would first send their squaws and 
children away. T told the boys to keep a good watch on the camp 
and if they saw a single tent go down to let me know at once, 
for there would soon be trouble. I stayed up myself till a little 
while before daylight. I needed some rest and sleep, so laid down 
on the floor in front of the fireplace and with my clothes on. 
as did some of the other boys, for most all were together. 

About the first break of day the smith gave me a gentle touch 
and said, "The Indian's tents are going down." I jumped up and 
said, "Someone of you run to the stable and saddle my horse and 
bring him out, and you may as well saddle up the whole bunch, 
to save them from being burned in the stable. 


I told the boys, "H 1 was cut loose, but if they would stand 
out there a little way apart I would ride over to the nearest 
group and try to find out what was in the breeze and why the 
ones that were going to help us drive had not come. And if I 
should fire or any of the Indians did, to turn loose and see 
how many they could get before they got out of range. 

I rode straight towards the middle of their camp ground, but 
seeing a couple of bucks about fifteen feet apart and a little to 
the left of my line of traveling, I turned to the left to bring them 
on my righthand side, which I considered was the handiest in 
case of trouble. 

I did not stop till I reached a point about sixteen feet from 
the two and as near to one as the other. I recognized the right- 
handed one was Jack, although he was dressed for traveling. The 
other I knew to be a Pa-Van-Ute named Tung-a-Shump, whose 
country was south of Provo, Utah. I did not know he was 
here at this time. He carried a large bore, buffalo gun, which I 
could see below his short blanket, his right side toward me. He 
faced Jack, who faced him, and his left side toward me. Jack's 
rifle laid across his left arm, in position for immediate use if 

I asked Jack where the boys were that was going to help me 
drive the cattle. No answer. I said, "What is the matter here?" 
still no answer. I rode a few steps past the Pa-Van-Ute, when 
Jack said, "Where are you going?" I stopped my horse and said, 
"After the cattle, but why don't you talk?" Still no answer. 

Well, I tell you by this time I was thinking pretty fast and 
wishing I was back with the boys. I started again, turning in my 
saddle so as to watch both Indians, and not let them get the 
start of me if there was going to be fun, and I thought there 
was. As I started Jack spoke again and said, "Where going?" 
I said, "Home." Not stopping this time, Jack said, "Ride side 
horse fast." 

I knew what he meant for me to do, so after going in that 
direction as far as I could without going farther away from home 
I suddenly turned and dropping to the right side of my horse, 
went as fast as I could to the station. 

I told the boys, "It is all off with the Indians and we will have 
to do the driving ourselves if we can find any stock to drive, 
which I doubt." While we were laying plans for our next move 
we saw nine or ten bucks in single file go over the bluff in the 
direction of eight-mile station. 

"No more danger here at present," I said, "so now who will 
go with me to see if we can find any animals left on the range?" 

Jerome Kenney and another boy volunteered to go. I left 
word for the rest to keep their eyes open and not be surprised 
or caught asleep, for I felt sure we might be attacked yet. The 
three of us had not gone over three-quarters of a mile when we 
came to the place in the road where the Indians the night before 
had bunched all our loose horses, twenty-four, and one mule, 
to catch what they wanted to ride and had taken the direction 


that would take them between our station and Eight-Mile station. 

After seeing this we rode on, zig-zagging this way and that 
way so as not to run into a trap, if any was laid to catch us. In 
this way we proceeded for about eight miles, not seeing a sin- 
gle animal till we came to a deep ravine that was wide and flat at 
the bottom. As soon as we came to the edge, where we could 
see the bottom, there, just below us, laid a freshly killed animal. 
The top side had been skinned and the front and hind legs cut 
off, all the rest left as the animal had fallen shot. They must 
have placed a guard, that saw us coming and left in time to keep 
out off sight, for we did not even get a glimpse of an Indian. If 
we had, there might have been something doing. 

While we were holding council as to our next move one of 
the boys noticed a big smoke just rising in the west. "Look 
there, what does that mean?" "It means dead men and burnt 
station." I said, "for that is about where Eight-mile is and now I 
know what to do, for the Indians have driven off every animal 
they could find, so we will go home at once, but by another 
route, and we may find some animals they missed." 

We went on our way back, frequently changing the direction 
and at last coming in sight of home, we could see that every man 
there was out watching for our return, and when we rode up to 
the station there laid the stage driver dead, stretched out in 
the dooryard, and one of his passengers in the sitting room. He 
had been shot in the head, but was still alive. There had been 
four passengers two men and two boys sons of the wounded 
man, who had been riding outside with the driver. 

When the coach came within sight of Eight-Mile they could 
see a bunch of Indians standing around the door, not an un- 
usual sight, so the driver did not hesitate in driving, as usual, 
until he had come to about twenty-five yards of the house. Then 
he saw a white man lying in the doorway as if dead. He im- 
mediately plied his whip and turned his team so as to get no 
closer to the house, but to strike the road some distance beyond. 

The Indians seeing this move, opened fire at once and the 
first shot to take effect hit the passenger in the head and he 
slid down into the boot. The next moment the driver was shot 
through the body. He fell on top of the other man. He had not 
lost grip on the lines, but used the ends of them for a whip to 
keep the horses running as fast as they could go, at the same time 
calling the other passengers to crawl out and drive, as he was 
shot and could not guide the team. 

Th e passenger said afterwards that he did not know how he 
got to the driver's seat, but he did, and taking the lines from the 
driver's hands, told him he would drive." "Well,.make them go 
as fast as you can, for they are following us on horseback." 
Those were his last words. The man could not see anyone fol- 
lowing, for they had given up the chase. 

When he arrived at the end of the lane, about half a mile west 
of Deep Creek, he stopped the team, for he could see a small 
bunch of people in front of the house and he was afraid they were 


Indians. After considering the matter over he drove on up and 
stopped in front of the door and commenced telling the boys of 
his experience, when one of the little passenger hoys called for 
help to get his father from under that big man that was crush- 
ing him down so he could not get out. 

They got the dead driver out and laid him beside the door, 
where he was when we got back. The other man, when they saw 
that he was still alive, they carried into the house. This man 
lived and when well enough to travel went east to his home and 
friends, although he had lost about a tablespoonful of his brains. 
The driver, to go east, had started about one hour before we got 
home, as the operator said, Fish Springs was all right, there 
seemed to be no danger that way. 

It now being late in the afternoon, we decided to waite till 
morning to further investigate affairs. Next morning very early 
three or four of us went up to Eight Mile and the sight I saw 

there made me "D n an Indian, anyhow," and I said, "I would 

not try to learn another word or even speak another word of 
their lingo without it was in case of an emergency," and I have 
tried to keep my word ever since. 

Eight Mile Station was built of adobes, two rooms about 
sixteen feet square and sixteen feet apart. The space between the 
rooms was covered the same as the rooms.* The doors of these 
rooms opened in the center of this space. The north room was 
the kitchen and bunk room. The south room was the granary and 
full of sacked grain at this time. 

The stables were east of the house about fifteen feet, parallel 
to them and of the same length. They were joined to the house 
by a wall at each end about six feet high. The swayle in which 
ran the creek was close back of these buildings. 

The cook was lying just outside of the space between the 
rooms, stripped, scalped and cut all over his body. They had even 
cut his tongue out before, or after, death, I don't know which, but 
I think it was before, because they had dobbed his face with 
blood and then covered that over with flour to make him a white 
man again. 

We had some trouble in finding Mr. Wood, who was the Over- 
land Mail hay-stacker, in haying time, and hustler the rest 
of the year a good steady young man. After about one hour 
hunting around, we found him. He laid about seventy-five yards 
north of the house and about thirty yards west of the road in the 
rabbit brush. They had taken off every stitch of clothing and left 
him as naked as he was when born. They had not cut and slash- 
ed his body as they had the other man's, probably because they 
had killed him before they got him. There were three or four 
broken arrows left near his body. They had been pulled out of 
him so as to get his clothes off. 

Some of the boys said they liad been shot into him after he 
fell. "No, I said, "he must have been shot with arrows at the first 
break, but they did not prevent him from running, and when he 
had got this far away from them he received the fatal shot." 


There was a very large wound in the center of his breast. We 
turned him on one side to look at his back, and there, square 
in the center, between the shoulder blades was a largo hole. It 
was some smaller than the one in the breast, but yet so large 
it must have been made with an ounce ball. "D n that Pah-Van- 
Ute," I said, "he did this with his big bore buffalo gun, and I 
would bet all I have that I am right in my suspicions. 

He was a good shot, so I had heard, but that he had any 
cause for revenge on the white man I did not know at that 
time, and of course did not hear till some time after peace was 
made. And here I will tell what I afterwards learned from 
the Indians. 

When they saw me coming from the station and alone, the 
Pah-Van-Ute jumped up and said, "White man coming. I will 
kill him!" Jack had then jumped up and got in the position as 
I found them and said, "All right, you kill him, I kill you." Jack 
said afterwards, that he would not have waited till I was killed 
but as the Indian made no move to raise his gun, he did not 
want to shoot him. Well, if he had made a move to raise his 
gun it would have been useless for Jack to have wasted his am- 
munition, or, if he had made a move to change the position 
of his gun, I would not have answered for the consequences, but 
when Jack finally spoke, I knew I did not have him to deal 

Well, we had now seen enough and rode back to the sta- 
tion. On the way back we took a different route, and came 
to the place where the Indians had crossed the creek with our 
horses. Here laid one that they had shot, probably because he 
would not carry bare-back, and would most always buck when the 
saddle was put on, but after his little jumping was over he was 
a splendid little riding pony and was as tough as a knot. 

That evening a party took tools and went up to Eight Mile 
and buried the men just where the cook was found, in front 
of the house. The driver was buried just as he was dressed when 
shot. He lies about one-half mile east of Deep Creek Station. 

After about a week's time we had hunted and found two 
or three cows with young calves. We had in the corral at the 
time of the break, twelve milch cows and calves. When hunting 
the range we had seen five or six of our Spanish beef cattle. 
These were all that was left out of fifty, and they were so wild 
we left them to roam where they pleased, for no Indian or white 
man could come in sight of them on foot without being attacked 
and gored, unless he laid flat down and then he might be rolled 
a little, but if he laid still they would go away. They had 
never been handled in any other way than by horsemen, and 
took a person afoot for a wild animal. 

I remember of a strange Indian one day coming to the sta 
tion in a very mad state of mind and demanding a blanket, a 
shirt and ammunition to pay him for being pounded, and his 
shirt and blanket torn by one of them as he was coming down 
the valley. "Well, had you ever heard that they would not 


hurt if you would lie down and keep still?" "No, and I don't 
believe it, for he kept trying to get his horns through me, and 
I tried to shoot him, but my gun had lost its cap and I could 
not shoot, and when I tried to crawl away he would come at 
me again." 

Well, I gave him a shirt and told him to keep out of the 
way of the cattle, for if they killed him I would not give him 
anything more. He was satisfied, and said, "All right." 


After the California volunteers had been placed along the 
mail line to guard the station from being attacked by the 
Indians, a small squad was scouting around government springs 
and about fifteen or twenty miles south of Simpson Springs, 
and in the same range of mountains. They ran onto an Indian 
camp and killed all that were in camp, men, women and chil- 
dren, leaving none to tell the tale. 

When Peah-namp (the old Pah-Van-Chief), came home in 
the evening, he found that the soldiers had been to his camp 
and killed his wife and papoose and all the rest that had been 
left in the camp, and he had thought the whites were friendly 
as he was. This was too much to overlook, so he took his few 
men and went west to his wife's country (she was a Go-Shute), 
and hunted up her relations and planned for revenge. 

After holding a council it was decided to attack either Wil- 
low Spring or Canyon Station, and as Canyon Station was in 
the mountains, and also as was reported, more men were there, 
it was decided to do what they could to leave it in a worse con- 
dition than the Pah-Van camp had been left. So, making their 
camp about three miles south, they sent two men to size up 
the situation. They were to go as close as they could without 
being seen. They did, and back they came and reported that 
there were five or six men there that slept in the barn where 
the four horses were, but the men went to the house in .the 
ground to eat their food, and do not take their guns with them. 

They had reported the situation just as it was, and the next 
morning before day-light they were all around the station and 
within easy gun shot of it. On one side there was a small 
ravine, not more than fifteen yards away, and on the other side 
another larger one a little further off. 

The barn was nearest the small ravine, where they pre- 
pared their fire arrows, to shoot into the canvass roof, which 
they done as soon as the first gun was fired on the other side. 
The Indians waited till the men had been called to breakfast in 
the dug-out, and were all down in the hole without their guns, 
all except the hostler, William Riley, who was currying a horse 
just outside the north door of the stable at the time of the first 
alarm, and he was shot through the ankle and the bone broken 


short off. He started down the canyon on the run, but did not get 
far before he was caught and killed. 

The men at breakfast were mostly all killed as they came 
out of the dug-out to reach their arms that were stacked in the 
south end of the barn. Not one of them ever reached his gun. 
One man, though wounded, tried to escape by running down the 
canyon as Riley did. He got further away, but was caught and 
killed, and, as he was some bald on the top of his head, and a 
good growth of whiskers on his chin, they scalped that and 
left him where he fell. Riley they dragged back to the wood 
pile, threw him on and set fire to it. When the boys went up 
there they gathered his bones that were left, put them in a small 
soap box, and buried them where they had found them. 

The Indians got four head of horses, as much of the harness 
as suited them, all the guns and ammunition that was there, 
also all the provisions and cooking utensils that they thought 
worth carrying away, and every thing else they burned. They 
took the clothes off of every man and left them just where they 
fell all this had been done without a shot being fired by the 
whitemen. A most complete surprise and massacre. 


The Indians had run off a band of horses from the Deep 
Creek range that belonged to a man named Kennedy. Father 
was in Salt Lake when he received a telegram of what had been 
done. He was not long in picking up a few of the range boys 
around the saloons that were supposed to be brave fighters, 
and some others, among the latter Mr. Earl. They started west, 
all on horse back except Mr. Earl and Father, who rode in a 
covered spring wagon. They lost no time and were traveling by 
forced marches. Father and Earl took turns at driving the two 
mule team, the horse-men usually riding behind the wagon. 

All went along all right till they arrived at a point a little 
ways down the canyon and east of where afterwards Canyon 
Station was burned. Father and Earl had just changed posi- 
tions. The back curtain was loose and sometimes it was raised 
by the wind so as to give a good view inside to those that were 
riding behind. 

This was the case at the point named, when a man, nick- 
named Buffalo Bill (I have forgotten his name) , so called 
after the famous scout of the early days, rode up close to the 
wagon and, as the curtain flapped up he shot Mr. Earl in the 
back, killing him instantly. The other riders had fallen back 
and did not see the shooting or know what had been done 
till they came up, which they soon did after hearing the shot, 
and when they saw what had occured they were in for killing 
Bill on the spot. 

Father asked him if he had not made a mistake and killed 
the wrong man, He said, "It was an accident." He was exam- 


ining his pistol to see if it was in good working order when 
his thumb slipped off the hammer. He did not intend to shoot 
at all." Well, there was a doubt, and they gave him the bene- 
fit of it; but he was closely watched after that with the inten- 
tion of giving him over to the officers on their return to Salt 

On the return trip he disappeared in the night at Simp- 
son Springs. He was afterwards killed by a sheriff's posse 
near Fort Bridger, who wanted him for horse stealing and 
murder. He held the posse at bay with his two large revol- 
vers, threatening to shoot the sheriff if he made a move to- 
wards him. The sheriff told his men to fire but they were 
afraid Bill would kill them, so held their fire till he had backed 
off a considerable distance when the bunch raised their guns 
and fired all at the same time. Bill dropped to the ground and 
in doing so lost his pistols. 

When they came up to him he was feeling around for 
them for he had been shot blind but would have found them if 
they had not been kicked out of his way. He soon died, his last 
words were, "By h 1, I will have a lead mine of my own when 
I get to H 1." Every shot fired at him had taken effect. 
Jesse Earl was taken down to Deep Creek and buried there. 

The Kennedy horses were never recovered, but one of the 
men in the party, that was sent to try and get them, shot one 
of his arms off while trailing his gun through the brush in the 
canyon where the horses had been driven through. This satis- 
fied Father of the value of a "City Rough" in an Indian country, 
for he said, "He would not give a half dozen of his mail boys 
for a hundred saloon bred Roughs." He never hired any more 
of that sort, but instead, it was the farm boy that he wanted, 
and he generally got what he wanted. 


On my way to Fish Springs with supplies for the station I 
staid over night at Simpson's Springs. It was there that I first 
heard of the "Indian no legs." The boys said, he had left there 
yesterday morning to cross the desert to Dug Way Mountains, 
and said they did not believe he could make it and would die 
on the desert of thirst. 

I was traveling alone, I had two mules and an ambulance, 
or mud-wagon, as we called it, and had quite a heavy load. The 
roads were dry and dusty and it was very warm during the 
middle of the day. I started about six in the morning and by 
eight o'clock was some eight or ten miles from Simpson's, when 
I discovered something moving some distance ahead and keep- 
ing to one side of the road and bobbing up and down apparently 
in the same place. 

On looking down at the road for tracks I saw what might 
have been made by setting down a flat bottom basket in the 


dust and repeating the operation on every foot of the distance 
along the road. Of course when I saw this I knew what it 
was that I could see ahead, and hurried up my team and was 
soon along side of the man, who had turned just out of the 
road to let me pass. 

I stopped, and asked him, where he was going? He said 
he was going to the Indian camp over to that mountain, (Point- 
ing to a place about fifteen miles away). I asked him how long 
it would take him to go there. He said, " One day and one half 
day. You got water?" He asked me. I said, "Yes. have 
you?" "Just a little bit, will you give me some?" "Yes, have 
you anything to eat?" He had a small piece of bread that 
the boys had given him. "Are you tired?" "Yes, Indian all 
the time tired." 

I said, "I would give you a ride if I could get you up there" 
(pointing to a place back of my seat.) "Me go alright," he 
said. How he did it I do not know, but he got to the place I 
had pointed to as quick as I could have done it, and as I started 
along he seemed as tickled as a little child on his first ride, 
and would watch the brush go by as fast as it did before he lost 
his legs, which was some fifteen years before. 

He told me that he lost his legs by having them frozen, 
when he was caught in a blizzard, and a doctor had to cut them 
off to save his life. I thought it would have been better for 
him if the doctor had not cut them off for then he would have 
saved a good deal of suffering. I asked him if the Indians ever 
helped him to travel. He said, "No they have no horses and 
can't carry me every where they go." "Do they give you 
food?" "Yes when I am at their camp, but not at any other 
time." How do you carry food and water enough across a 
place like this we are crossing?" "See I carry water in this, 
(holding towards me a willow water jug that would hold about 
one gallon). 

Just think of that, crossing a twenty-five or thirty mile 
desert, one foot at a jump and in the hottest weather, with only 
one gallon of water and that as hot as the weather. What 
little food he left the camp with he made to last as long as 
possible by catching mice or the chipmunks that he could 
reach with his stick or dig out of their holes when he saw them 
go in. What a life! No, thank you, not for me. 

I had went about ten miles from where I had caught up 
with the Indian when he asked me to stop as he wanted to go 
that way (pointing off to the right to a place about five miles 
away). As I could drive no nearer I stopped the team and be- 
fore I could get to help him he had taken hold of the side 
of the wagon and swung his body over the side and 
dropped to the ground all smiles and talking as fast as he 
could make his tongue travel and that was not slow. 

I gave him his bottle full of water, and all of my dinner, 
a hand full of matches and my big red cotton handkerchief. He 


seemed a very proud Indian. I asked him when he would get 
to camp. He said, "Sun-rise tomorrow." 

Now when he started off I noticed that he twisted his body 
at every jump, placing one end of his stout stick on the ground 
by his side, and by force of his arms, lift his body, and at the 
same time shove it ahead about one foot or less. This he 
could repeat very fast which made it look to me as if his body 
was moving ahead all the time. 

He had a raw-hide sack arrangement which was made to fit 
around his body fastened around him above the hips. The sole 
or bottom of this sack was made of the thickest hide, I do not 
know if he had any soft material in the bottom or not, but 
I presume he had, or how could he stand the shock of jumping 
out of the wagon? or the continual bump, bump, while traveling 
I heard of him several times after that but never saw him again. 


We were on our way from deep Creek to Salt Lake City 
and on going through E. T. City, the first settlement in Tooele 
Valley, this is what we saw. There was but one Street run- 
ning through the place and that was nearly east and west. In 
front of the south row of houses and about ten feet from them 
there was an irrigating ditch, about eight feet wide and two 
feet deep, with ten or twelve inches of water running with 
a slow current and so clear that the bebbles on the bottom 
could plainly be seen. 

Right in front of the doors a plank was laid across the 
canal to serve as a foot bridge to the road, which we were 

"Oh! look there," said my pardner, "See that little girl on 
that plank playing in the water with a short stick." She was 
about three years old. She was standing on the plank over the 
water with her back towards the door of the house and lean- 
ing over to reach the water. "Look there," said my pardner, 
"there is going to be something doing". 

What I saw was a Billy Goat coming up the side walk, a 
few rods down stream. He would come a little ways, stop and 
look, then come again. In this way he soon reached the plank 
and sizing up the situation, backed away a few steps, then made 
a jump striking the little girl in the back so hard that she went 
sprawling face down in the water. 

The goat then turned and ran down the side walk as fast 
as he could for about fifty yards where he turned and looking 
back seemed to be enjoying the sport and wagging his tail 
and chewing gum. 

My pardner jumped out of the wagon and ran to rescue the 
girl, but before he got to her ,the door of the house opened and 
out ran a woman crying, "Oh my daugther why did you fall 


into the water." "Madam" said my pardner who was now close 
to the plank. "She. did not fall in but was knocked in." "What 
do you mean by that?" "I mean that I saw the goat butt her 
in." What goat?" "That fellow that is down there on the side- 
walk laughing at the fun." "Oh that is father's goat and I told 
him he must kill him for he is always butting someone, and 
now if he don't kill him I will. Oh my poor child might have 
been drowned just on account of that beast. My child often 
crosses here, but never before fell in." "Not her fault now." 


I sent a couple of our best Indian teamsters to Eight Mile 
Canyon to get a load of logs. It generally took two or three 
days to make the trip with oxen, which was the kind of team 
they had. The second day th e two men came back without 
wagon or oxen. When I asked them what was the matter, it 
was a long time before they could tell me for laughing. But 
I finally thought I had it. So I gave them some more grub and 
told them to go back, and early next morning I would ride up 
there and see what they had done to make the wagon start for 
home and leave the drivers and team behind. 

Next day I was up there about 8 a. m. and found the men 
there and still laughing at what they seemed to think a good 
joke. The men had cut and dragged to the wagon three good 
sized logs that would make a good load. They rolled two of 
them on the wagon, and in trying to get the other on top, 
had started the wagon on the down grade. It was in the road 
which it kept for a hundred yards to where a small ravine crossed 
the road, wher e there was quite a steep bank on the lower side. 
Here is where I found the wagon with the tongue buried two 
thirds of its length in the lower bank. I asked the Indian what 
they were going to do about it. They said they could not get 
the wagon but could drive the team home. I said "Here you fel- 
lows are going to take this wagon, logs and team home and 
start very soon too. 

I had not got off my horse, and did not till they started 
home. "You fellows bring the oxen here," which they soon did 
for they thought I was getting mad, "Now fasten a chain around 
the back axle-tree, hitch the oxen on and pull the wagon back 
till the tongue is out of the ground and if it is not broken you 
will soon be on your way home. 

The first pull brought it out all right, "Now hitch the oxen 
on the wagon and take it to where I say." This done. "Now 
take the oxen and drag down the other log." Of course I went 
with them to see if they did it right. When the log was beside 
the wagon, now, I said, "get the skids used in loading." When 
these were properly placed I told them how to place the chains 
so as to load the log with the oxen, which was soon done. 
"Now bind your load as you have been told." This was done, 

P I O X E E R I N G T II K W E S T 269 

1 Xow water your oxen and then start for home and the next 
time don't act like babies." Well they were proud to think they 
had done it alone. 


The dog was a large St. Bernard, very stout built with 
thick black curly hair. He had a very intelligent look and a 
kind disposition. He had been taught to carry things in his 
mouth. He could carry a common water bucket full of water 
without spilling any, but of course with such a load he had to 
travel slow, there not being much room to step ahead. 

When we were repairing our little Saw Mill at Deep Creek 
we had a carpenter named Dick Pettit, who was very fond of 
Pompy and used to let him carry the large dinner basket that 
held the dinner for the four men. 

The mill where they were to work was over a half mile 
below the Station, and the trail or path crossed the creek on top 
of the dam at the head of the canal that led the water down at 
the mill. The dam made a large and quite deep pond where 
the boys used to have much fun bathing and always took Pom- 
py with them as he was very fond of swimming and playing 
with them while in the pond. 

One day as they were going down in single file, Pompy in 
the center with the dinner basket, one of the men that was in 
the lead had a stick in his hand, and as he was passing about the 
middle of the dam threw the stick out about eight or ten feet 
in the pond. It no sooner struck the water than Pompy made a 
jump for it still holding the basket, and finding he could not 
s svim and hold it out of the water managed to turn around 
and tried to push it out to the bank. The men, some swearing, 
some laughing, tried to help the dog land the basket, which 
they finally did. But oh! what a sad looking mess that dinner 
was in, not a bite fit to eat, except baked beef. 

Some of the men were so mad they wanted to whip the dog 
for that dirty trick, and others were just as willing to fight to 
protect him, especially Dick, who said, you darn fools, the fault 
is with the man who threw that stick in the pond, not the dog, 
and I will thrash any one that trys to whip him for it, and duck 
them in the pond afterwards. 

Another time all the ranch hands were eating their supper 
in the large dinning room when the cook came to the kitchen 
door and said, "Dick, where is that dinner basket?" "Why didn't 
Pompy bring it to you?" "No, and I told you if that" basket 
was not brought back I would not put up any more dinners for 
you and I wont." Well said 'Dick, "It ain't my fault for I gave 
the basket to Pompy and told him to take it to you." 

Just then one of the men said, "there stands the awful 
brute that is the cause of all our trouble.'' Dick looked around 
and seeing the dog, said "Pompy you darn scamp where is 


that dinner basket? If you have lost it you get no supper 
(talking crossly) . Go get the basket at once, git." The dog 
seemed to know what was wanted for he turned and went out. 

Some of the men left the table to watch the dog, who went 
down the road on the trot for about fifty yards to where a 
couple of wagons had been left just to one side of the road and 
opposite a dwelling house. The people kept three or four dogs, 
who had intercepted Pompy as he was coming home with the 
basket, and in order to defend himself had set the basket down 
under the wagons, and after the scrap was over had forgotten 
the basket, but now he picked it up and brought it to the 
dinning room door and stood there holding it in his mouth until 
Dick called the cook to come and get it, which he did and 
patted the dog's head and told him to go around to the kitchen 
door and he would give him his supper. This he seemed to 
understand for he went at once as told. 

Another time the boys had caught a coyote late in the 
evening, and concluded to not kill it till morning, so tied the 
trap chain around a post and left it for the night. Father, 
when he got up for his early morning ride saw the coyote and 
made up his mind to see a little sport. So after saddling his 
horse and calling his dog, he turned the coyote loose and the 
chase was on. The coyotes leg that had been held in the trap 
all night was so sore and stiff that he could not keep out of 
Pompy's reach only by dodging one way and another, but al- 
ways working towards the west creek about half a mile from the 
starting place. When he reached this creek and attempted 
to jump across it, Pompy jumped at the same time and both 
landed in the water clinched, and struggled to keep on top. 

The creek at this place was very deep, but only about four 
feet wide, with perpendicular banks. Father dismounted to help 
the dog if necessary. 

The coyote had the dog by the side of his neck. The dog 
kept his body over the coyote and turning his head sideways 
was trying to keep the coyote's head under water to drown him 
loose, which he did, and then with Father's help got out of the 
creek, and then reaching back pulled the coyote out with 
Father's help. He was not dead but Pomp soon made him like 

I had loaned by plastering trowel to a man who lived a 
couple of miles down the valley from Deep Creek Station, and 
as he had not returned it, I thought I would ride down to his 
place and get it. While I was saddling my horse I noticed that 
Pomp was watching me as if he wanted to go with me, so when 
I got on my horse I said, all right Pomp, come on. He ran 
a noseing around till he found a small stick which he picked 
up and seemed pleased for the privilege of going for an airing 

Most of the road was dry and dusty, but at one place the 
creek ran close to the road, and was about eight feet wide and 
a foot deep, with a gravely bottom that made it a nice place to 
water teams or cattle. When I arrived at the man's place and 


found him at home, after getting the trowel I still sat on my 
horse, talking to the man and tapping the trowel on the horn 
of my saddle. 

Pompy had a number of times placed his front feet as high 
on the saddle as he could reach, trying to call my attention to 
him. He wanted to carry that towel, so I placed the handle of 
it in his mouth and after getting through talking with the man, 
I looked around for Pomp. There he was lying down, with 
the trowel between his paws. As soon as he saw me start he 
picked up the trowel and followed, keeping close behind the 
horse. I occassionaly looked back to see if still had the trowel. 
I had done this just before we got back to the creek bend, 
and not again till most home, and as I did I saw that the 
dog had dropped the trowel. 

Well I could not blame him much, for, it was a very hot 
day. As I turned around Pomp stopped and turned back, but 
would not go unless I did, and keep him only about two rods 
ahead of me. I was jawing and promising him a good thrash- 
ing if he had lost that trowel and could not find it. This went 
on till we arrived at the creek bend, when the dog left the road 
wadeing out into the creek and stood still, but kept sticking 
his nose in the water. 

I then knew where the trowel was, and how he had lost it 
by letting it fall out of his mouth while he got a drink, and the 
current had carried it a little down stream. I got off my horse 
and picked up a small stick to fish for the trowel. Pomp saw 
the stick and thinking it was for him he jumped to the further 
side of the creek, turned and kept sticking his nose in the water 
up to his eyes. After searching for some time I located the 
trowel about four feet down from where the dog was hunting 
for it. He seemed to know where he had dropped it, but did 
not allow for the current. It was some time before I could coax 
him far enough to see what I was pointing at, with the stick, 
and I was also afraid I would hit him with it. 

But finally as I was about to give up trying to make him 
understand where the trowel was, he caught a sight of shineing 
mettle and then there was something doing. The water there 
was eighteen inches deep. The dog made a lunge and landed 
both front feet on the trowel, as if it would try to get away, 
then under went his head. Gee but he made the wtaer fly. But 
he came up with the handle of the trowel in his mouth and stood 
in the road till I was ready to go. Then he kept the lead till we 
got home, where some of the boys tried to get the trowel from 
him, but no, he had got it from me, and I was the one to get 
it back. 

As I rode up I called to him to come and give me that trowel 
before he lost it again. He came and placing his feet the same 
as when I first handed it to him allowed me to take the trowel. 
Then seemed to think all was off and went to the side of the 
house to lie in the shade. 



I will now have to tell you of a few Pole Cat incidents. First 
I was out prospecting with a Mr. Shell we had located a claim 
and built a small log cabin, and were sinking a shaft some five 
or six rods up the hill from the cabin. One noon Shell went down 
to start dinner while I stayed to load the drilled holes for blast- 
sing. He soon came running back all excited, and said, "Come 
quick and help me catch the prettiest little animal I ever saw in 
all my life, I want to catch it alive, it will make such a fine 

Don't get excited I said I think I know what your pet is, and 
you had better give him plenty of room, but Shell fairly pulled 
me down to the cabin, where on looking through the logs we 
could see the pet gnawing at our bacon sack that laid on the 
floor, not having been hung up in its proper place, "Don't make 
a noise" he said, "How are we to catch him alive?" 

This was a well educated man who came from New York 
City and did not know a skunk when he saw it. Stand back, I 
said, "that is a pole cat and if he is a mind to he can make the 
cabin uninhabitable." Well if you know it why don't you shoot 
it, there is a good view of him from here. "Yes but don't you 
know that if I did shoot it in there we would have to move out. 
Can't I make you understand that that animal has a supply of 
scent that would clean out the whole of New York City. "Well 
what are you going to do wait till he eats up the whole of that 
bacon?" "No, you come to this side of the house and I will 
see if I can get him to leave. 

I took some small pebbles, rolled them towards the cat, at 
the same time kicking at the logs, the cat got alarmed, crawled 
under the logs and started up the hill towards the shaft, as 
soon as it was out of the house, Shell said, "Now shoot him." 
"Not me. he is too close yet." 

About half way between house and shaft, the ledge cropped 
out with a large crevice or crack in it, the cat went into this. 
"Now I am going to get him without you shooting him." Never 
fear, I wont shoot him that close to the trail, and you had 
better leave him alone. 

No, he must have his own way, so he took our largest drill 
and by leaning over the crevice, drill and arm straight down he 
was able to reach the cat. I saw him make two or three fierce 
lunges and then leaving the drill in the crevice, raised his 
hands and came running down to where I was standing, and said 
"Oh, my, What a smell." I said "You are very lucky if you 
haven't got some of it on your clothes." "Well," he said, I must 
seem like a d d idiot to you and I guess I am. 

For two weeks after our trail to the shaft was in the shape of 
a semicircle. When we were about to leave I could not get Shell 
to fish out the drill he had killed the cat with, and said he 
would sooner pay for half a dozen like it than get it. And if 
I would agree to say nothing about the d d pet, when we got 


to a place where there was liquor I could have as much as I 
wanted. Well I wanted much. 

At another time much later, and in Cache Valley I had traded 
for a saw mill in High Creek Canyon where I run a custom 
shingle mill. We had a log cabin in which the hired men slept. 
There were six double bunks and at times they were all occupied, 
and in stormy weather the floor space would have a few beds 
spread down for the night. This floor was of rough lumber with 
many large cracks and not-holes. There was a large open fire- 
place in one end of the room that was usually kept full of burn- 
ing logs in cold weather. 

I had a young Scotchman hired to work in the mill, he oc- 
cupied one of the lower bunks facing the fire-place. While lay- 
ing in his bed he could easily reach the floor with his hand. One 
night when all had retired Johnny lay awake and saw a pole cat 
running around the room picking up the crumbs and scraps 
that had been left by those who had eaten their supper by the 
fire. He watched the cat till it had cleaned up all it could find, 
even going under the lower bunks. He saw the animal crawl 
through one of the cracks in the floor. 

He said nothing of this to any one, but the next evening he 
left a few bacon scraps on the floor beside his bunk, swept the 
floor and left the fire to give a little light. After all had been 
quiet for a while the cat made its appearance again, coming up 
through the same crack as before and exploring the room, found 
the crumbs, and ate them all before going the crack route for 

This was kept up for a few nights in succession and finally, 
the boy ventured to touch the cat's back. It seemed to under- 
stand that there was no harm intended, and the boy after a few 
days got braver, and would stroke the cat's back as long as he 
was eating the crumbs. The cat also seemed to enjoy the pet- 
ting, and now would come straight from the crack to the bunk 
side, and not do any hunting about the room. 

This went on for a long time. The boy saying nothing to 
anyone. When there was to be company in the cabin he had a 
piece of board that he would place over the crack, after drop- 
ping a few crumbs through for his pet. 

One stormy night all the bunks were occupied, and a bed 
for two spread on the floor, with the foot towards the fire. The 
boy had forgot to place the board over the crack. He was very 
tired and was soon asleep. There had been a good big fire, but 
was now a bed of live coals. After all was quiet the cat came up 
and finding no food in the usual place, proceeded to search for 
something to eat. In doing so it crawled across one of the men's 
legs. The weight of the animal awaked him and not knowing 
what it was, drew both his legs up as far as he could, and then 
kicked them back as hard as he could kick. Well he had done 
it in fine shape, for he sent the cat plunging into the fire, at 
same time saying, "What in H is in here?" 

"Darn your eyes," said Johnny, you hare done it. Now you 


can pick up your bed and get out of here. And that is just what 
all hands did too, and lost no time in doing it. They had to 
make temporary shelter for the night, as it was raining. We got 
the hose to work and give the house a good drenching, and after- 
wards a good coat of lime whitewash. But it was over two 
months before we could use that room to sleep in again. Johnny 
and the man that done the kicking, were never good friends 


I had been on a trail where there was quite a number of' 
horse tracks all leading to the north. I had satisfied myself that * 
they were made by Indian ponys passing that way, all of a week 
before and possible longer. So had left the trail and was cross- 
ing a desert valley of about twelve or fifteen miles in width. 

I was about in the middle of this valley when I noticed to 
the north of me and about a mile distance what appeared to be 
a couple of horsemen that were up to some game, for they would 
go this way, then that way, crossing each other, then sometimes 
dropping most out of sight. This getting out of sight I thought 
was by them going through a swayle or low place. The other, 
or crossing, I thought jnight be by their coming along a crooked 
trail that would make it appear to me that they were crossing 
first one way and the other. 

But there was something else that I saw that set me to 
thinking pretty hard, and that was every little while one or both 
of the horsemen would hold their blankets by two corners and 
raise them above their heads and work their arms back and forth 
like wings. What was this? If not to call my attention to them, 
while probably another party was sneaking up from some other 
direction to spring a surprise on me. But I could see no signs of 
danger in any such direction, so going slowly to save my horse 
for a fast run, if it should be necessary, I kept good watch of the 
two horsemen. They did not seem to get any nearer to me 
but kept up their antics. 

I was some puzzled over the affair, as I had never seen or 
even heard of anything like this, and as to what would happen 
next I did not know, but was determined to not be caught asleep, 
every foot of the country I was to travel over I seached well with 
my eyes before venturing toward it, but there was no place for 
miles in any direction where there could be laid an ambush with- 
out digging and common sense told me that an Indian would 
not do that for how could they tell which way I would come or 
go. I did not know myself! It was all according to circum- 

I knew that I had about fifteen miles to go to get to my 
home station, and, if headed off in that direction I could reach 
another station by going to the right about twenty miles. It 
was now past noon and I was just going to travel faster, when 


a cloud came over the sun and put an end to the Mirage. It 
was nothing more than two sandhill cranes feeding and exer- 
cising themselves by stretching their wings. 


I first got this from a young buck and just enough to cause 
nre to want to hear all there was to it, and I told the young man so. 
He said^there were some old men that knew all about it, and he 
would tell me who they were as soon as he could. Some time 
later I was at the Indian camp that was near the station taking 
lessons in their dialect. When the young man came in and 
said there was an old man over there in another wig-warn, that 
could tell me about the big cave. I was soon over there and 
.after a friendly smoke. This is what he said as near as I can 

"There was camped at the very south end of the Schell Creek 
range of mountains a large band of Indians, and a little ways 
from the camp was a large knowl. In the side of it was a cave 
that no one had ever been to the end of, and in fact none would 
try to explore it, on account of it being said that the bad spirit 
lived there, and killed all who entered very far inside. 

The chief of this band of Indians had two squaws, one was 
quite old and cross, the other was very young and gentle and 
good looking, but the two squaws were most always quarrel- 
ing, and the chief had frequently given the old one a good 
thrashing, thinking she was to be blamed for being so cross 
but the time came when he thought he would try whipping 
the young one, but first asked her why she could not get along 
with out quarreling with the old lady. She said the other 
woman was always scolding her for not working harder and 
thereby making it lighter work for her and if he didn't make 
her stop her growling, she would run away as she was tired of 
living this way. 

That kind of talk made the Chief very mad so he gave the 
young squaw a very hard whipping, using his horse whip and 
holding her by the hair of her head while he laid the whip on 
till the blood had started out most all over her, then throwing 
her to one side said now let us have peace or there will be 
something worse coming. 

That night the sore little squaw took some dried meat and 
a few pine nuts and went to the cave determined to go as far In 
as the bad spirit would allow her to go, and, if she did not 
see him, to go as far as she had strength to crawl as she never 
wanted to go back or have the Indians find her body if they 
tried to do so. 

For some distance the floor of the cave was covered with 
sand that laid in small wave like ridges and on the whole nearly 
level, but further on took a steep grade down for a long way, 
then a nearly level stretch, then again down grade, this kept 


on she did not know how long, for when she got tired she would 
lie down and sleep, and when she woke up would continue feel- 
ing her way down. 

She had no idea how far she was from the mouth of the 
cave when she stepped into a pool of water that came nearly up 
to her knees and was cold as ice. She felt around and found 
there was quite a stream that was running out of the spring 
on the opposite side and she could hear a small waterfall a 
little farther down. She soon made her way to this fall and 
over it and down the creek. 

This went on for a long time, her food had all been eaten 
and she expected to soon have to give up and die, but what 
was this under her feet so soft? It was grass. She tried to 
eat some of it but it did not taste good, so went on and when 
tired out laid down beside the creek to sleep, and lying on 
her back opened her eyes and saw that there was stars above 
her and in watching these discovered there were clouds up there 
to and this kept her awake for a long time, but she did sleep 
again and then was awakened by some thing running by her. 

She found it was day light and the sun was coming up over 
the hills and she could now hear birds singing, and she saw 
numerous wild animals the like of which she had never seen 
before. Every where she looked the ground was covered all 
over with grass, bushes, and trees. Any where else in her life, 
she had not seen such a beautiful country not even in small 
patches, having lived in a desert country. 

Hunger caused her to look around to see if sfce could find 
any berries or roots that she could eat. Going on down the 
creek she found there was plenty of berries and many kinds 
that she had never seen before, some very large, and others 
very small. She eat of them such as tasted good until satis- 
fied. Then went on still following the winding brook. 

She had not traveled over a half a sun when she saw a large 
herd of very white animals feeding on a large open space where 
there was nothing but fine grass. She had never seen any ani- 
mals like these. They were not as tall as an antelope, nor 
as little as a coyote. They were covered all over with long 
curley hair, and as she drew near to them they raised their 
heads and looked at her, then went on with their feeding, and 
seemed to know that she was not dangerous. While watching 
these animals, she saw something else that gave her quite a 
scare. It was a man and, as he had seen her and was coming 
towards her there was no use in running away, so she stood 
still but watching to see if he was freindly or not. He came 
up pretty close and stopped then spoke to her in a language she 
had never heard and could not understand. 

After some time he seemed to know that she was of some 
other people, and was lost, and was probably hungry, so put- 
ting one hand on his stomach and the other pointing to his 
mouth then pointing down -the brook motioned for her to fol- 
low him, which she did as he seemed very friendly. / 


After going some distance they came to where a broad trail 
led to the door of a big house that had four or five other houses 
inside of it, and in the sides of all of them were big holes that 
had something over them that kept the wind and rain out, bat 
you could see outside through them. In every house the ground 
was covered with wood and the whole houses seemed to be 
made of wood with different kinds and colors of paint. There 
were places to sit on, places to eat on, and places to sleep on, 
all very beautiful to look at. 

The man went to one of the walls and opened a door that did 
not open clear through the wall and brought out some meat 
that was v cooked and some very white bread and some yellow 
grease, and a pan of berries, a cup of sugar and put these on 
the place to eat on, then got some water in a cup you could see 
through. Then motioned for her to sit there, and he sat op- 
posite, all the time talking in a kind voice. 

He would point to some thing and say one word, and keep 
saying it till she would repeat it, when he would laugh and 
seemed much pleased. She knew that he was trying to teach 
her to talk his language and she was anxious to learn, and it 
was not long before she was able to ask questions and under- 
stand the answers. She slept in one of the inside houses and 
the man in another. The man done all the cooking for a long 
time, or until she had learned to talk well, and also how the 
cooking was done. Then she took hold of that part, which left 
the man more time to attend to his flocks and herds of which 
he had a good many. Some days he would take her out with 
him to get the fresh air and view the country, and at such times 
she could see scattered around at quite a distance numerous 
houses like the one where she lived and could also see many 
herds of different kinds of animals. When she asked the man 
if friendly people lived there he said yes. It is a very big 
country and all over it just like it is as far as you can see. 

One day the man dressed himself in finer clothes and told 
the girl he was going away, but would come back by sun- 
down. He was back by the time, called the girl to come and see 
what he had brought for her. It proved to be a dress that would 
reach from neck to ankles, and cover the arms too. It was 
covered most all over with different colored beads which were 
put on so as to show trees, birds, etc. and was very beautiful 
to look at. There were some leggings and shoes all finished off 
with beads like the dress. She was much pleased with the pre- 
sent as her own clothes were badly worn. The man told 
her to put them on and wear them every day, and after a while 
would get her another and better outfit. 

One day he called her to set down, and as she could talk 
good enough to make him understand, to tell him her story 
of where she came from and how and all about her people, as he 
was satisfied she was not of his country. So she commenced 
her story form the time she could first remember, up to the 


time her husband had whipped her, which seemed to make the 
man very mad. 

He frequently asked her questions as she was telling her 
story. Then when she was telling of her running away and 
entering the cave to die he was all excited as there was an old 
story in his country that the cave had another opening far in 
the mountains that led to a bad country. 

Well, she ended her story, after telling all that happened to 
her up to the time she met him. He knew the rest. One day 
he took her out to the side of the great trees, where he sat down 
and said three years ago I had a wife, she died and is laying 
there pointing to a small mound near him and two years more 
must pass, before I can marry again, as that is our custom here. 
Then maybe I will talk to you about it. 

One day some time later he found the girl sitting out in 
the shade she was crying and sobbing like her heart would 
break. After a good deal of coaxing she told him she was 
thinking aboyt her husband and her boy, and wanted to see 
them again at least her boy that was one year old when she 
left them. The man seemed very much depressed but said, 
your husband is no good I wouldn't cry for him, but I do not 
blame you for wanting to see your boy, and if there was any 
way to help you get him I would, but there is no way, so try and 
forget them. And soon she was crying most of the time, till at 
last she told the man if he would let her go she would try and 
go back the way she had come, and get her- boy. 

The man tried to make her understand that it would be 
impossible for her to find her way back. But she was deter- 
mined to make the attempt. So seeing that he could not per- 
suade her to his views, he told her that if she was bound to 
take the chance of getting back through that awful hole, he 
would help her all he could but would not go one step inside 
' of the cave to save his own life or her's either. So as she wanted 
to start at once they both began getting together such articles 
as they thought would help her to make the journey through the 

The man got a small bundle of grease tourches any one of 
which would burn a whole day, and advised the girl to use as 
few as possible while she had the creek to follow, and after leav- 
ing the spring at the head of the creek might be able to trace her 
steps back if she had light enough. Well, one day when they 
could think of nothing that would help her, the man went with 
her to where the creek came out of the mountains tried again 
to have her give up such an awful undertaking, but as 
she would go, made her promise that if she could not find her 
way out at the other end, or did get through and found her 
boy she would come back to him and he would wait two years 
for her. 

So they parted, the man to his peaceful home, the girl to 
the dismal cave, where, after a very long time, and her pro- 
visions were about all used up, and the torches all burned out, 


she came to the light of day, and about noon. She climbed a 
small hill where she could view the country around her at least 
some distance away discovered a smoke that showed her where 
there was a camp of Indians. 

She went to it and found it to be her husband's band who 
was all very much surprised to see her again and alive, and 
dressed so fine and looking as pretty as ever, only tired out, 
and whiter than when she left them. The old woman had died 
while she was gone. Her husband said he would never whip 
her again and she must come and live with him and the boy, 
which she did." 

There is another Indian story about that same cave, of how 
a small band of Indians lived near it, and was attacked by a large 
band of strange and hostile Indians, that was determined to 
kill all of the men and children and keep the squaws for ser- 
vants. They had a running fight and all that were not killed 
took refuge in this cave. Their enemy placed a guard near the 
entrance to prevent any from escaping and they were determined 
to kill or capture the whole band. But after keeping their guards 
there for a whole moon, and not seeing or hearing of any one that 
had went in they came to the conclusion that all had starved to 
death. So they went in to investigate, and could plainly see 
the tracks of the fleeing party all pointing further in, not one had 
turned back. This was enough, all had gone to their heaven 
or their hell. 

Now a white man story about this same cave. We had a 
number of men hired for haying season, and among them were 
some that had lived in the settlements south of Utah Lake. I 
had been telling a bunch of them some of What the Indians had 
told me about this cave, when one of the men said there must 
be something in it, for I beared a man down south say he was 
acquainted with some of the party that done some exploring 

The party were returning from California and making a cut 
off across the desert, when they camped near and discovered the 
cave. Some of the party went in quite a long ways, but had to 
retreat as their light gave out. Then they made a number of 
torches and with what lighting material they had, attempted to 
again reach the far end of the cave. There were many leads off 
to the sides but only one led down, kept one general direction. 
By following this, and just as they were about to back out 
going any further, they came to a spring of nice clear and 
pure water. The stream from which ran on down into the 
cave. There seemed to be plenty of room to follow it but 
they could not at that time. 

All said they would go to the settlements and provide them- 
selves with the means of finding the end of that cave if it 
took them six months to do it. I know that a good many men 
have been willing at any time to go and explore it. But there 
was always lacking a leader that would go ahead and organize 
a party for that purpose. 



Richard Erastus Egan better known in boyhood days as 
"Ras" Egan, born in Salem Mass. March 29th 1842, was employed 
in April 1860 to ride Pony Express between Salt Lake City and 
Rush Valley station, a distance of seventy five miles. He made 
the first trip on the west bound express on the famous and beau- 
tiful sorrel mare "Miss Lightning" making the first station twen- 
ty two miles in one hour and five minutes. 

The scheduled time for the seventy five miles was five 
and one-half hours though it was made once in four hours and 
five minutes when the President's message was going through 
called by the boys the "Lightening Express." At first the ride 
seemed long and a tiresome one but after becoming accustomed 
to that kind of riding it seemed only play, but there were times 
when it didn't seem so very playful. For instance. I was 
married January 1st 1861, and of course naturally wanted a 
short furlough, but was only permited to substitute a rider for one 
trip, and the poor fellow thought that was plenty. 

I had warned him about the horse he would start with from 
"Rush" on his return trip telling him that he would either "back" 
or fall over backwards when he got on him. "Oh!" said he, "I am 
used to that kind of business. "But" said I "Bucking Bally is a 
whole team and a horse to let and a little dog under the wagon, 
be careful. So as a precaution after he had tightned the saddle 
on he led him out about a quarter of a mile from the station and 
got on, when the horse true to his habit got busy, and the next 
thing the rider knew he was hanging by the back of his overcoat 
on a high stake of a stake and rider fence with his feet about 
five feet from the ground. 

He could not reach behind him to unhitch himself. He could 
not unbutton his coat so as to crawl out of it, but he could get 
his hands in his pockets for his knife to cut the buttons off and 
release himself, after which was a search for the horse on the 
dark night. He finally found him and made the trip, getting 
"a black eye" for loss of time. He said to the boys, "No more 
'Bucking Bally' for me." 


Shortly after my marriage in the winter the time of arrival of 
the Pony Express from St. Joseph was uncertain on account of 
deep snow in the Rockies. So one night when I was supposed 
to remain in the office waiting, the hostler through sympathy 
said you go home to your new wife and if the express comes 
I will jump on a horse and come after you. Of course I ac- 
cepted. Oh! what luck! About midnight here comes the pesky 
fellow and I had to jump out of a snug warm bed and start of 
in a howling blizzard to ride seventy five miles. 

The cold was almost unbearable, but, through the kindness of 


a friend who took me in for an hour and warmed up my almost 
freezing body I pulled through O. K. 

On another accasion I rode from Salt Lake City to Fort Crit- 
tenden, a distance of fifty miles, then started at sun down for 
Rush Valley in a very heavy snow storm, and the snow knee 
deep to my horse. I could see no road, so that, as soon as dark- 
ness came on, I had to depend entirely on the wind. It was strik- 
ing on my right cheek, so I kept it there, but, unfortunately 
for me, the wind changed and led me off my course, and instead 
of going westward I went southward and rode all night on a 
high trot, and arrived at the place I had left at sundown the 
evening before with both myself and horse very tired. 

Now the only thing to do was to jump on to the horse r had 
rode in the evening before and proceed on twenty five miles fur- 
ther. Then, instead of having a night's rest at my home station, 
I was riding all night, in consequence of which I met the "Pony" 
from Sacramento and was compelled to start immediately on 
my eastward trip to Salt Lake City. This made my continuous 
ride 150 miles besides all night in deep snow. 

Just one more incident. My brother-in-law was riding west 
from me and had a sweetheart in Salt Lake City whom he desired 
to see, but could get no leave of absence to go see her and I 
naturally had sympathy for him, so we got our heads together 
and agreed to accidently (on purpose) pass each other in the 
night and he would have to ride his route and continue on mine. 
But he had all night in Salt Lake to rest or spark as he choose 
and return the double route next trip. 

But with me it was different for after I had rode the double 
route, 165 miles I met the "Pony" from west and had to turn 
around without any rest and ride over the double route again, 
making a continuous ride of 330 miles and again I was tired. 

On this same route the Indians had attacked the stage, killed 
the driver and a passenger, rifled the U. S. Mail and took the 
four horses and when I came along, one lone Indian with rifle and 
bow and arrows started after me. But I thought I had the 
best horse, so played along just out of easy gun shot from him. 
Finally I thought I would play a bluff on him, which worked as 
I thought it would. 

I turned and run at him full speed, swinging my pistol and 
yelling at the top of my voice. He immediately left the road kick- 
ing and whipping his pony and kept it up as far as I could see 

The agent, to encourage the boys to make good time, said to 
them, "Boys if you kill a horse by riding fast we will buy a better 

One trip I was riding a lovely rangey bay, $300.00 horse at a 2 U 
mile an hour clip, when the poor animal missed his footing and 
fell, breaking his neck and almost sent me to St Joseph. When 
I gathered myself up and found my horse dead, I had to walk 
about five miles and carry my saddle and express matter and 
so registered another tired. R. E. Eg an. 



We realize that so far this book does not contain a complete 
Biography of either Major or Howard R. Egan; but we are 
very desirous to preserve in type these writings as far as they go, 
and as the limits of the book are very near to a close we can 
only add in conclusion a few words to show some completness 
to it. 

Will say first that Howard R. Egan, the principal writer 
and publisher of the forgoing had some matters to write about 
that has not yet been submitted, and many things should be 
said^yet. In brief we will state: that in 1870 he closed up 
business with Father and the Deep Creek branch and left there, 
going to Richmond, Cache County, Utah. Near there he and I 
took up a quarter section each of land. He bought a saw mill 
in High Creek Canyon and run it for a number of years, also 
other saw mills afterwards and he died in March 1916. Many of 
his activities there must await some later date to be made known. 

A small brief has been made of R. Erastus Egan on page 214 
and we will now give a statement of the conclusion of Mother's 
family, Ira E. Egan, who was the last born, Feb. 5th 1861, in Salt 
Lake City and lived through his early life there, got his schooling 
arid was messenger boy for the Telegraph Company. He mar- 
ried and, raised a family (See Appendix) and is now living near 
Smithfield, Cache County where he has a home. 

Mother's Children were six in number, one died a baby, and 
Hoarce died in Salt Lake City at the age of fifteen. The rest 
are alive Howard R., R. Erastus, William, and Ira (See Appendix 

Nancy, the second wife had two daughters, Helen J. who 
married and raised a large family, Vilate L., who died some 
time after Horace and they were both buried in the Salt 
Lake City Cemetery where Father had the lot fenced with 
cut sand stone and an Iron fence hammered out of old wagon 
tire by R. B. Margets. 

Hyrum W. Egan was a son of Mary, the third wife. He 
married at Deep Creek and raised a family, (See Appendix). He 
moved to Goose Creek or Basin, Idaho, and died there. His wife 
and family are now living at Burley, Idaho and have quite a 

When the immigrants came in with trains each season 
and also with the hand cart companies there was much suffer- 
ing for want of the necessaries of life which they were entire- 
ly deficient of, during the early years after first ones began to 
arrive. This would have been much greater but for the bene- 
volence of those that were here who were able to help them. 
Father was doing well during this period with his beef trade 
in California and Mother had means to use and being naturally 
very benevolent she helped them a great deal. We were situa- 
ted close to the Union Square on which they could get some 
better quarters. 


I remember Mother saying that she kept an account one sea- 
son and found that she had purchased $1500 worth of provisions 
which she had given emmigrants of the hand cart companies 
and others that were in need. She told Father about it and 
the only comment he made was "That is right Mother and you 
shall be blessed for your good heart." 

After the completion of the railroad from the east to the 
west across the continent, the route having been chosen north of 
the Salt Lake, there was no more use for the Mail Line and 
there was not much left at Deep Creek for activity except in 
connection with the mines that had been discovered during the 
many years that the ranch had been in operation, so Father 
turned his attention to them. He seemed to be quite success- 
ful in developing some good properties in partnership with two 
other men and could have sold out for $50,600 which Father 
wanted to do, but his partners wanted more and they got no- 
thing, as all the railroad projects failed to reach there, and as 
the ore was low grade it would not pay to ship. The mines 
failed to reimburse him for the means he had expemded in 
them, which was the substance of the entire Deep Creek Ranch 
farm land etc. 

While Father was working the mining property he was 
also engaged in missionary work among the Indians, who were 
induced through his influence to settle down to civilzed life, 
and have since became quite successful in farming, for they 
had been used as farm and hay hands many years on the Deep 
Creek property and now they were shown how to work for them- 
selves. He also aided much in teaching them and also impart- 
ing to them a knowledge of the Gospel, as well as in good habits 
of honesty and industry. June 2, 1874, one hundred Goshute 
Indians were baptised and there was a general religious move- 
ment among them. 

Having exhausted all his resources at Deep Creek Father 
came to Salt Lake about 1875 and lived at the old home with 
his family, (what were left at home.) He became one of the 
Salt Lake Police and also Deputy Sheriff both of which ap- 
pointments we now have in our possession. 

He also became a special guard for Pres. Brigham Young 
at the Lion House and Church Offices before and at the time 
of Pres. Brigham Young's last illness and acted as special nurse, 
in which capacity he had many times acted before in various 
cases, and was often called doctor. Brigham Young would tell 
him to get him a pitcher of cold water and pump it full forty 
times. Many other little attentions he would render for him. 
After the death of Pres. Young Father was the special guard at 
his grave, and a building was erected so that he could look 
out on the grave any time of night, without getting out of bed, 
by the light that was kept burning. 

Pres. Young died Aug. 29th, 1877, and in March 1878 Father 
got his feet wet one dark night and took sick, which resulted in 
inflamation of the bowels, and died at the age of sixty-three. 



Mother lived till March 31st, 1905, and Father's papers were 
kept until then, but after that many of them were destroyed. 

If all his life work were written it would take many volumes 
to contain it. The Pioneer Monument was erected to the honor 
of the band of Pioneers of which he was a member and his name 
appears with the rest upon it. 

This year, 1915, the great Capitol of the State of Utah, 
has been finished, as if in memory of the one hundreth anniver- 
sary of the birth of Major Howard Egan, but at least repre- 
senting the grand advancement of the great commonwealth of 
which with other Pioneers he played so prominent a part in 
laying the foundation; and it was on this anniversary of his 
birth we commenced to publish this volume, and expect in the 
near future to build a monument in honor of his name. 

Kagle Gate, Beehive House, Church Offices and Lion House. Where Brigham 
Vomi- Lived and Where He Died. 





From Adam to the Stem of the Egan Family. Of this line are the 
Kings and rulers of Judah, of Spain, Ireland, England, 
Scotland, Wales and others. 

1...Adam m Eve 

2. Seth m 


3. Enos, 4 Cainan 5 Ma- 
halaleel, 6 Jared, 7 Enoch, 8 
Mathuselah, 9 Lamech, 10 

Noah m 


Cain m Brother's Dau. 

| Gen. V. 

Cain's prosterity in the 
Land of Nod. Destroyed by 
flood with others except Nbah. 

Gen. X. 
11 Shem, 12 Arphaxad, 13 
13 Salah, 14 Ebner, 15 Peleg, 
16 Reu, 17 Serug, 18 Nahor, 19 

and other 

! Gentile 
of the 

(Irish Chart) 

( Sarah 

20. Abraham m < Hager 
( Keturah 

21. Isaac m Rebecca. 
Gen. XXV | 

Ishmael others 
Arabians, Armenians, etc. 

22. Jacob m j 
Gen. XXIX - XXX | 

1. Esau m Judith 

2 Eliphaz, 3 Amalels 4 Thardu, 
5 Walid. 
Soti I. (XIX Dynasty of Pha- 

23. Judah, Joseph, Levi 



23. Judah m Tamar. 

24. Zarah (or Tara) 25 E- 
than, (King of Scythia) 26 Tua- 
\ hoi or Phonensis Farsaidh (in- 
ventor of letters) 

27. Gadhol m vScota 

(Friend of Moses and 
founder of Port Ga- 
thelas or Portugal) 

28. Asruth, 29 Gruth, 30 
Heber Scutt, 31 Beouman, 32 
Oggoman, 33 Lamfionn, 34 Heb- 
er Glunfionn, 35 Agnan, Fion, 
36 Febric Glas, 37 Mennall, 38 
Nuadhas, 39 Alladh, 40 Aroadh, 
41 Dreag, 42 Brath, 43 Breogan, 
44 Bile 

1st d. of no. 25 

45. Mfleeus m -I 2nd Scota 
3rd Meriam 

46 Herman, six others, Heber 
Mileseus, King of Spain or Gal- 
lam the conqueror of Ireland 
and hero of 1000 battles had 
eight sons. Three of them 
reigned through their descen- 
dants in the 183 Milesian Kings 
from whom all Milesian fa- 
milies are descended. 

Herman Eochaidk (crown- 
ed horsemen) youngest son of 
Mileseus a prince of Dan, 
through his mother, Meriam 
and his grand father McGree- 
me (last Tuatha de Danaan 
King, see Irish History) as well 
as a prince of Judah, a knight 
of the "Red Branch, two fold 
simbolized in coat of arms by 
two Red Lions. He was born 
in Spain, educated in Ireland 
and wore a seven colored kilt. 

These two lines of Judah joined together by this marriage in 
the year of the world 3434 A. M. constitute the "Royal Arch 
Degree" of Free Masonry, which the prophet Jeremiah founded. 

24 Pharez, 25 Easru, 26 Aram, 
27 Amimadob, 28 Nashour, 29 
Salsmon, 30 Boaz, 31 Obed, 32 
Jesse, 33 David, 34 Solomon, 35 
Rehoboam, 36 Obijah, 37 Ada, 
38 Jehosaphat, 40 Ahazieh, 42 
Jotham, 44 Amajiah, 45 Heze- 
kiah, 46 Manasseh, 47 Amon, 48 
Jbshiah, 49 Zedekiah his sons 
were slain, 50 * Tea Tephi 
"Tender twig of prophecy" 
youngest daughter of King Zed- 
ekiah escaped the Balylonian 
capitivity with her great 
Grandfather the prophet Jere- 
miah. His palace was Tea- 
mor the Palace of Tahpam- 
hes in Egypt unearthed by Pe- 
tree Contanis. A tradition of 
Kings daughter says: "The 
stone on which Jacob slept 
they carried with them. On 
that she was crowned, the 
50*th from Adam, Queen Vic- 
toria 150th, Queen Victoria of 
Spain 153rd, the last of great 
fishes in the net, finishing up 
times of Gentiles." 

Jacob's stone went to 
Scotland in the time of Per- 
gno. It is now the Corna- 
tion stone of Westminister Ab- 
bey, carried there from Scot- 
land. She had met Herman 
years before in Egypt and 
whe^i with her great grand 
father the prophet, she landed 
in Ireland, with Druedic cere- 
monial she and Herman were 


He also placed in the mound of Tara Northwest of Dublin, the 
Ark of the Covenant and England's Title deeds to the Holy 
Land. It is now the property of England and being approached 
from all sides. "Britham" is the. land of the Covenant, "Mount 
Ephriam, the land of Dan or "Pridian." 

The only child of this marriage of Hermon and Tea Tephi 
in 562 B. C. was Irial the prophet, the ancestor of the Cobb family 
of America and many others. 

46 Herman m Tea Tephi, 47 Ireal Faidh X. 48 Eithrial, 49 

Foll-aigh, 50 Tigernmas, 51 Eubotha, 52 Smiorughall, 53 Fiacha 
Labhrainn XVIII, 54 AEneas Almucach XX, 55 Main, 56 Rothac- 
tach 57 Dein, 58 Siorna, 59 Olioll Aolchevin, 60 Gialchadh XXX 
VII, 61 Nudahas Fionnfail, 62 Aedan Glas, 63 Sioman Breac 
XLIV, 64 Muredach Bolgrach LV, 65 Fiocha Tolgrach, 66 Duach 
Lodrach, 67 Eochaidh Buadhach 68 Cobthach Gaol Bhreagh LXIX, 
69 Melg Molblhach LXXI, 70 Coula Caomh LXXIV, 71 Oliohh Cas 
Fiaclach LXXVII, 72 Eochaidh Alt Leatham, 73 AEneas LXXXI, 
74 Enna, 75 Assaman, 76 Eochlaidh Feidioch XCIII, 77 Lughaidh 
XCVIII, 78 Crumthann C, A. D. 79 Feredach, 80 Fiacha, 81 Tua- 
thal CVI, 82 Fedhlimidh, 83 Conn CIX, 84 Art, 85 Cormac Ulfha- 
da, 86 Cairbre, 87 Eochardh Dubhlen. 

88 Colla da Chrioch founder of the Kingdom of Orgiall, O'Car- 
roll, of Oriel and O'Kelly (P. 365 O'Hart) families of Nester and 
princes of Hy Maine, Kings of Orgiall to 12th century. 89 lom- 
chadh, 90 Domhmall, 91 Eochaidh, 92 Main Mor, 93 Breasal, 94 
Dalian, 95 Lughach, 96 Fearach, 97 Cairbre Crom Ris, 98 Cormac, 
99 Eoghan Foinn, 100 Dithchiollach 101 Denitheach, 102 Fiaca- 

103 Coscrach, head of the stem of the Egan Family heiredi- 
tary Brehons or Lawyers 104 Flaithghead, 105 Anluan, 106 Flai- 
theam or Felin, 107 Gosda, 108 Aedhaghan (eye Kindle-Anglisized 
Egan) 109 Flann, 110 Murtach, 111 Donach Mor. 112 Donoch Oge, 
113 Simeon, 114 Justin, 115 Maloliosa, 116 Flann, 117 Finghan, 
118 Owen McEgan, 119 Teige, 120 Conor, 121 Teige (2d). 122 Mela- 
chlin Egan. 

No. 1 to No. 20 is taken from the Bible From No. 20 
Abraham to No. 83 Conn is quoted from the Chart from "Regal 
Roll," "Annals of Four Fasters," showing the descent of the Car- 
rolls, Egans and other families of Ireland, England, Scotland and 
Wales. This is also corroborated in most part by O'Hart's "Pe- 
digree of the Irish Nation" from which the balance is quoted 
except the serial numbers. It so happens that No. 50 * Tea 
Tephi from Adam corroborates the statements made in the Chart 
that she was 50th from Adam. 

I copy the following words from a Patriarchal Blessing given 
Howard Egan Sept. 24th, 1842 at Nauvoo, 111, by Hyrum Smith:- 
"I place a blessing on you consonant with your lineage and right 



unto the Priesthood for behold I say unto you Howard, you are 

the lineage of David and of the Tribe of Judah you shall 

have an inheritance in Mt. Zion and your house or your po- 
sterity that cometh after you." 

Family tree, original 3 x4 feet. Reduction not readable, but is printed 
in type below. Right hand lower branch represents family No. 17, 
left branch, No. 18, and so on up. The limbs represent grand- 
children of Howard Egan. (Enlarged photos can be had 
from R. D. Johnson, photographer, 118 S. llth East, 
Salt Lake City.) 



1. Benard Egan born about 1760, married Betty Egan b. a. 
1762. Chil. 3. * Howard b. a. 1782, 4. * William b. a. 1784, 
all of Tullimore Kings Co. Ireland. 

3. Howard Egan b. a. 1782 md. 1805, 5 Ann Meade b. a. 1784, 
d. 1822. Chil: 6 Eliza b. 1806. 7 Mary b. 1807, 8. Catherine b. 
1808, 9. Bernard b. a. 1810, 10. John b. a. 1813, 11. 'Howard 
b. 15 June 1815 (author of the Diary of this book) 12. Ann 
b. a. 1817, 13. Richard b. 1820, 14 Evelina b. 1822, 15. Mar- 
garet b. 1822, in Tullimore, Kings Co., Ireland. 



11. Howard Egan, md 1 Dec. 1836, 16. Tamson Parshley b. 27, 
July 1825. Chil: 17. * Howard Ransom b. 12 Apr. 1840, 18. * 
Richard Erastus b. 29 Mar. 1842, 19. Charles John b. 1814 d. 
1845. 20 Horace Adelbert b. 12 Aug. 1847, d. 24 Mar. 1862, 
21. *\Villiam M. b. 13 June 1851, 22. *Ira Ernest b. 5 Feb. 
1861, 23. Nancy Redding Egan (2nd wife) md. 1846 at Nau- 
voo d. 3 Apr. 1892 Chil: 24. 'Helen J. b. 25 Aug. 1847, 25. 
Vilate L. b. 13 Oct. 1849, d. 1866. 26. Mrs. Mary Egan 


(3rd wife) md. 1849; Chi I: 27. *Hyrum Wm. b. 24 July 1850 
in Utah No. 17 and 18 in Salem, Mass. 19 in Nauvoq 20 
and 24 in Winter Quarters 21, 22 and 25 in Salt Lake City. 

Four sons of Howard and Tamsoii Egan, all living. Standing:: Eldest 
son Howard R., and youngest son Ira E. Sitting, on the right: 
R. Erastua, left, Wm. M. Egan. Following is the descendants. 

17. Howard Ransom Egan, md. 10 Oct. 1864, 28. Amanda An- 
drus b. 19 Nov. 1847. Chil. Annie T. b. 1 Aug. 1864, d. 
1908, 30.. *Julia J. b. 22 Aug. 18G6, d. 1888, 31. "Howard M. 
b. 28 Nov. 1868, 32. *Mary b. 28 June 1871, d. 1914, 33. * 
William J. b. 24 Aug. 1873, 34. *John R. b. 22 July 1875, 35 
Linnie J. b. 9 Dec. 1877, 36 * Charles E. b. 23 June 
1880, 37. * George E. b. 9 July 1883, 38. * H. Walter b. 
27 August 1885, 39. * James A. b. 16 Feb. 1888, 40. * Inis P. 



b. 7 Mar. 1890. No. 29 and 30 Born in Salt Lake 
at Deep Creek, the rest at Richmond, Cache Co. 

No. 31 

18. Richard Erastus Egan, md. 1861, 41. Mary Minnie Fisher b. 
1844 d. 1887. Chil: 42. "Tamson M. b. 2 Mar. 1863, 43 * Eras- 
tus H. 10 Sept. 1864, 44. Harry O. b. 2 Oct. 1866 d. 1879, 45. 
Hoarce F. 2 Nov. 1867, 46. * John L. b. 4 Oct 1870, 47. Wil- 
liam F. b. 5 Apr. 1872, 48. Willard R. b. 5 Apr. 1872, 49 Joe. R. 
b. 7 Sept. 1874, 50. * Ira I. b-. Sept. 1875, 51 *Linnie J. b. 
25 Feb. 1878, 52. * Mary b. 5 Feb. 1880, 53. * Charles M. b. 
27 Aug. 1881, 54. * David b. 13 July 1884. No. 42 born in 
Salt Lake City Nos. 43, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, and 50 born in 
Ruby Valley, 51, 52, 53 and 54 born in Bountiful, Davis 
County. 55, Mary Beatrice Noble Egan, (2nd wife) md. 1889 
b. 10 Nov. 1864. Chil: 56. Harold E. b. 23 May 1890, 57. *Ora 
May b. 16 Feb. 1892, 58. * Nellie L. b. 25 Apr. 1894, 59. Erma 
A. b. 19 Oct. 1896, 60. Byron Noble b. 26 May 1900. 61 How- 

Ira Ernest Egan, 
Yo an great son of Howard Egan. 

Bmiihfieid. Utah 

Hyrum Wm. Egan, 

son of Howard and Mary Ku:in. Him 
widow's address, Berley, Ida. 


ard N. b. Nov. 1904. 62. Richard N. b. 8 Apr. 1907. The 
first six born in Bountiful, last in Byron, Wyoming. 

21. William M. Egan, md. 1886, 63. Ruth Nichols b. 7 Feb. 1840. 
Chll: her's six. She was born in Chatham, Kent Eng. 

22 Ira Ernest Egan md. 1882, 64. Emma Moss, b. in Australia 
Chil. 65. * Effie J. b. 1883, 66 * Emma Myrtle b. 1886, 67. 
Ernest L. b. 1888, d. yg. 68. Ira E. b. 14 July 1889, 69. Jeanne 
T. b. 1893, d. yg. All born in Salt Lake City. 

24. Helen Jenet Egan md. 1886, 70. John K. Irvine b. 3 Jan. 
1844 Chil: John b. 7 Feb. 1867, Howard G. b. 23 Mar. 1869, 
Helen N. b. 21 Nov. 1871. Wm. E. b. .12 Jan. 1874, Clarence 
E. b. 10 Dec. 1877, Maud M. b. 29 Oct. 1880, Luella, A. b. 9 
Sept, 1883, Robert L. b. 19 Sept. 1886. All born in Salt Lake 

27. Hyrum William Egan, md. 1871, 71. Mary Salome Preator b. 
18 May 1851. Chil: Hyrum L. L. b. 30 Nov. 1872, 73 * Theresa 
E. b. 21 Jan. 1875. 74. Mary E. b. 8 Nov. 1883. 75. Vida 
V. b. 14 Feb. 1886. First two born in Deep Creek, last 
two in Bason, Idaho. 


29. Annie Tamson Egan, md. 1884, 76. Freeman Burnham. Chil 
Nora T. b. 14 Mar. 1885, Afton b. 22 Mar. 1887, Ada, b. 26 Sep. 
1888, Pauline b 8 Apr. 1891. Howard A. b. 4 Apr. 1893, Mildred 
22 Apr. 1895, Walace F. b. 26 Jan. 1897, Donald J. b. 12 Nov. 
1899, Arthur H./b. 7 Sept. 1900, Mourice L. b. 11 Sept. 1903 
Harold L. b. 14 July 1906, Wayne E. b. 27 June 1908. First 
three at Richmond next two at Ogden, the rest at Salt Lake 

30. Julia Jane Egan, md. 1883, 76. W. R. Tripp b. in Salt Lake 
City. Chil: Effie P. b. 7 Feb. 1884, Julia A. b. 26 May 1887, ,d. 
Inft. Both born in Richmond, Utah. 

31. Howard Milo Egan, md. 1892, 77. Laura Hill of Richmond 
Chil: 78. Milo H. b. 14 Sept 1893, 79. Edna 'L. b. 22 Sept. 
1895, 80. Wm. R. b. 24 Nov. 1897, 81. Russel b. 23 Nov. 1899. 
82. Winnie I. b. 1 Sept. 1901, 83. Hoarce D. b. 22 Mar. 
1903, 84. Lee L. b. 13 Jan. 1906, 85. Arnold F. b. 13 Mar. 1908 
All born in Richmond Utah 

32. Mary Elizabeth Egan, md. 1893, 86. Walter J. Hill of Rich- 
mond. Chil: Leonard W. b. 22 Sept 1895, Coila L. b. 18 May 
1898, Mary G. b. 7 Sept 1905, d. 1906. Born in Richmond 

33. William Ira Egan, md. 1897, 87. Mary Chatterton of Rich- 
mond. Chil: 88. Phebe L. b. 20 Nov. 1898, 89. William b. 


1900, d. 1900 90 Mary P. b. 10 Mar. 1903, mcL (2nd wife) 
91. Mary M. Gunter Chil: (2nd wife) 92. Loren b. 16 Feb. 
1910, 93. Alva b. 1912. All born in Richmond, Utah. 

34. John Ransom Egan, md. 1897, 94 Annie C. Smith b. 1877. 
Chil: 95. Annie V. b. 9 July 1898, 96 Carlos R. b. 12 Oct. 
1899, 97. Hoarce R. b. 27 Jan. 1901, 98. Flossie L. b. 14 Sept 
1902, 99. David D. b. 6 Oct 1904, 100. Howard V. b. Feb. 
1906, 101 Amanda C. b. 3 June 1909. All born in Rich- 
mond, Utah. 

35. Linnie June Egan, md. 1897, 102 Riley Bair of Richmond 
Chil: Howard Bair b. 25 June 1898, Gertrude b. 24 Aug. 1899, 
Ivan L. b. 24 Aug 1901, Maurice L. b. 17 Aug. 1903, Doris 
b. 17 Aug. 1903, Riley R. b. 3 April 1905. Walter A. b. 
14 March 1907, Richard E. b. 12 Dec. 1910. Elmo E. b. 
2 Feb. 1913, Glen G. b. 24 Feb. 1915. All born in Richmond 
except Maurice L. in Rexburg, Idaho. 

36. Charles Erastus Egan, md. 1911, 103 Paula Krupa of Ger- 

37. George Ernest Egan, md. 1902, 104. Minnie Hope of Rich- 
mond. Chil: 105. Nada I. b. 12 Feb. 1904, 106. Edith E. b. 
8 March 1905, 107 Delbert E. b. 14 Apr. 1907. 108 Alta L. 
L. b. 1 Feb. 1910, 109 Millie b. May 1913. All born in 
Richmond, Utah. 

38. Hoarce Walter Egan, md. 1912, 110. Anna B. Tengberg 
Chil: 111. Myrtle A. b. 20 Nov. 1912 in Preston Idaho. 112. 
Inis B. b. 19 Aug 1914 in Tremonton, Utah. 

39. James Alva Egan, md. 1911, 113. Zina G. Christensen 
Chil: 114 Merlin A. b. 29 Sept. 1912, 115 Thelda Z. b. 8 May 
1914. Children born in Richmond. 

40. Inis Percilla Egan, md. 1907, 116. N. E. Maben of Richmond. 
Chil: Inis V. Maben b. 23 Jan 1910 in Richmond, Utah. 
*In addition to those given above of this branch, (the 
children of No. 17 Nos. 29 to 40 Inclusive), there were five 
grand children married and ten great grand children born 
but no details were given. 


42 Tamson Minnie Egan, md. 1888, 117. William Marshall b. in 
Bountiful.. Chil: William E. Marshall b. 2 Apr. 1889, Darell 
b. 24 July 1891, Minnie L. b. 8 Dec. 1896. First two born in 
Bountiful last Randolph. 

43. Erastus Howard Egan, md. 118. Alice Moss of Bountiful 
Chil: Frastus: 119 Howard E. b. 19 June 1890, 120 Christie 
b. 21 Aug. 1891, 121. Clifford J. b. 25 Jan. 1897, 122. Minnie 


R. b. 6 Mar 1900, 123. Ethel W. b. 1902. All born in Pro- 
spect, Idaho, except 1st born in Bountiful. 

45. Horace Fredrick Egan, md. 1891, 124. Eveline E. Benson 
Chil: 125. Horace Fred. Jr. b. 23 Sept 1892, 126. John 
Perry b. 23 Mar. 1894, 127. Minnie E. b. Feb. 1896, 128. May 
b. 9 Nov. 1898, d. yg. 129. Loyd B. b. 5 July 1900, 130. Neva 
b. 24 Mar. 1909, 131. Rodney, b. 1913. First born in 
Bountiful, next three in Skelton, Bingham Co. Idaho, next 
in Willow Creek, last two in Salt Lake City. 

46. John Leroy Egan, md. 1896, 132. Millie Benson Chil: 133. 
Elsie b. 26 July 1897, 134. Leroy B. b. 9 Dec. 1899, 135. 
Carlos B. b. 25 Sept. 1901, 136. Alta b. 7 Apr. 1903, 137. 
Mabel b. 6 Feb. 1905, 138. Ezra B. b. 14 Jan. 1907, 139. 
Lucille b. 14 Nov. 1909, 140. Wren B. b. 1 Aug. 1911, 141. 
John B. b. Apr. 1913, 142. Lyle B. b. 3 June 1915. First five 
born in Bountiful, last five in Byron, Wyo. 

48. Willard Richard Egan, md. 1901, 143. Lelis Sessions. Chil: 
144. Vera S. b. 21 Jan. 1902, 145. Minnie b. 29 May 1903, 146. 
Linnie b. 29 May 1903. All born in Bountiful, Utah. 

50. Ira Irvin Egan, md. 1898, 147. Margaret R. Colvia Chil: 
148. Ira O. b. 30 Nov. 1899, 149. Rozelle b. 12 Aug. 1902, 
150. Lorin R. b. 25 Aug. 1904, 151. Wanda b. 25 Sept. 1906, 
152. David M. b. 26 Sept. 1908. First three born in Eden, 
Utah last two born in Byron, Wyo. 

51. Linnie June Egan, md. 1900, 153. Robert A. Moss Chil: 
Emma L. b. 18 Feb. 1907, Robert D. b. 10 Dec. 1908. Born 
in Salt Lake City. 

52. Mary Adelade Egan, md. 1901, 154. Oscar J. Evans Chil: 
McClellan J. Evans b. 10 Sept. 1902, Oral J. b. 4 June 1905, 
Iris b. 10 Sept. 1907, Oscar E. b. 9 Apr. 1909, Alta M. b. 6 
Apr. 1910, Durell E. b. 20 Nov. 1911, Baby b. 14 Apr. 1914. 
All born in Randolph, Wyo. 

53. Charles Merit Egan, md. 1906, 155. Clara R. Hatch Chil: 
156. Mary E. b. 3 Aug. 1907, 157. Charles S. b. 3 Jan. 1910, 
158. Delbert H. b. 14 Sept. 1913. Born in Salt Lake City 

54. David Egan, md. 1907, 159. Elizabeth Easton Chil: 160. 
Harold E. b. 26 July 1908, 161. David E. b. 9 Dec. 1909, 162. 
Florence b. 25 Feb. 1911, 163. Laura b. 4 Dec. 1912, 164. 
La Rue b. 30 July 1914, 165. Helen b. 23 Dec. 1915. First 
two born in Byron Wyo. Third in Centerfield the rest in 
Salt Lake City. 

57. Ora May Egan, md.. 7 June 1911, John W. Simmons Chil: 
Glenn Winn b. 3 Mar. 1912, Raymond E. b. Feb. 1914. born in 
Byron, Wyoming. 

58. Nellie Loretta Egan, md. 11 Sept 1912, Frank J. Sylvester 
Chil: Louise b. 28 July 1913 at Byron, Wyo. 



65. Effie Irene Egan, md. 1904, 166. Milo Andrus Chil: Emma 
J. b. 1905, Clifford M. b. 1906, Zelda b. 22 Aug. 1912. 

66. Emma Myrtle Egan, md. 1907, 167 John W. Pitcher Chil: 
Stanley J. b. 25 June 1908, Ernest J. b. Feb. 1911, d. June 
1911, Adrian b. 10 April. 1912, Vernon b. 12 May 1914. 
Born at Smithfield, Utah. 

68. Ira Erastus Egan, md. 1912, 168. Annie P. Rudd, Chil: 
169. Gladio Myrtle b. 13 Nov. 1913 in Salt Lake City, 


72, Hyrum L. Egan, md. 1894, 170. Mary L. Kidd Chil: 171. 
Howard H. b. 4 Feb. 1895, 172. Douglas R. b. Sept. 1896, 
173. Mary E. b. 30 Nov. 1897, 174. Troy C. b. 18 Apr. 1899, 
175. Edith M. b. 5 Mar 1901, 176 Leonard E b. 6 Sept 1903, 
177. Lucy A. b. 6 Sept. 1904, 178. William A. b. 9 Apr. 1907, 
First six born in Oakley, last two in Bason, Idaho. 

73. Theresa E. Egan, md. 179. Joseph H. Dayley Chil: Clara 
E. b. 19 Feb. 1893, Joseph M. b. 18 May 1894, James H. b. 
14 Oct. 1896, Dewey L. b. 17 Sept. 1898, Emilly T. b. 8 Dec. 
1900 Laura b. 17 Nv. 1901, Cora L. b. 6 Dec. 1904, Mary 
B. b. 12 Jaan. 1908 Richard L. b. 5 Apr. 1910. Born in Bason, 

75. Vida V. Egan, md. 1903, 180. Walter W. Kidd Chil: Hazel J. 
b. 19 Sept. 1904, Garnet W. b. 20 Jan. 1905, Buel E. b. 14 
Apr. 1907, Thurman, A. b. 30 Aug.. 1909 All born in Bason, 

Descendants of male line of Howard Egan No. 11 including 
wives and children . 155 

Descendants on Female line of Howard Egan No. 11 in- 
cluding husbands and children none of 2nd generation 85 


4. William Egan, md. 1805, 181. Miss Watson Chil: 182. *Edward 
b. about 1806, in Tullemore, Kings Co. Ireland. 

182. Edward Egan, md. a. 1828, 183. Margaret Coffey Chil: 184. 
*William b. a. 1829, 185. John b. 1831, 186. Margaret 
b. a. 1833, 187. Ann b. a. 1835. born in Tullemore, Ireland. 

184. William Egan, md. 1857, Maria Murphy, b. a. 1833 Chil: 
188. Edward b. 9 Aug. 1858 in Tullemore, Kings Co. Ireland 
and the last of this line. He is the man standing in the 
doorway of old home page 10. 



6. Eliza Egan, md. 1830, 189. Henry Benallack Chil: George 
b. 25 Dec. 1831, Henry J. b. 14 May 1833, Ann E. b. 9 Mar. 
1835, John Howard b. 25 Jan. 1837 d. 1878 John G. b 14 


Nov. 1838, Eliza b. 21 Mar 1841, d. 1890 Howard b. 5 May 1843, 
Maria b. 18 Feb. 18 Feb. 1846. Born in Montreal, Canada. 

7. Mary Egan, md. 1833, 190. Adam Higgins b. 1802 Chil: Eiiza 
b. 21 Feb. 1835, Annie b. 1 Mar. 1836 Thomas Wm. b. 1 
Sept 1837, Howard Egan b. Nov 1838 Maria b. 1841. Adam b. 
1843. Margaret b. 1845 John G. b 22 May 1846. Born in 
Montreal, Canada. 

8. Catherine Egan, md. 1828 191 John Ransom Chil: Annie b. 
Apr. 1829, Mary b. 17. Oct. 1830, Jane b. 19 Mar. 1832, 
Eliza b. 19 Mar. 1832, Aaron F. b. 24 Oct 1833, John b. 25 
Nov. 1835, Howard b. 5 Feb. 1838, Richard b. 1 Oct 1840. 
All born in Montreal, Canada. 


13. Richard Egan, md. 1841, 192. Maria Stuart Chil: 
193. Francis Howard b. 10 Aug. 1843, 194 William J. b. 25 
Mar. 1846, 195. Maria b. 22 May 1847, 196. * Richard b. 15 
May 1848, 197. Eliza b. 9 July 1850, 198. *Robert b. "28 
Oct. 1851, 199 * Henry A. b 20 Mar. 1855, 200. *Maria b. 22 
Feb. 1857, All born in Montreal, Cftnada. 

196 Richard Egan, md. 1870, 201 Charlotte Stuart Chil: 202. 
Henrietta b. 5 July 1871, 203 Maria b. 3 May 1873 204. 
204 Beatrice M. b. 8 Apr. 1874, 205. Lilly E. b. 1 Jan 1876, 
206. Charlotte F. b. 6 Apr. 1879, 207. Laura G. b. 24 Jan. 1881, 
208. Richard W. b. 3 Nov. 1882. All born in Montreal, Canada. 

198 Robert Egan, md. 1882, 209. Annie HcCuaig Chil: 210 
Annie L. b. 17 May 1883, d. yg. William H. b. 3 Dec. 1884 
212 Bertha M. b. 6 May 1887, 213. Malcolm R. b. 25 Dec. 
1888. d. yg. 214 Eva M. b. 21 Aug. 1890, 215 Florence R. b. 
28 Apr. 1892, d yg. 216. Alice E. b. 28 Apr. 1892, d. yg. 
217. John S. b. 20 May 1894, 218. Violet A. b. 28 Mar. 1897. 
All born in Montreal Canada 

199. Henry Adam Egan, md. 1882, 219. Elizabeth Ann Lumsden 
Chil: 220. Robert F. b. 23 Nov. 1883, 221. Mary H. b. 
3 Mar 1886, 222. Lilly S. b. 21 Feb. 1888, 223. Henry A. 
b. 18 Nov. 1889, 224. James A. b. 15 June 1891, 225. Richard 
E. b. 31 Mar 1896. All born in Montreal, Canada. 

200 Maria Egan, md. 1877, 226. John Andrew Peard Chil: Wil- 
liam H. b. 23 June 1878, Francis A. S. b. 12 Jan. 1881. 
Edith F. b. Mar. 1882, John T. b. 24 Nov. 1885 Walter P. 
b. Dec. 1887, John A. L. b. 16 June 2891. All born in 
Montreal, Canada. 

(Serial numbers are applied to those bearing the Egan name and 

those whom they married only. Those marked with * mar- 

ried and their names appear the second time as head 

of family.) 



A little idea of Irish History may be gained by the following 
brief sketcjt, which should be read in connection with Genealogy 
before given: 

It was first peopled in the 4th century after the Deluge ac- 
cording to tradition by Parthenius from Japheth stock in the 
80th year of the age of Abraham B. C. 2100. 

After 300 years in Erin the entire colony of 900 were cut 
off by a dreadful pestilence. 

Nemidius, a distant relative of Partholan 39 years after 
arrived there 1761 B. C. with 1000 followers. In a short time 
Ireland was invaded by the Formorians, giants from Africa. 
They were fought successfully in many engagements, but in the 
great battle of Tory Island the army of Nemidius was totally 
destroyed. Those who survived fled, some to the north of 
Belgium to become the ancestors of the Firbolgs or Bogmen, 
some wandered to Greece to give parentage to the Tuatha De 
Danaan, and others escaped to the neighboring island of Britain, 
which it is said took its name from Briotan, the Nemedan leader 
who settled there. 

The Firbolgs, kept in cruel bondage in Belgium seized the~ 
ships of their masters and landed in Ireland B. C. 1397 and in 
the desisive battle of Tara the Formorian forces were nearly 

The Firbolgs were in their turn disturbed of their prize 80 
years after by the Tuatha De Danaans. Nauida, their king 
was immediately attacked by his Firbolg's kinsman under their 
Monarch, Bocha. The battle of Moytura was fierce and bloody, 
and after six days of the greatest slaughter that was ever heard 
of in Erin, the victory remained with the Tuatha De Danaans, 
and they remained in power 200 years. 

The last conquerors of Pagan Ireland were called Gael or 
Gadian from one of their rulers, Gadelas who was bitten by a 
serpent, but healed by Moses when he was preparing to liber- 
ate Israel from Egypt. In gratitude Gadelas supplied Moses and 
the Children of Israel with provisions after their passage of 
the Red Sea. 

For this they were driven out and settled Phonecia and 
afterwards in Spain under King Breogan. who had two sons Ith 
and Bile. The latter was the father of Milesius, who in turn 
became King of the Colony, called Galicia. 

Milesius went back to Egypt and Pharoah gave him the chief 
command of the Royal Army. He was successful and Pharaoh 
gave him his daughter Scota in marriage and he returned to 

A dreadful drouth caused King Milesius to send his uncle 
Ith to seek the most western island of Europe.. Ith set sail 
with his son Louy and a large force. They soon landed on the 
Irish coast, were attacked and in a sharp struggle Ith fell and 
they were forced to retire. Louy barley escaped with a few com- 


pacions and embarked for home. In the mean time Milesius, 
after reigning 36 years died, the hero of 1000 battles. 

The Milesians, on the return of the expedition, prepared 
themselves to avenge the death of Ith and conquor Ireland. A 
fleet of 60 vessels were equipped and the entire colony embarked 
under 40 leaders, including the eight sons of Milesius, their 
Mother Scota and Louy the son of Ith. 

"They arrived at Ireland B. C. 1120. Five of the brothers per- 
ished before landing. The remaining sons Heber, Hermon, and 
Amergin with all their attendants effected a landing at last near 
Sleive Mish Mountain in Kerry. They were attacked by Queen 
Eire. She was put to flight after loosing 1000 men. The Mile- 
sians loosing 300 besides Scota and many chiefs. 

After the first advantage, plans were laid which resulted 
in a decisive battle on the plain of Telton, in Meath. A well 
contested and bloody battle was fought and the sovereignty of 
Ireland passed into the hands of the Milesians, and the other 
dynasties passed away. 

Heber and Hermon divided the sovereignty of Ireland be- 
tween them. The two brothers ruled but a year when Heber's 
wife influenced him to declare war against Hermon. The two 
armies met at Geashill near Tullemore, King's County. Hermon 
was finally victorious and from him through over 100 Monarchs of 
Ireland we trace our genealogy. 


From the Missouri River to the Valley of the Salt Lake in 
1849. - Kept by Peter Hanson. 

*This paper only recently came into my hands and was too 
late for insertion in the proper place and we will not now try 
to reproduce it but only make some notes concerning it. 

It seems this was Howard Egan's third trip to Salt Lake. 
The paper states that the winter was severe until March and 
that Howard had a hard time of it having to travel most of the 
time, making preparations for the trip. It states that the com- 
pany began to gather on the 15th of April 1849, Peter Hanson 
and others went through Kanesville and on the ninth day ar- 
rived at St. Joseph, which was very stirring on account of the 
"Gold fever" raging there about going to California. Their loads 
were heavy and the wagons rolled on the hubs for a quarter of 
a mile through the mud. 

Howard Egan sent sonie goods on a steamboat, by Orson 
Whitney, up the river, but the boat sunk and Orson, got some 
help and got out the most part of them. On the 3rd of May 
Howard Egan with his wife Nancy and child Helen joined the 
company got them together and made preparations for the 
journey crossing the Missouri on the 15th of May at Fort Kearny. 

On the 16th day of May, the paper states, "Bro. Howard 
Egan called the company together for the purpose of organizing. 


Howard Egan was chosen Captain of the company. Elijah El- 
mer Captain of the guard and herding. Captains of Tens wera 
also chosen and a clerk. 

A list of the names, ages and equipment of those in the 
company are given in detail, showing that there were 57 persons, 
6 horses, 3 mules, 97 oxen, 21 cows, 3 young cattle, 21 fowls, 
6 dogs, and 22 wagons. The following with their families: 
Howard Egan, James Graham, Elijah Elmer, James H. Christ- 
man, Phillip Klingensmith, Jackson Clothier, Nathaniel Jones, 
Stephen Winchister and most of the rest without families. 

They commenced their first long drive the 17th day of May 
and on the 19th 3 more wagons joined them, this, however, was 
before the account was taken of the company. On the 21st they 
met 3 teams of the gold seekers going back home, and more on 
the 23rd. 

They passed and were passed by other companies and on the 
29th got the report that 60 individuals had died with cholera be- 
tween Independence and Grand Island. Wagons worth $125 were 
sold for $15 to $20. Bacon 1 cent per Ib. 2000 wagons were at 
the crossing of the South Fork of the Platt River. 

On the 4th of June a company of U. S. Dragoons passed by 
going to Oregon. On the 9th they met Thomas Williams and 
Levi Merrill coming from the valley and going to the states. 
They had been robbed by the Crow Indians. They saw many 
buffalos and killed some. They met Lorenzo Young and others 
from the valley on the 12th, also returning gold seakers, one of 
whom had been wounded in a row among themselves. On the 
27th a list of deaths in Nelsons Company from Diarrhea is given. 
On the 30th day they laid up to shoe oxen and Captain Egan rode 
on to the ferry on the Platt, where there were many companies 
crossing. Some of the troups going to Oregon were trying to 
cross. More than half of them had deserted already and about 
half of the rest were getting ready to leave. 

Captain Egan's company got there July 3rd and it was a 
great joy to meet the brethern of other companies ferrying across 
Several horses were drowned and several wagons lost. Frederic 
Jones was shot while trying to melt out a ball in his gun on the 
4th and died on the 8th. On the 12th they reached Independence 
Rock. Tires had run off and wheels broke down and many 
other troubles had been met and" overcome. A large number 
of dead cattle were lying along the road. Sister Klingensmith 
had a daughter born on the 17th. They camped on the Sweet- 
water on the 19th and a report was brought to them that the 
deserting soldiers were calculating to rob this and Pomeroy's Co. 
for provisions. They arrived at Green River on the 25th and 
ferried over. Many cattle died with bloody flux. 

Captain Egan went on with the mail July 25th. Nat. Jones 
had a steer stolen but overtook the thief and took it from him. 
Some deserters were taken by Mr. Bridger's men, from whom 
they had stolen horses. On the 28th Mrs. N. Jones gave birth 
to a boy who died and was buried at Black's Fork. 


On the 3rd of Aug. Captain Egan returned with others 
from the .Valley with wagons and ox teams, which gave the 
company much joy. This was on the Weber River and they 
commenced their assent up Pratt's Pass. Aug. 7th they went 
over the mountain and into the valley. "Great Joy" said Peter 
- Hanson as his last words in the Diary. 

It will be noticed that Howard Egan made but a short stay 
in Salt Lake with his family before he commenced his Cali- 
fornia trip as given on previous pages of this book, and this 
should have preceeded that trip if we had known of it in time. 


A meeting was called for June 15, 1914 and a temporary 
organization effected and later the following "Circular Letter" 
was sent out which explains itself: 

The desire has been frequently expressed that the Egan 
Family should be organized, but expressions do not accomplish 
anything without acting upon them. The wide scattered condi- 
tion of the family and the difficulty of getting them together 
made it seem like being almost impossible until a simple easy 
plan was hit on to reach the desired results without very much 
trouble to any of them. 

A local organization for Salt Lake City and preliminary or- 
ganization of the whole family was effected June 15th, 1914, 
in Salt Lake City and only requires the approval of the member- 
ship to be final which we hope to obtain by the 100th anniver- 
sary of our honored Pioneer, Howard Egan's birth June 15th, 
1915, when we hope to have a reunion of all his descendants that 
can possibly attend. 

We are sending this circular letter to each head of fa- 
mily and a copy of the Articles and expect they will submit them 
to all in their locality, who are interested, and to return their 
reply to the Gen'l Sec'y H. Fred Egan Jr. 3 Girard Ave., Salt 
Lake City. 

It will be observed that there is absolutely no membership 
fee and therefore every descendent and those that have married 
into the family are members without any consideration. There 
is, however, some duties connected with it whether performed or 
not. You will notice the objects in view as referred to in the 
preamble of the Articles of Agreement. We know not how much 
of those objects we shall be able to accomplish. 

Howard R. Egan becomes the President of the organization 
.and has had in contemplation for some time the publishing of a 
book, our Father's Journal of 1847, as captain of the 9th, Ten 
of the chosen 144 to seek a new home for the Latter-day Saints 
with some of his Biography and genealogy of the family to the 
present time and has had the work typewritten for that purpose 




"Whereas the descendants of Howard Egan are desirous of 
associating themselves for the purpose of social relations, re- 
newal of old family ties and affections, honoring the dead and 
the living, erecting a monument to the name of our honored 
pioneer, the head of the family, to do temple and genealogical 
work and they do hereby certify, declare, and agree as followed 
that is to say: 

The name of the society shall be the Egan Family Society. 

Salt Lake shall be the Societys' headquarters, with 
branches in every place where any of its members may live. 

The organization shall be perpetual. 

The membership shall consist of every descendant of 
Howard Egan and those who have married any of them and their 
children, any others can only be received by consent of the 
majority of members. 

The business and social relations that it is agreed to 
*nter into shall be as indicated in the preamble. 

The offcers of the society shall be, a president, vice-pre- 
sidents, secretaries, and -treasurers (general and local) and 
committee on temple work, and a committee on amusements. 

The president shall be the oldest male descendant of 
Howard Egan in succession, whose duty shall be to preside, but 
he may appoint a chairman or substitute. 

The vice-presidents shall be the oldest male descendant in 
each locality and each family whose duty shall be to preside 
over the local branch or family and in the absence of the pre- 
sident shall perform all his duties. It shall be the duty also 
of the branch and family vice-presidents to receive reports 
pertaining to the society and comunicate the same to the 
branch or family and forward reports of all matters pertaining to 
their branch or family to the general society headquarters. 

The secretaries shall be nominated and elected at any 
meeting of the society or branch, where there is a vacancy of 
the office, by a majority vote present. The secretary electe'd in 
Salt Lake City shall be the general secretary of the society 
provided that such officer be approved by the branches and 
families, but shall hold such office until a successor shall be ap- 
proved. The duty of the general secretary shall be to take 
the minutes and keep the records of all proceedings of the 
society. The corresponding secretaries shall be appointed by 


the secretaries as necessities may require from any willing 
workers of the society, whose duty shall be to communicate 
with branches, families, and members and any other corres- 
pondence necessary. 

The treasurer shall be nominated in the same manner as 
the secretary, whose duty shall be to receive and care for the 
donations and disburse all funds by order of the president or 
vice-presidents according to the desire of those who shall 
contribute the same. 

The committee on Temple work shall consist of three 
persons, to act for the society. One to act as chairman, one to 
receive, collect and handle the funds and account for same so 
all will know what has become of their contributions, and one 
to act as recorder of family genealogy, whose diity it is to be- 
come acquainted with gathering and recording genealogy, with 
accuracy and care, preparing for the worlrlx) be done, and record- 
ing the completed work as it progresses. They shall be chosen 
with care from those best acquainted witii the work and ap- 
proved and sustained by the members. The committee on socials, 
consisting of three or more, shall be appointed or elected per- 
manently and fro*n time to time as desirable, who shall have in 
charge the programs of the yearly meetings, the preparations for 
those gatherings, and other duties common to such officers. 

No membership fee shall be required from any member but 
it shall be considered the duty of every member to contribute 
according to their means and desire to assist in the temple work, 
but the actual work will be accepted and credit given in prefer- 
ence to the means of having it done. Regular contributions, it 
but smnll is desirable all of which must be carefully accounted 
for and reports made as to what has been done." 

According to th plan and instructions, local organizations 
were formed in the different places where members of the Egan 
Family reside, and the Articles of Agreement Accepted, and June 
15 th* 1 re-unions was held with an interested attendance, with 
a good program and the organization was made permanent 
and perpetual by unanimously adopting the Articles of Agree- 
ment on the hundreth anniversary of Major Howard Egan's birth. 


Pioneer Monument. 

Bancroft Libra